Gabriel S KonayumaSenior Vocational Education & Training Officer, Zambia                                         BA Ed., MBA
AgendaIntroductionBackgroundProblem StatementObjectives of PaperMethodologyFindingsAnalysisConclusion             ...
IntroductionThis paper focuses on analysis of ODL policies in Zambia by using tools of policy analysis.The paper also an...
BackgroundAfrican Context of ICTsIn Africa, a number of African countries have developed ICT policies. Some of these are...
BackgroundZambian Context of ICTsThe ICT sector in Zambia is governed by a National Information and Communication Techno...
Problem StatementThough TVET teachers appreciate the need to use ICTs in education in order to improve their teaching and...
Objectives of the PaperDemonstrate a critical understanding between the macro and the micro factors at social interaction...
Methodology Institutional, pedagogical and technological artefacts collected over a 2 week  period . These artefacts were...
Methodology Figure 1: Screenshot of MobilEdu website showing discussion questions on Forum page                           ...
FindingsA total of four respondents made a combined total of eight postings on the discussion forum. There were five resp...
FindingsI just realised that there are some features on my phone that I have never used to date. I may be missing out on ...
AnalysisText Genre      Communicator’s Intent is to:Narrative       Tell about a sequence of eventsProcedural      Give in...
AnalysisDescription                                  Interpretation                               Explanation(Text Analysi...
ConclusionThis study is useful for policy makers in understanding how certain readily available technologies such as mobi...
Let’s continue networking via:e-mail: gkonayuma@gmail.comBlog: www.educationandtrainingissues.blogspot.com          gabrie...
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A critical discourse analysis of odl policies in tvet in zambia

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A critical discourse analysis of odl policies in tvet in zambia

  1. 1. Gabriel S KonayumaSenior Vocational Education & Training Officer, Zambia BA Ed., MBA
  2. 2. AgendaIntroductionBackgroundProblem StatementObjectives of PaperMethodologyFindingsAnalysisConclusion 2
  3. 3. IntroductionThis paper focuses on analysis of ODL policies in Zambia by using tools of policy analysis.The paper also analyses text produced by respondents in a survey of the use of mobile technologies in education and training using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). 3
  4. 4. BackgroundAfrican Context of ICTsIn Africa, a number of African countries have developed ICT policies. Some of these are Cameroun, Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Uganda and Zimbabwe. In Cameroun the ICT Policy seeks to:to enable each citizen to build his capacities to gain access to information, ideas and knowledge and contribute thereto;to make the most benefit of ICT opportunities to combat poverty and promote development (National Agency for Information and Communication Technologies, 2007:85). 4
  5. 5. BackgroundZambian Context of ICTsThe ICT sector in Zambia is governed by a National Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy.The ICT Policy highlights the potential of ICTs to improve quality of education and‍ training through e- learning and online learning. The ICT policy identifies some challenges that are faced in the educational system: 5
  6. 6. Problem StatementThough TVET teachers appreciate the need to use ICTs in education in order to improve their teaching and improve learning by students, they do not fully appreciate how some technologies can be effectively in a learning environment.Lack of adequate ICT competence is likely to have a negative impact on learners in TVET.Purpose of study is to identify strategies that will strengthen the ICT competence of teachers in TVET so that they can offer ODL programmes effectively. 6
  7. 7. Objectives of the PaperDemonstrate a critical understanding between the macro and the micro factors at social interaction level.Mediate interaction of human agents and gather trails of interaction using a mobile application.Provide detailed description of the conditions of both production and interpretation of text/artefacts.Analyse the relationships between the created artefacts created and analyse them from micro-to- macro. 7
  8. 8. Methodology Institutional, pedagogical and technological artefacts collected over a 2 week period . These artefacts were presented to a postgraduate education class at the University of Cape Town in June 2011. The artefacts were documented in Wikispaces, a free web hosting service, where other students in the class could easily access them and make comments. A mobile application solution, created using a free mobile website builder, Winksite to address the problem of inadequate information on mobile learning was presented. Creation of mobile forum for lecturers to make contributions to discussion questions that were raised. A total of 4 lecturers and policy makers were chosen from TVET institutions in Zambia. These were invited (by text and by email generated from the mobile website) to join the forum discussion available on the mobile site and respond to the following two questions: (a) How do you use mobile phones for your teaching/learning? (b) Do mobile phones improve teaching and learning? 8
  9. 9. Methodology Figure 1: Screenshot of MobilEdu website showing discussion questions on Forum page 9
  10. 10. FindingsA total of four respondents made a combined total of eight postings on the discussion forum. There were five responses to the first question: (a) How do you use mobile phones for your teaching/learning?“The mobile phone is handy for sending assignments to learners by typed short message. Learners are also able to listen to recorded voice lessons on their phones”(Dan)For learning I use a mobile phone to connect to the Internet and research on different study topics. (Dick)Mobile Phones are used for teaching by sending notes and assignments to students via email, text massaging, conversation. (Dick) 10
  11. 11. FindingsI just realised that there are some features on my phone that I have never used to date. I may be missing out on something. (Cleo)Having been a student not too long ago, I found a mobile phone very important in improving learning. I used my phone to communicate with my lecturer and peers on issues that needed clarification. As a part time lecturer now, it helps me keep in touch with my distant students to communicate important information and also enables me to search information and benefit from Open Education Resources as access to latest reference materials is still a challenge in my school. (Cleo) 11
  12. 12. AnalysisText Genre Communicator’s Intent is to:Narrative Tell about a sequence of eventsProcedural Give instructions on how to do somethingExpository Explain somethingHortatory Encourage someone to do somethingDescriptive List the characteristics of something Table 1: Text Genres and the Communicator’s Intent for each Genre, Larson (1984:365) 12
  13. 13. AnalysisDescription Interpretation Explanation(Text Analysis) (Discursive Type) (Social Practice)Narrative: The teacher is describing the Procedural: By explaining that a phone Most teacher generally have mobilesequence of events that he uses the mobile can be used for connecting to the Internet phones and a number of them do use themphone for teaching. and research the teacher implies a mobile for teaching though this comment hasProcedural: The teacher is explaining phone can be used for teaching and used been made by just two teachers in thishow the mobile phone is used i.e. for more than just making voice calls and study and therefore cannot be generalised.connecting to the Internet and researching sending text messages.on different study topics Descriptive: The student knows theExpository: The teacher has explained characteristics of the mobile phone thathow he uses the mobile phone for learning can facilitate his teaching.purposes.Descriptive: The teacher has listed thecharacteristic of the mobile phone asbeing able to connect to the Internet 13
  14. 14. ConclusionThis study is useful for policy makers in understanding how certain readily available technologies such as mobile phones can be used more effectively than they are being used presently to enhance teaching and learning in educational institutions.The findings of CDA are very useful in the development of learning interventions that seek to improve the access of learning to students within a community or those that have certain disadvantages in terms of learning.The study is also useful to lecturers who struggle to find teaching and learning resources for their classes and who also seek to improve their interaction with learners. 14
  15. 15. Let’s continue networking via:e-mail: gkonayuma@gmail.comBlog: www.educationandtrainingissues.blogspot.com gabrielkonayuma gabriel.konayuma 15

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