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18 korea chosun 18 korea chosun Presentation Transcript

  • Chosun Dynasty1392-1910 CE
  • Pre-Yi Dynasty History• Three Kingdoms (A.D. 100-668) • Koguryo • Silla • Paekche• Silla (676-1392) • With aid of Tang China. • Chinese culture. • Buddhism dominated. • Examination system, but.. • for aristocrats and not all classes. • Aristocratic land came from king. 2
  • Koryo Dynasty (918-1392) Wang Kon founder. Aristocrats took back their land as theirs not bestowed upon them by ruler... a trend? Buddhism state religion. Power struggles MONGOL CONQUEST 11TH - 12TH CENTURY. 3
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack  Concludes he can’t win
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack  Concludes he can’t win  Negotiates with invaders
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack  Concludes he can’t win  Negotiates with invaders  Returns to Kaesung and takes over city with Ming help
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack  Concludes he can’t win  Negotiates with invaders  Returns to Kaesung and takes over city with Ming help Ming alliance
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack  Concludes he can’t win  Negotiates with invaders  Returns to Kaesung and takes over city with Ming help Ming alliance New Chosun Dynasty
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack  Concludes he can’t win  Negotiates with invaders  Returns to Kaesung and takes over city with Ming help Ming alliance New Chosun Dynasty  Named by Ming Emperor
  • Chosun’s Beginnings: Ming China invades Korea 1392 Yi Seung-kye is dispatched to repel Ming attack  Concludes he can’t win  Negotiates with invaders  Returns to Kaesung and takes over city with Ming help Ming alliance New Chosun Dynasty  Named by Ming Emperor  -- – “Morning Calm”
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings:
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings:
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings: Buddhism – too influential
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings: Buddhism – too influential
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings: Buddhism – too influential Confucianism is the answer
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings: Buddhism – too influential Confucianism is the answer  Focus on Confucian relationships and virtues
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings: Buddhism – too influential Confucianism is the answer  Focus on Confucian relationships and virtues  Five Relationships
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings: Buddhism – too influential Confucianism is the answer  Focus on Confucian relationships and virtues  Five Relationships  Hyo (filial piety) is the core virtue
  • Yi’s diagnosis of Koryo’s failings: Buddhism – too influential Confucianism is the answer  Focus on Confucian relationships and virtues  Five Relationships  Hyo (filial piety) is the core virtue  Neo-Confucian orthodoxy
  • Chosun and Gender
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy Women’s roles
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy Women’s roles  Strict obedience
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy Women’s roles  Strict obedience  Produce a son
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy Women’s roles  Strict obedience  Produce a son  Woman’s Three Lords:
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy Women’s roles  Strict obedience  Produce a son  Woman’s Three Lords:  Father … Husband … Son
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy Women’s roles  Strict obedience  Produce a son  Woman’s Three Lords:  Father … Husband … Son  Strict Chastity
  • Chosun and Gender Patrilocal marriage Rigid patriarchy Women’s roles  Strict obedience  Produce a son  Woman’s Three Lords:  Father … Husband … Son  Strict Chastity  Chosun women’s small dagger
  • Religious intolerance
  • Religious intolerance Buddhism
  • Religious intolerance Buddhism  Persecuted
  • Religious intolerance Buddhism  Persecuted  Driven out of cities
  • Religious intolerance Buddhism  Persecuted  Driven out of cities  Lands confiscated – hence: Mountain Temples
  • Religious intolerance Buddhism  Persecuted  Driven out of cities  Lands confiscated – hence: Mountain Temples  Becomes a religion predominantly of women
  • Chosun Dynasty
  • Chosun Dynasty Censorate system
  • Chosun Dynasty Censorate system  Confucian Secret Investigator
  • Chosun Dynasty Censorate system  Confucian Secret Investigator
  • Chosun Dynasty Censorate system  Confucian Secret Investigator Focus on Scholarship:
  • Chosun Dynasty Censorate system  Confucian Secret Investigator Focus on Scholarship:  Sungkyunkwan University 1400s
  • Chosun Dynasty Censorate system  Confucian Secret Investigator Focus on Scholarship:  Sungkyunkwan University 1400s  Focused on Confucian Scholarship
  • Chosun Dynasty Censorate system  Confucian Secret Investigator Focus on Scholarship:  Sungkyunkwan University 1400s  Focused on Confucian Scholarship  Now a major, modern university
  • King Sejong:1418-1450
  • King Sejong: 1418-1450 Patron of Arts and Sciences
  • King Sejong: 1418-1450 Patron of Arts and Sciences Printing of Confucian classics
  • King Sejong: 1418-1450 Patron of Arts and Sciences Printing of Confucian classics  Moveable type used heavily
  • King Sejong: 1418-1450 Patron of Arts and Sciences Printing of Confucian classics  Moveable type used heavily Hangul
  • King Sejong: 1418-1450 Patron of Arts and Sciences Printing of Confucian classics  Moveable type used heavily Hangul  Commissioned Korea’s Phonetic Script
  • King Sejong: 1418-1450 Patron of Arts and Sciences Printing of Confucian classics  Moveable type used heavily Hangul  Commissioned Korea’s Phonetic Script  His most famous accomplishment
  • Hideyoshi Invasion: 1592
  • Hideyoshi Invasion: 1592 Korea occupied, ransacked
  • Hideyoshi Invasion: 1592 Korea occupied, ransacked  National treasures destroyed
  • Hideyoshi Invasion: 1592 Korea occupied, ransacked  National treasures destroyed  Tremendous animosity developed
  • Hideyoshi Invasion: 1592 Korea occupied, ransacked  National treasures destroyed  Tremendous animosity developed
  • Hideyoshi Invasion: 1592 Korea occupied, ransacked  National treasures destroyed  Tremendous animosity developed Non’gae -- “Patriotic Kisaeng”( , ) “the rock of righteousness”
  •  Turtle ships
  •  Turtle ships Korea Liberated
  •  Turtle ships Korea Liberated Reemphasize Confucianism: Korea is the last bastion of civilization…
  •  Turtle ships Korea Liberated Reemphasize Confucianism: Korea is the last bastion of civilization… Korea as the Hermit Kingdom
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784 Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; Beatified 1925
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; Beatified 1925
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Convert Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; Beatified 1925
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Convert Bring back Catholic books Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; Beatified 1925
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Convert Bring back Catholic books Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Teach Catholicism in Korea Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; Beatified 1925
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Convert Bring back Catholic books Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Teach Catholicism in Korea Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; Beatified 1925
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Convert Bring back Catholic books Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Teach Catholicism in Korea Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; French priests sneak in Beatified 1925
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Convert Bring back Catholic books Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Teach Catholicism in Korea Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; French priests sneak in Beatified 1925  Chesa condemned as “worship”
  • Catholics Enter Korea: 1784Two Korean Yangban Discover Catholicism in China Convert Bring back Catholic books Kim Taegon: (Andrew Kim), Teach Catholicism in Korea Korea’s first native priest. Martyred 1847; French priests sneak in Beatified 1925  Chesa condemned as “worship”  Catholicism not warmly welcomed by government
  • Catholics In Korea
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered  Requested French intervention to ensure Catholic rights in Korea
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered  Requested French intervention to ensure Catholic rights in Korea Chesa Controversy
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered  Requested French intervention to ensure Catholic rights in Korea Chesa Controversy  Catholics forbidden to perform Chesa
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered  Requested French intervention to ensure Catholic rights in Korea Chesa Controversy  Catholics forbidden to perform Chesa  Government declares Catholicism illegal
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered  Requested French intervention to ensure Catholic rights in Korea Chesa Controversy  Catholics forbidden to perform Chesa  Government declares Catholicism illegal Catholic Pogroms: 1860s
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered  Requested French intervention to ensure Catholic rights in Korea Chesa Controversy  Catholics forbidden to perform Chesa  Government declares Catholicism illegal Catholic Pogroms: 1860s  Thousands beheaded
  • Catholics In Korea Silk letter 1801  Smuggled with tribute mission to China  Discovered  Requested French intervention to ensure Catholic rights in Korea Chesa Controversy  Catholics forbidden to perform Chesa  Government declares Catholicism illegal Catholic Pogroms: 1860s  Thousands beheaded French Respond with brief naval attack
  • Catholics In Korea
  • Catholics In KoreaCatholics (mostly Yangban) retreat from public life
  • Catholics In KoreaCatholics (mostly Yangban) retreat from public life Live in small villages
  • Catholics In KoreaCatholics (mostly Yangban) retreat from public life Live in small villages Make ceramic pots
  • Catholics In KoreaCatholics (mostly Yangban) retreat from public life Live in small villages Make ceramic pots Kimchi Pots
  • Catholics In KoreaCatholics (mostly Yangban) retreat from public life Live in small villages Make ceramic pots Kimchi Pots “Potter” is slang for Catholic
  • Korea and the West
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman US sends retaliatory naval strike
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman US sends retaliatory naval strike
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman US sends retaliatory naval strikePressure from Japan
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman US sends retaliatory naval strikePressure from Japan Treaty of Kanghwa 1874: first unequal treaty – Japan
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman US sends retaliatory naval strikePressure from Japan Treaty of Kanghwa 1874: first unequal treaty – Japan  Grants Japan special rights in Korea
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman US sends retaliatory naval strikePressure from Japan Treaty of Kanghwa 1874: first unequal treaty – Japan  Grants Japan special rights in Korea  Japan may intervene if other nations do
  • Korea and the WestGeneral Sherman incident 1866 American Merchant Marine Ship Sunk and burned1871 retaliation for General Sherman US sends retaliatory naval strikePressure from Japan Treaty of Kanghwa 1874: first unequal treaty – Japan  Grants Japan special rights in Korea  Japan may intervene if other nations do  Koreans recognize the threat, but are powerless to resist
  • Korea and the West
  • Korea and the West1882: first US Treaty
  • Korea and the West1882: first US Treaty “Good offices” clause
  • Korea and the West1882: first US Treaty “Good offices” clause
  • Korea and the West1882: first US Treaty “Good offices” clause Korea sees it as mutual defense
  • Korea and the West1882: first US Treaty “Good offices” clause Korea sees it as mutual defense Protection from the real threat: Japan
  • Korea and the West1882: first US Treaty “Good offices” clause Korea sees it as mutual defense Protection from the real threat: Japan West, esp. US, seen as potential savior from the more-threatening Japanese
  • Korea and the WestProtestants
  • Korea and the West Protestants1884 Dr. Horace Allen
  • Korea and the West Protestants1884 Dr. Horace Allen MD to the US Consulate
  • Korea and the West Protestants1884 Dr. Horace Allen MD to the US Consulate Presbyterian Missionary
  • Korea and the West Protestants1884 Dr. Horace Allen MD to the US Consulate Presbyterian Missionary Heals Korean Crown Prince
  • Korea and the West Protestants1884 Dr. Horace Allen MD to the US Consulate Presbyterian Missionary Heals Korean Crown Prince Granted one favor
  • Korea and the West Protestants1884 Dr. Horace Allen MD to the US Consulate Presbyterian Missionary Heals Korean Crown Prince Granted one favor
  • Korea and the West Protestants 1884 Dr. Horace Allen  MD to the US Consulate  Presbyterian Missionary  Heals Korean Crown Prince  Granted one favor Requests freedom of religion for Korea and missionary rights for Christianity
  • Protestants in Korea
  • Protestants in Korea Enter 1884
  • Protestants in Korea Enter 1884 Adopt Nevius Method  Service: education, medical care, etc  Focus on poor and women  Cultivate local clergy and leadership ASAP  Prepare for local church independence
  • Protestantsin Korea “The Board of Bible Translation”
  • Protestantsin KoreaBible ( )is the first major “The Board of Bible Translation”
  • Protestantsin KoreaBible ( )is the first major “The Board of Biblework published in Translation”
  • Protestantsin KoreaBible ( )is the first major “The Board of Biblework published in Translation”hangul ( ) – not Chinese
  • Protestantsin KoreaBible ( )is the first major “The Board of Biblework published in Translation”hangul ( ) – not Chinese  Prompts the beginning of Hangul literature movement
  • Protestants in Korea
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige  Democratic, participatory structure
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige  Democratic, participatory structure  Koreans flock to Presbyterians
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige  Democratic, participatory structure  Koreans flock to Presbyterians
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige  Democratic, participatory structure  Koreans flock to Presbyterians Christians seen as connected with America
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige Yonesi University: Original Hall  Democratic, participatory structure Founded as  Koreans flock to Presbyterians Yonsei school for Boys, 1885 Christians seen as connected with America America seen as the one hope for protection from Japan
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige Yonesi University: Original Hall  Democratic, participatory structure Founded as  Koreans flock to Presbyterians Yonsei school for Boys, 1885 Christians seen as connected with America America seen as the one hope for protection from Japan Western Education (in Christian Schools) seen as the key to modernizing the nation
  • Protestants in KoreaPresbyterian Structure Governance by “Elders”  Lay leaders play major role: High prestige Yonesi University: Original Hall  Democratic, participatory structure Founded as  Koreans flock to Presbyterians Yonsei school for Boys, 1885 Christians seen as connected with America America seen as the one hope for protection from Japan Western Education (in Christian Schools) seen as the key to modernizing the nation Non-Christian Korean nationalists flock to Christian schools for modern, Western education
  • Protestants in Korea
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Ewha Women’s University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, 1885
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Ewha Women’s University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, 1885
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Become core to nationalist and Ewha Women’s University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, 1885
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Become core to nationalist and Ewha Women’s modernization movements University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, 1885
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Become core to nationalist and Ewha Women’s modernization movements University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, 1885
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Become core to nationalist and Ewha Women’s modernization movements University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, Grow and develop rapidly 1885
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Become core to nationalist and Ewha Women’s modernization movements University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, Grow and develop rapidly 1885
  • Protestants in Korea Provide Best education available Become core to nationalist and Ewha Women’s modernization movements University: Founded as Ewha School for Girls, Grow and develop rapidly 1885 Develop a strong national network of hundreds of churches and many thousands of members by 1900
  • Late Chosun Government:Decay and Stagnation
  • Late Chosun Government:Decay and StagnationGovernment stagnates and tries to avoid reform or Western interaction as much as possible
  • Late Chosun Government:Decay and StagnationGovernment stagnates and tries to avoid reform or Western interaction as much as possible Dominated by Conservative Queen Min
  • Late Chosun Government: Decay and Stagnation Government stagnates and tries to avoid reform or Western interaction as much as possible  Dominated by Conservative Queen Min Queen Min, like China’s Empress Dowager, was a traditionalist
  • Late Chosun Government: Decay and Stagnation Government stagnates and tries to avoid reform or Western interaction as much as possible  Dominated by Conservative Queen Min Queen Min, like China’s Empress Dowager, was a traditionalist Kabo Reforms: Attempt to modernize after Queen Min’s death
  • Late Chosun Government: Decay and Stagnation Government stagnates and tries to avoid reform or Western interaction as much as possible  Dominated by Conservative Queen Min Queen Min, like China’s Empress Dowager, was a traditionalist Kabo Reforms: Attempt to modernize after Queen Min’s death  Modernization effort, but too little, too late
  • Tonghak Rebellion
  • Tonghak Rebellion Tonghak Rebellion: 1894 (Eastern Learning)
  • Tonghak Rebellion Tonghak Rebellion: 1894 (Eastern Learning)  Nativist movement growing out of the Chundokyo Religion (a native Korean religion borrowing both from Daoism and Christianity)
  • Tonghak Rebellion Tonghak Rebellion: 1894 (Eastern Learning)  Nativist movement growing out of the Chundokyo Religion (a native Korean religion borrowing both from Daoism and Christianity)  Deeply Anti foreign
  • Tonghak Rebellion Tonghak Rebellion: 1894 (Eastern Learning)  Nativist movement growing out of the Chundokyo Religion (a native Korean religion borrowing both from Daoism and Christianity)  Deeply Anti foreign  Chosun Government could not repress the Tonghaks
  • Tonghak Rebellion Tonghak Rebellion: 1894 (Eastern Learning)  Nativist movement growing out of the Chundokyo Religion (a native Korean religion borrowing both from Daoism and Christianity)  Deeply Anti foreign  Chosun Government could not repress the Tonghaks  Calls in China and Japan asserts 1874 treaty to follow
  • Tonghak Rebellion Tonghak Rebellion: 1894 (Eastern Learning)  Nativist movement growing out of the Chundokyo Religion (a native Korean religion borrowing both from Daoism and Christianity)  Deeply Anti foreign  Chosun Government could not repress the Tonghaks  Calls in China and Japan asserts 1874 treaty to follow
  • Tonghak Rebellion Tonghak Rebellion: 1894 (Eastern Learning)  Nativist movement growing out of the Chundokyo Religion (a native Korean religion borrowing both from Daoism and Christianity)  Deeply Anti foreign  Chosun Government could not repress the Tonghaks  Calls in China and Japan asserts 1874 treaty to follow Sino-Japanese War 1894-95
  • Chosun Collapse Kyongbok Palace: Center of Chosun rule
  • Chosun Collapse Chosun Weakened Kyongbok Palace: Center of Chosun rule
  • Chosun Collapse Chosun Weakened King even seeks protection Kyongbok Palace: Center of Chosun rule in Russian Embassy
  • Chosun Collapse Chosun Weakened King even seeks protection Kyongbok Palace: Center of Chosun rule in Russian Embassy Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
  • Chosun Collapse Chosun Weakened King even seeks protection Kyongbok Palace: Center of Chosun rule in Russian Embassy Russo-Japanese War 1904-05  Russia forced to leave
  • Chosun Collapse Chosun Weakened King even seeks protection Kyongbok Palace: Center of Chosun rule in Russian Embassy Russo-Japanese War 1904-05  Russia forced to leave Korea becomes a Japanese protectorate  Meaning Japan “protects” (dominates) Korea
  • Japanese Occupation1910-1945
  • Japanese Occupation1910-1945 Koreans continue to look to US as potential savior
  • Japanese Occupation1910-1945 Koreans continue to look to US as potential savior Look to Protestant churches as special connection to America
  • Japanese Occupation1910-1945 Koreans continue to look to US as potential savior Look to Protestant churches as special connection to America Japan annexes Korea 1910
  • Japanese Occupation1910-1945 Koreans continue to look to US as potential savior Look to Protestant churches as special connection to America Japan annexes Korea 1910  Taft-Katsura Agreement
  • Japanese Occupation1910-1945 Koreans continue to look to US as potential savior Look to Protestant churches as special connection to America Japan annexes Korea 1910  Taft-Katsura Agreement  US concurs secretly that Japan should lead to modernize and develop Korea
  • Japanese Occupation1910-1945 Koreans continue to look to US as potential savior Look to Protestant churches as special connection to America Japan annexes Korea 1910  Taft-Katsura Agreement  US concurs secretly that Japan should lead to modernize and develop Korea Protestant Missionaries agree:  Japan is the one modern Asian Nation  Korean’s need Japanese tutelage  Koreans today see this as a major betrayal