Immigration to NYC


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Immigration to NYC

  1. 1. Immigration to U.S.through Ellis Island - NYC<br />A timeline from the 17th Century to 1990<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />NYC has been a principal entry point for immigration to the U.S.<br />18th Century: major immigration from Europe (English, German, Irish and Scandinavian).<br />19th Century: also Jews (Russia and eastern Europe) – 484,000 only in 1910 – and Italians, mostly. In fewer number, Greeks, Syrians, Turkish and Armenians. <br />1880-1920: the foreign-born population in NYC nearly tripled, from just over 700,000 to almost 2,000,000<br />(late) 20th Century: Asians, Hispanics and Caribbean.<br />Today: about 36% of the city's population is foreign-born (after L.A. and Miami) and about 170 languages are spoken. Roughly 40% of the U.S. population can trace their roots through ancestors who came through Ellis Island<br />
  3. 3. The 17th and 18th Centuries<br />1630 – Ellis Island was purchased by Colonial Governors of Nieuw Amsterdam<br />Named Kioshk (Indian) or Gull Island – birds were the only inhabitants<br />1630’s – Oyster Island (Dutch man acquires the island)<br />1760's – Gibbet Island (pirates were hanged out)<br />1776 – Samuel Ellis purchases the island, builds a tavern to catering fishermen<br />Naturalization Act (1790) – white males living in the U.S. for 2 years to become citizens<br />Regulation for the first great wave (to come at 1814)<br />
  4. 4. The 19th Century<br />1808 – New York State buys the island ($10,000). Military arsenal until 1890.<br />1850’s – 1 million Irish (potato blight)<br /> and a great number of Germans<br /> (political and economic unrest)<br />1847-1890: more than 10,000,000<br /> immigrants (43 years)<br />1890 – $75,000 to build the 1st Federal Immigration Station on Ellis Island<br />01 Jan 1892 – the first Ellis Island Immigration Station was officially opened (700 immigrants that day). Nearly 450,000 immigrants this year (about 80% of the national total for U.S.)<br />Jun 1897 – a fire destroyed most of the records (from 1840)<br />
  5. 5. 1900 – 1920’s<br />1890-1915 – 15 million immigrants<br />Dec 1900 – Main Building opened<br /> ($1.5 million). 2,251 immigrants that day.<br />1907 – peak year: 1,004,756 immigrants (71% of all those arriving in U.S.). April 17th: 11,747 immigrants.<br />During the war, there was a sharp decline in immigration (from 178,416 in 1915 to just 28,867 in 1918 – 6 times less).<br />1917 – used to detain crews from German<br /> merchant ships and suspected enemies<br />1918-19 – used as a way station and <br /> treatment of returning sick and wounded <br /> American men.<br />
  6. 6. 1920’s<br />1921 – post-war immigration quickly revived <br /> (560,971 immigrants) <br />1921 – First Immigration Quota Act: the<br /> number of any European nationality entering in a given year could not exceed 3% of foreign-born persons of that nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910. No more than 20% of the annual quota of any nationality could be received in any given month. The total number of immigrants admissible under the system was set at nearly 358,000.<br />1924 – National Origins Act: further restricted <br /> immigration, changing the quota basis from <br /> the census of 1910 to that of 1890, and <br /> reducing the annual quota to some 164,000. <br /> This marked the end of mass immigration <br /> to America.<br />
  7. 7. 1930’s – 1950’s<br />1932 – Great Depression: for the first time,<br /> more immigrants leave the country than arrive. <br />1946 – some 7,000 aliens and citizens <br /> (German, Italian and Japanese) were detained at Ellis Island. During the war, it was again used as a hospital for returning wounded servicemen and by the United States Coast Guard.<br />1950 – Internal Security Act: excluded arriving who had been members of Communist and Fascist organizations. Remodeling and repairs were performed on the buildings to accommodate detainees (1,500 at one time)<br />1952 – the Immigration and Naturalization Act and a liberalized detention policy dropped the number of detainees to less than 30.<br />
  8. 8. 1950’s – 1990<br />Nov 1954 – Ellis Island was closed and <br /> declared Federal property. Total: over 40 million<br /> immigrants in 62 years.<br />May 1965 – It was added to the Statue <br /> of Liberty National Monument. <br />1965 – Hart-Cellar Act: abolishes the earlier quota system, establishes the foundations for modern U.S. immigration law (more individuals from third-world countries).<br />1976 – Ellis Island was opened to<br /> the public for visits.<br />1990 – Restored and opened as a <br /> museum.<br />
  9. 9. Video<br />The story of an immigrant family (1911)<br />