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Convergence and Interoperability (IFLA 2011)

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  • 1. Convergence and interoperability a Linked Data perspective BERMES, Emmanuelle Centre G. Pompidou Paris, France IFLA 77 th WLIC August 2011
  • 2. What are users really interested in ? OR
  • 3. Convergence : issues with Cultural Heritage Models Libraries Multiple objects Shared cataloguing Archives Hierarchical description Context, organic nature “ Respect des fonds ” Museums Unique objects Event based description
  • 4. Building interoperability Map and Duplicate interoperability MARC Z. 39 50 SRU/SRW... Smallest common denominator OAI-PMH Simple Dubin Core
  • 5. Linked Data Principles Use URIs as names for things Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names Provide useful information using standards (RDF, SPARQL) Create links with other datasets Linked Data principles from Sir Tim Berners-Lee
  • 6. Definitions from the Library Linked Data Incubator Group
    • Metadata element set
    • “ A metadata element set defines classes of entities and attributes (elements) of entities. (…) such element sets are materialized through (RDF) schemas or (OWL) ontologies, the term "RDF vocabulary" being sometimes used as an umbrella for these. (...)”
    Value vocabularies “ A value vocabulary defines resources (topics, art styles, authors) that are used as values of elements in metadata records. (...) A value vocabulary thus represents a "controlled list" of allowed values for an element. Resources that can be considered as value vocabularies include: thesaurus, code list, term list, classification scheme, subject heading list, taxonomy, authority file, digital gazetteer, concept scheme, and other types of knowledge organisation system. (...) value vocabularies often have http URIs assigned to the value, which would appear in a metadata record instead of or in addition to the literal valu e.”
  • 7. Exemples
    • Metadata elements sets : Dublin Core, RDA, FOAF, ISBD, FRBR...
    • Value vocabularies : LCSH, VIAF, Marc Code Lists...
    • Other Datasets : Geonames, DBpedia...
    Library related datasets (including value vocabularies) are registred in CKAN : http://ckan.net/group/lld A list of available metadata elements sets is provided by the LLD XG deliverable : http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/lld/wiki/Vocabulary_and_Dataset
  • 8. Building interoperability “ hub and spoke” model Different databases sharing the same value vocabulary “ follow your nose” Interoperability based on links
  • 9. Interoperability based on links photo photo 1975 CCL-star-471 Brian Gilberthorpe 1989 dc:type dc:date dc:identifier dc:subject 600 210 $d 215 $a Brian Gilberthorpe, Inundated by cataloguing to be done dc:title photo Bibliographic Services 200 $a
  • 10. Interoperability based on links photo photo 1975 CCL-star-471 Brian Gilberthorpe 1989 dc:type dc:date dc:identifier dc:subject 600 210 $d 215 $a Brian Gilberthorpe, Inundated by cataloguing to be done dc:title photo Bibliographic Services 200 $a Shared value vocabulary “ hub & spoke”
  • 11. Interoperability based on links photo photo 1975 CCL-star-471 Brian Gilberthorpe 1989 dc:type dc:date dc:identifier dc:subject 600 210 $d 215 $a Brian Gilberthorpe, Inundated by cataloguing to be done dc:title photo Bibliographic Services 200 $a Shared resources “ follow your nose”
  • 12. Issues with alignments... Alignment properties : skos:closeMatch skos:exactMatch skos:broadMatch skos:narrowMatch skos:relatedMatch owl:sameAs rdf:seeAlso umbel:isLike owl:sameAs skos:closeMatch umbel:isLike rdf:seeAlso
  • 13. Names vs. real world objects FOAF:FOCUS Hugo, Victor (1802-1885) foaf:focus Information valid in the context of a specific value vocabulary (BnF authorities) Information that is always true about the person Born in 1802 Dead in 1855 Writer Created by BnF Pref. label Alt. Label skos:prefLabel “ poisson”@fr skos:prefLabel skosxl:literalForm “ poisson”@fr SKOS XL
  • 14. What's the point ? A global information space Library Expression Work Manifestation Item Person Corp. body Place Event Object Wikipedia Amazon Facebook Twitter Museum Archives Publishers Cinema University Booksellers
  • 15. Image credits
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/djlicious/3455986990
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/endymion120/5431747869
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/9160678@N06/752287563
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/kevandotorg/3473037943
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnbanbury/5125419711
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/klearchos/4689234968
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/epsos/3520212719
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/gpeters/3462052136
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/adamraoof/119275391
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/keylime/2488922980
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/albertogp123/5843032561/
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/andrewbain/2570462044
    • http://www.flickr.com/photos/dalbera/4279483038
    Questions ? [email_address] [email_address]