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Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences


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Structures shape the world: How do we make a nature science of Society?

Grade 11 under Josefino Tulabing Larena ,AB,CPS,CPE,MPA

Published in: Education
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Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences

  1. 1. Structures shape the world: How do we make a nature science of Society? Josefino Tulabing.Larena ,AB, CPS,CPE,MPA Disciplines and Ideas in Social Sciences K to 12
  2. 2. Learning Objectives  1. Examine the legacy of the Classical Frameworks in the development of the academic study of Society  Discuss about the Founding Fathers of Social Science and How their ideas impact present theorizing about society and  Operationalize the meaning of structures in terms of how they help us understand social reality
  3. 3. Modern times  MOST FB LIKES Shalomae J. Siason  Today ,Selfies are a common phenomenon among us, especially the youth, Selfies are generally portraits of & about oneself, aided by information and communication technology, which enables the photographer to easily take, record and document aspects
  4. 4. MOST FB SHARES Diana Bulagao Cornelio BEST SELFIE Danica Bulagao Cornelio
  5. 5. Questions  How a photographer take pictures of his or her own subject?  How does he or she compose his or her photograph in accordance to physical and temporal ( meaning time) conditions where the shooting is taking place?  Would there be a difference if the photographer is female or male?  How about if he or she is using a different technology in taking pictures?
  6. 6. How do we see social reality? How should we see it? How do we intend to change or reform  Theories are our explanatory models where we could analyse, examine and interpret what we see and experience about life, society and humanity.  Across many decades since the formal founding of Social Science as an academic discipline in the West, there have been many forms of social theories .
  7. 7. Lens  In contemporary social science theories, the analogy for theoretical perspectives is commonly expressed by the word “Lens” to connote that there are various ways .
  8. 8. Classical Frameworks: Evolution and Function
  9. 9. Understanding the Nature of Society Based on Nature  Classical social Theories do provide the foundation. Drawing from a long and rich intellectual tradition in philosophy centuries before the age of modernity particularly ,the 18th to the early 19th century those ideas developed mainly as a response to the most important discourse of the time: MODERNITY
  10. 10. Evolution
  11. 11. Human Evolution  Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioural traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years.
  12. 12.  One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past 100,000 years.
  13. 13.  Humans are primates. Physical and genetic similarities show that the modern humanspecies, Homo sapiens, has a very close relationship to another group of primate species, the apes. Humans and the great apes (large apes) of Africa -- chimpanzees (including bonobos, or so-called “pygmy chimpanzees”) and gorillas -- share a common ancestor that lived between 8 and 6 million years ago. Humans first evolved in Africa, and much of human evolution occurred on that continent. The fossils of early humans who lived between 6 and 2 million years ago come entirely from Africa.
  14. 14.  Most scientists currently recognize some 15 to 20 different species of early humans. Scientists do not all agree, however, about how these species are related or which ones simply died out. Many early human species -- certainly the majority of them – left no living descendants. Scientists also debate over how to identify and classify particular species of early humans, and about what factors influenced the evolution and extinction of each species.
  15. 15. Before Darwin  The word homo, the name of the biological genus to which humans belong, is Latin for "human". It was chosen originally by Carl Linnaeus in his classification system. The word "human" is from the Latin humanus, the adjectival form of homo. The Latin "homo" derives from the Indo- European root *dhghem, or "earth". Linnaeus and other scientists of his time also considered the great apes to be the closest relatives of humans based on morphological and anatomical similarities.
  16. 16. Charles Darwin  Naturalist Charles Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England, on February 12, 1809. In 1831, he embarked on a five-year survey voyage around the world on the HMS Beagle. His studies of specimens around the globe led him to formulate his theory of evolution and his views on the process of natural selection. In 1859, he published On the Origin of Species. He died on April 19, 1882, in London.
  17. 17. Theory of Evolution  Darwin's exposure to specimens all over the globe raised important questions. Other naturalists believed that all species either came into being at the start of the world, or were created over the course of natural history. In either case, the species were believed to remain much the same throughout time. Darwin, however, noticed similarities among species all over the globe, along with variations based on specific locations, leading him to believe that they had gradually evolved from common ancestors. He came to believe that species survived through a process called "natural selection," where species that successfully adapted to meet the changing requirements of their natural habitat thrived, while those that failed to evolve and reproduce died off.
  18. 18. Theory of Evolution  In 1858, after years of further scientific investigation, Darwin publically introduced his revolutionary theory of evolution in a letter read at a meeting of the Linnean Society. On November 24, 1859, he published a detailed explanation of his theory in his best-known work, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection.
  19. 19.  British philosopher and sociologist, Herbert Spencer was a major figure in the intellectual life of the Victorian era. He was one of the principal proponents of evolutionary theory in the mid nineteenth century, and his reputation at the time rivalled that of Charles Darwin.  Spencer was initially best known for developing and applying evolutionary theory to philosophy, psychology and the study of society -- what he called his "synthetic philosophy"
  20. 20. Father of Sociology David Émile Durkheim  ( April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist, social psychologist and philosopher. He formally established the academic discipline and—with Karl Marx and Max Weber—is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science and father of sociology
  21. 21. Father of the study of Culture Edward Tylor  Sir Edward Burnett Tylor (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology.  Tylor is representative of cultural evolutionism. In his works Primitive Culture and Anthropology, he defined the context of the scientific study of anthropology, based on the evolutionary theories of Charles Lyell. He believed that there was a functional basis for the development of society and religion, which he determined was universal.
  22. 22. Bronislaw Malinowski (1884- 1942), Polish Pioneer Functionalism ethnologist  one of the most important anthropologists of the 20th century who is widely recognized as a founder of social anthropology and principally associated with field studies of the peoples of Oceania.
  23. 23. Functionalism  Functionalism, mental states are identified by what they do rather than by what they are made of. This can be understood by thinking about artefacts like mousetraps and keys.
  24. 24. Structure  Structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system, or the object or system so organized
  25. 25. Marcel Mauss  Marcel Mauss was a French sociologist. The nephew of Émile Durkheim, Mauss's academic work traversed the boundaries between sociology and anthropology.
  26. 26. Cross –Cultural and gift -giving
  27. 27. Classical Framework :Historical Materialism & Human Personality
  28. 28. Karl Marx  Karl Marx was a philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Born in Prussia to a middle-class family, he later studied political economy and Hegelian philosophy
  29. 29. Karl Marx Books
  30. 30. Classical Psychoanalysis & Sigmund Freud  Psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and psychotherapeutic theories and associated techniques, created by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and stemming partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others
  31. 31. Sigmund Freud - The Father of Psychoanalysis and Psychology  Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst
  32. 32.  The basic tenets of psychoanalysis include:  a person's development is determined by often forgotten events in early childhood rather than by inherited traits alone  human attitude, mannerism, experience, and thought is largely influenced by irrational drives that are rooted in the unconscious  it is necessary to bypass psychological resistance in the form of defense mechanisms when bringing drives into awareness  conflicts between the conscious and the unconscious, or with repressed material can materialize in the form of mental or emotional disturbances, for example: neurosis, neurotic traits, anxiety, depression etc.  liberating the elements of the unconscious is achieved through bringing this material into the conscious mind (via e.g. skilled guidance, i.e. therapeutic intervention
  33. 33.  Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a specific type of treatment in which the "analysand" (analytic patient) verbally expresses his or her thoughts, including free associations, fantasies, and dreams, from which the analyst infers the unconscious conflicts causing the patient's symptoms and character problems, and interprets them for the patient to create insight for resolution of the problems.
  34. 34. Diagram showing the structure of the human psyche
  35. 35. Society and Social Media
  36. 36. A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life. Charles Darwin