Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups. Focuses on social relationships; how those relationships influence people’s behavior; and how societies, the sum total of those relationships develop and change. It is the science of society and the social interactions taking place
Sociological Imagination According to C. Wright Mills, it is an awareness of therelationship of the individual and the wider society. Thisawareness allows all of us to comprehend the links betweenour immediate, personal settings and the remote, impersonalsocial world that surrounds and help to shape us. A key element in the sociological imagination is the ability toview one’s society as an outsider would, rather than
Sociology and the Social Sciences Natural Science- study of the physical features of nature andthe ways I which they interact and change.Ex. Astronomy, Biology, Chemistry, Geology, Physics Social Sciences- study of the social features of humans and theways in which they interact and change.Ex. Sociology, Anthropology, Economics, History, Psy chologyand Political Science
Anthropology is the study of past cultures and preindustrialsocieties that continue today, as well as the origin of humans. Economics is the study that explore the way in which peopleproduce and exchange goods and services along with moneyand other resources. History is concerned with the people and events of the past and their significance for us today. Political Science study international relations, the
Psychology is used in the investigation of personality andindividual behavior.Sociologists focus on the study of the influence that the societyHas on people’s attitudes and behavior and the ways in whichPeople interact and shape society. Humans are social animals sosociologists scientifically examine their social relationships withothers.
Anthropology Is the science of humanity and its society. It studies the biological, social, and cultural development of humankind and seeks answers to why people are different and how they are similar.
Origin and History of Sociology and Anthropology
The Beginnings of Anthropology It goes back to the period of discoveries and explorationsin the15th to 18th centuries. Sources of facts were the early Western explorers,missionaries, soldiers and colonial officials regarding thestrange behavior and beliefs as well as the exotic appearance ofpeople they have come in contact with. Discoveries of flint tools and other artifacts in Europe in theearly 19th century gave evidence of the existence of human
These discoveries happened at the time when advancementin Physics and Chemistry were made, arousing interest in scien-tific inquiry. Edward Tylor was the first professor of Anthropology in Ox-ford, England. In the U.S., it was Franz Boaz of Clark Univer-sity, Massachusetts. Modern Anthropology in both Physical and cultural aspects
Modern Anthropology Focus of study was the exotic, non- western societies. The dominant theme of the early anthropologists were theevolutionary view of humanity and human behavior. Structural functionalism was eventually used. The turn for ahigher level of research through the use of careful and thoroughgathering of data about individual cultures was made by FranzBoaz and Alfred Kroeber. They were followed by Bronislaw Ma-
From 1980, ethnographers approached the study of localculture as embedded within regional and tribal forces. Terms to know:1. Ethnography- provides account of a particular community, society or culture.2. Ethnographer- gathers data that he organizes, describes, analyzes, and interprets to build and present the account which may be in the form of a book, article or film.3. Ethnology- examines, interprets, analyzes, and
The Beginnings of Sociology Has its roots in France at the time of the IndustrialRevolution and French Revolution. Social problems attended this social upheavals. The pioneers were Henri de Saint- Simon (1760- 1825) andAuguste Comte (1798-1857). Auguste Comte, a French Philosopher, believed that methodsand techniques of the natural science could be applied to thestudy of society. He coined the term “ sociology” to apply to the
Harriet Martineau(18021876)-scholars learned of Comte’sworks through the translations of this sociologist. Aside from this, she offered insightful observations of the customs andsocial practices of both her native Britain and the U.S.Her book“Society in America” examined religion, politics, child-rearingand immigration in the young nation. Her writings emphasized the impact that the economy, law, trade, health,
Herbert Spencer( 1820-1903) he did not feel compelled tocorrect or improve society , instead he hoped to understand itbetter. He applied Darwin’s concept of Evolution of the Speciesto societies in order to explain how they change, or evolve overtime. He also adapted Darwin’s Survival of the fittest in arguingthat it is natural that some people are rich while others are
between two classes that clashed in the pursuit of their owninterest. When he examined the industrial societies of his time,he saw the factory as the center of conflict between theexploiters and the exploited. He viewed these relationships insystematic terms, he believed that a system of economic, socialand political relationships maintained the power and
It was during the time of Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel,and Max Weber in Europe, and Charles H. Cooley, Robert E.Park and W.I. Thomas in the U.S. that empirical research wasused in the study of social phenomena. Emile Durkheim(1858-1917) laid the foundation for ModernSociology. He made contributions regarding the study ofsuicide, religion, division of labor in society and
Max Weber ( 1864-1920)-according to him, to fully compre-hend behavior, we must learn the subjective meanings peopleattach to their actions- how they themselves view and explaintheir behavior. Charles Horton Cooley(1864-1929)- to effectively learnmore about society, he preferred to use the sociological pers-pective to look first at smaller units- intimate, face- to-face
Major Theoretical Perspectives Sociologists view society in different ways. Some see theworld as a stable and on-going entity. Others see society ascomposed of many groups in conflict, competing for scarceresources. And still to others, the most fascinating aspects ofthe social world are the everyday, routine interactions amongindividuals that we sometimes take for granted. These three views are the functionalist, conflict
Functionalist Perspective This emphasizes the way in which the parts of the society arestructured to maintain its stability. Talcott Parsons (1902-1979), a Harvard Universitysociologist was a key figure in the development of this theory.Parson saw any society as a vast network of connected parts,each of which helps to maintain the system as a whole. His functionalist approach holds that if an aspect
value consensus among members of the society, it will not bepassed on from one generation to the next. Throughout most of the 1900s,the functionalist perspectiveHad the upperhand in sociology in the US. Manifest and Latent Functions Robert Merton made an important distinction betweenmanifest and latent functions. Manifest Functions of institutions are open, stated, consciousfunctions. They involve the intended, recognized
Latent Functions are unconscious or unintended functionsThat may reflect hidden purposes of an institution. DysfunctionsFunctionalists acknowledge that not all parts of the society con-tribute to its stability all the time. Dysfunction refers to an element or process of a society thatmay actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability.
Conflict Perspective Conflict sociologists see a social world in continual struggle. It assumes that social behavior is best understood in terms ofconflict or tension between competing groups. Conflicts need not be violent, it can take the form of labornegotiations, party politics, competition between religiousgroups for new members, or disputes over the governmentbudget.
The widespread social unrest resulting from battles over civilrights, bitter division over the war in Vietnam, rise of the gayand feminist liberation movements, political scandals, haveoffered support for the conflict approach- the view that thesocial world is characterized by continual struggle betweencompeting groups. The discipline of sociology accepts conflict theory
Views Under the Conflict Theory Marxist View Karl Marx viewed struggle between social classes as ine-vitable, given the exploitation of workers under capitalism. Ex-panding on Marx’s work, sociologists and other social scientistshave come to see conflict not merely as a class phenomenonbut as part of everyday life in all societies. An African American View Some early black sociologists including
The struggle for a racially egalitarian society. Sociology he con-tended, had to draw on scientific principles to study socialproblems such as those experienced by blacks in the U.S. DuBois made a major contribution to sociology through his in-depth studies of urban life, both black and white. He documen-ted the blacks’ relatively low status in Philadelphia and Atlanta.He believed that granting full political rights to
It sees inequity in gender as central to all behavior andorganization. Contemporary feminist theorist often view wo-men’s subordination as inherent in a capitalist societies. Someradical feminist theorists, view the oppression of women as in-evitable in all male- dominates societies, whether capitalist,socialist or communist.Feminist scholarship in sociology has broadened the under-standing of social behavior by taking it beyond the male point ofview. They have not only challenged stereo-typing of women,
Interactionist Perspective Functionalists and conflict theorists both analyze large-scale,society-wide patterns of behavior. Interactionists, on the otherhand generalize about everyday forms of interaction in orderto explain society as a whole. Interactionism is a sociological framework for viewinghuman beings as living in a world of meaningful objects.“Objects” may include material things, actions,
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931) is widely regarded as thefounder of the interactionist perspective. His sociologicalanalysis often focused on human interactions in one- to –onesituations and small groups. He was interested in observing themost minute forms of communication- smiles, frowns, nods-And in understanding how such individual behaviors were
Type of Interactionist Perspective Dramaturgical approach- popularized by Erving Goffman,This approach sees people as theatrical performers. Everydaylife is compared to the setting of the theater and stage. Just asActors project certain image, all of us seek to present particularfeatures of our personalities while we hide other qualities.