Education and training in india issues and opinions IIM I Youth Symposia Top 5 Entry Mr Abhimanyu Sukhwal
EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN INDIA Major issues and opinions Submitted by: Abhimanyu Sukhwal || Charles Carvalho || Neha Rayate || Sheena Pathak Studying PGDM at
• Trying to force patients with one heart problem into one right treatment : Huge mistake• Rather than memorising facts, education must emphasise solving problems by applying what is learnt. “When i hear – i forget, when i see – i remember, when i do – i understand” Confucius• The Focus shall not be „To identify the right answer‟ but rather „To identify the right answers‟• Students taught to look at the world with too narrow perspective. Emphasis must be on being able to find out information from various sources & to make their best use to arrive at optimum solution
NEWS : HIGHLIGHTING EDUCATION SCENARIO IN INDIA• Plagiarism glare on 5 IIT’s• Panel of IIT directors recommend IIT’s accord 70% weightage to board examination scores in picking students• “The young may be hungry for learning, but we may not have quality teachers to ignite their minds. The social order must respect teachers..” ~ Kapil Sibal (HRD minister, GoI in a speech given at the First Ministerial Plenary Forum on October 2009 at UNESCO general conference• 22 DEC, 2010 Noting that the gross enrolment ratio (GER) is "abysmally low" at about just 11% for higher education in the country, a senior HRD Ministry official said. We need 500 odd universities, 15,000 colleges, 10,000 technical institutions, 75,000 engineering colleges to reach the target..“
REFERENCES• MHRD (HTTP://EDUCATION.NIC.IN/)• CBSE (HTTP://CBSE.NIC.IN/)• UGC (HTTP://WWW.UGC.AC.IN/)• NCERT (HTTP://WWW.NCERT.NIC.IN/)• DISTRICT INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR EDUCATION (DISE) (WWW.DISE.IN)• WORLD BANK ANALYSIS OF INDIAN EDUCATION SCENARIO (HTTP://WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG.IN/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIE S/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN)• MINISTRY OF STATISTICS AND PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION (MOSPI) (HTTP://WWW.MOSPI.GOV.IN)• FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry)• Ministry of Labor, Planning Commission• ASSOCHAM ECO PULSE STUDY : Comparative Study of Emerging Economies on „Quality of Education‟ Nov 2008• World Economic Forum‟s Global Gender Gap Report 2008• The Times Higher Education - QS World University Rankings• Financial Times Global MBA Rankings 2008• International Monetary Fund, World Economic Outlook Database, October 2008
STRENGTHENING VET : ISSUES• Huge emphasis on general education with lack of focus on VET : Resulting in more engineers than diploma holders : widespread structural unemployment (higher workforce required at lower level)• Type of education was General in 97.8%, Technical in 1.9%, Vocational in 0.3% cases.• MAIN ISSUES • Antiquated Curricula, non-availability of courses in new and emerging areas • Inadequate infrastructure facilities and obsolete equipment, Financing issues • System unable to attract quality teachers • Inadequate state policies for training and retraining of faculty and staff • Lack of flexibility and autonomy to the institutions • Inadequate industry institute participation • Lack of Research and development in technician education • Employability and demand and supply matching • Informal sector’s requirement • Inadequate use of Technology • Linkage to local demand • Teacher’s training and retention
STRENGTHENING VET: ISSUES• Reforming vocational education and training by: - Expanding vocational training in high-growth sectors to overcome existing skills shortages - Setting common standards for training - Ensuring accountability and good use of resources• Only 1 out of 10 young people has access to higher education, and this is predominantly among the well-off : Tertiary education needs to be expanded, especially among low and middle- income students• Reforms in the governance structure of higher education, decentralization, and major investments in faculty development required• VET to be more flexible and inclusive for sustainable growth. Higher focus on VET ( Vocational education and training ) to increase skills in service oriented occupations across masses. Need to study and collaborate with leaders in VET to create a highly effective framework e.g. Australian VET content is defined, developed and reviewed by one of the 11 industry skills councils and not by govt. or training providers• Govt. to promote PPP & industry and academia interaction to narrow the existing gap between the demand & supply of the skilled
MAJOR ISSUES CONFRONTING INDIANEDUCATION & TRAINING INDUSTRYWHAT IS TAUGHTWHO ARE TAUGHTHOW ARE IMPARTED SKILLS MEASURED AND GRADED
ISSUES : WHAT IS TAUGHT• LACK OF EMPHASIS ON :- • Spiritual, moral education Too much energy in your country is spent on developing the mind instead of the heart – Develop the heart ~ Tenzin Gyatso, XIV Dalai Lama • Essential life skills education and training ( self knowledge , self management , critical thinking, work skills , money and time management ) • Content up-gradation & collaboration : widening gap between Industry expectations and academic coursework • Innovation, practical work & creativity • Skills enabling self-employment & entrepreneurship • Mentoring, Career guidance and counseling • International standard of coursework, stepwise up gradation required• General tendency in the world of academics to look down upon on failure rather than encourage failure. Edison failed so many times before inventing the light-bulb. This amply demonstrates that failing is not bad in fact it is proof that we are open to learning and if people did not risk failing most of the modern day inventions we take for granted wouldn’t exist !
ISSUES : WHAT IS TAUGHT :: SUGGESTIONS Provide students full access to information ( as in “real life” ) and then train them on evaluating and putting the right information to the best use e.g. Longer duration open book tests: POM examination Pininfarina Case : an Italian car design firm and coachbuilder. ( Developer of Ferrari, Fiat, Rolls Royce Alfa romeo ) to structure major challenges faced, operations strategy and optimal solution Common Schooling system: Sharing resources across public and private schools Increase investment in education infra, a greater pie of GDP spending Greater benefits to Teachers to attract more talent into the profession Create a NBN (National broadband network) to enable high speed connectivity to maximize utilization of WWW. Subsidize hardware, connectivity costs with special focus in rural & semi urban zones Digitization of libraries and mass availability through centralized system Practical Education & training by on learning by cases, projects and practical industry exposure Current learning taking place is not Learning with understanding : Procedural or rote-based and not one of Learning with Understanding as students find it difficult to answer questions that require a deeper understanding of the concept, can comparatively handle only straightforward questions and not atypical ones. Inputs from educational research organisations like Educational initiatives [EI] (IIM-A Alumni venture) are indispensable Spreading DIGITAL LITERACY
ISSUES : WHAT IS TAUGHT :: SUGGESTIONS :: DIGITAL LITERACY
ISSUES: WHO ARE BEING TAUGHT• Bureaucracy, Quota wars for admissions• Meritorious students unable to get admissions due to financial constraints• Job seekers facing problem of underemployment• Socio-economic pressures: Make it difficult for students to attend regular classes• Systemic pressures: Resulted in shortage of qualified teachers : Better scope of improvement• Discrepancies in form of varying difficulty of teaching curricula across different geographic regions e.g. Differing levels of education across central and state boards• GER Statistics ( Source: UNESCO institute for Statistics ) Current (Dec 2010) GER for Higher education : 11% (Less than half of world average) Target: 30% GER by 2020
ISSUES: WHO ARE BEING TAUGHT :: SUGGESTIONS• Education collaboration network (ECN): • Utilization of ICT for enabling distributed content creation and facilitate wide access • Collaboration amongst teachers to make use of knowledge bank consisting of teaching aids, supplementary material, assignments, examples etc. for participatory development of training material • Usage scenario: A teacher wanting to improve understanding of Newton’s laws goes to community portal in his village. Benefits from ranked notes, videos, coursework, examples and makes his own notes. Prints required material. His selections leads to updation in rankings of the material available on ECN • In longer term, teachers will become better teachers, material will improve and operational efficiency will increase• Admissions strictly on basis of merit , minimize quotas gradually• Issues with discrepancy of level of educational course-work across regions and boards to be sorted out by implementing measures like Common curriculum as initiated by MHRD• Facilitate remote learning through innovative methodology like • E-Learning: Learning through Video conferencing, Video chat etc. • Self descriptive educational software
ISSUES: WHO ARE BEING TAUGHT :: SUGGESTIONS • Major reasons for non-enrolment • Parents not interested in education of children 33% • Education not considered necessary 22% • Financial constraints 21% • Major reasons for Discontinuance / drop-out • Financial constraints 21% • Child not interested in studies 20% • Unable to cope up or failure in studies 10% • Completed desired level or class 10% • Parents not interested in studies 9% (Source: NSS The 64th Round survey (July 2007 - June 2008))
ISSUES: WHO ARE BEING TAUGHT :: SUGGESTIONS A-View‟s Multi display approach
ISSUES: HOW ARE SKILLS MEASURED AND GRADED• Standardized tests encourage memorization skills entirely based on information recall• Students are Proficient test takers but terrible thinkers• Good memorization skills but bad problem solving, DI, analytical & reasoning skills• 21st Century demands Innovation, Creativity and Collaboration. In today’s age recalling information is no longer what sets apart great minds from the weak ones• The student who can find the BEST information , and make most EFFECTIVE use of the same will rise to the top. They will not be doing this in the standard ways but creative ones• Suggestions : Need to devise ways to • Test application based skills of students, bent of creativity and reasoning, problem solving skills by ways like Scoring rubrics with detailed granular codes to capture different answers • Quantify performance based on finding the optimal solution to a problem• If HUMAN RESOURCE ACCOUNTING is getting widely accepted in business, why not EXTRA CURRICULAR SKILLS GRADING ?