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eLearning Africa 2008 May 2008 AccraQuality and Outreach of TVET: A Case Study from Zambia Gabriel S. Konayuma, BA Ed., MBA Ministry of Science, Technology & Vocational Training, Zambia.
Snapshot of TVET in Zambia The lead ministry in TEVET is the Ministry of Science, Technology & Vocational Training TEVET enrolls a total of 30,000 trainees annually. In the TEVET sector distance learning is not well developed. Currently approx. 2% of registered institutions offer distance learning. Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 2 Study [Konayuma]
Definitions of Quality, Outreach & TVET Quality is defined as “fitness for purpose” (Harvey, 1997). Also defined as “fulfillment of requirements”. Outreach defined as access to training TVET: comprehensive term referring to those aspects of the educational process involving the study of technologies and related sciences, and the acquisition of practical skills, attitudes, understanding and knowledge relating to occupations in various sectors of economic and social life (UNESCO, 2001:1-2). Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 3 Study [Konayuma]
Quality Assurance Systems in TVET Inspections to assess the quality in management systems, infrastructure, curriculum development are conducted by TEVETA. TEVETA is a regulatory body for TEVT providers. Grading of TEVT institutions is done after inspections are done. Grades are from 1 to 3. Institutions not meeting minimum standards are de-registered and asked to attend to the highlighted areas in a given period. Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 4 Study [Konayuma]
Challenges to issues of Quality Institutions not registering with TEVETA thus offering poor quality training to unsuspecting trainees. Having poor management systems, lowly qualified staff and poor infrastructure and equipment. Having different concepts of quality Legal framework that needs strengthening for non-complying institutions to be dealt with appropriately. Institutions not taking personal responsibility for quality assurance. Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 5 Study [Konayuma]
Best Practices Some institutions have made notable efforts in offering accessible and quality training e.g. 49% of registered institutions are in Grades 1 & 2 (having good management systems, equipment and qualified staff). Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 6 Study [Konayuma]
Examples of Outreach inZambia TVTC is offering distance learning to 1000 learners ZACODE is also offering distance learning to 1000 learners. Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 7 Study [Konayuma]
Challenges Low and poor use of ICT in Quality Assurance & distance learning Poor staffing levels and lack of adequately qualified staff Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 8 Study [Konayuma]
Best Practices TVTC offers 24 hours support to distance learners telephonically and by email. TVTC blends face to face learning with distance learning. e-learning in Radiography by Evelyn Hone College Short courses tailored for industry (NORTEC, NIEC, ZIBC and Evelyn Hone). Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 9 Study [Konayuma]
Recommendations for EnhancingQuality & Outreach in TVET Networking among TVET providers locally and internationally Benchmarking against best practices Aggressively developing and introducing distance and e-learning Investing in ICT for distance learning and e-learning Developing Qualification Frameworks to enhance quality of assessment & certification. Strengthening partnerships among industry, employers, professional bodies, local communities and the government. Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 10 Study [Konayuma]
Why Quality Assurance? The education system – and the TVET system, as part of it – is developed in ways that allow enough flexibility for the individual to move from one educational strand to another (“articulation”); There is coordination among the Ministries involved with TVET, Standards are set in order to guarantee a minimum quality for every aspect of TVET; Quality is monitored both at the institutional level and among the teaching and training staff; Curricula are in line with the requirements of the labour market; Training institutions interact closely with the world of work; The learner benefits from sufficient practical and theoretical elements throughout the training; Teaching and training staff are well-qualified, knowledgeable about the world of work, and available in sufficient numbers; Facilities correspond with latest requirements and technologies, are well-maintained and available in sufficient numbers; The delivery methods allow for a maximum learning effect; Vocational guidance is available from the beginning of the learner’s training (the right choice of programme), during the training (learning matters, personal problems, financial difficulties, etc.), and at the end of the training (finding employment). (UNSESCO, 2005:1). Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 11 Study [Konayuma]
ConclusionExample of Outreach of TVET in Zambia: Women Gemstone Miners after training Quality & Outreach of TVET: Zambia Case 12 Study [Konayuma]