Expansion British Empire & Spread of English

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Expansion British Empire & Spread of English

  1. 1. THE EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE AND THE FURTHER SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE Subject : History of the English Language II Student : Ana Garanto
  2. 2. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>Approximately from 16 th century to 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>During the 18 th century, the expansion was bigger </li></ul><ul><li>The largest empire in history </li></ul><ul><li>Occupied a quarter of the earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><li>“ The sun never sets on the British Empire” </li></ul>
  3. 3. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>IRELAND: </li></ul><ul><li>16 th century -> Plantations of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>English and Scottish settled </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant vs. Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Republic of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Ireland </li></ul>
  4. 4. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>USA: </li></ul><ul><li>In the 16 th century there were some attempts </li></ul><ul><li>1604 British in Northern America </li></ul><ul><li>First colonies in the East </li></ul><ul><li>Religious missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Colonisation afterwards to the south and to the west </li></ul><ul><li>13 colonies in the war against Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>USA is formed by 50 states nowadays </li></ul>
  5. 5. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>THE CARIBBEAN: </li></ul><ul><li>During the 17 th century, British were established in Antigua, Barbados, Jamaica, St. Kitts, Trinidad and Tobago. </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco and sugar plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Black slaves imported </li></ul>
  6. 6. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>CANADA: </li></ul><ul><li>British imperial control 1764 – 1867 </li></ul><ul><li>17 th century -> begins penetration of British </li></ul><ul><li>During the 18 th century -> greater immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Canada won from the French in 1763 </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish colonies (1815 – 1875) </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth II </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies in America -> the first ones outside of Europe </li></ul>
  7. 7. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>INDIA: </li></ul><ul><li>In 1600 -> East India Company founded </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Consequent settlements </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with France </li></ul><ul><li>1761 -> British colony </li></ul><ul><li>Other parts of India -> after 1858 </li></ul><ul><li>Independence from UK -> 1947 </li></ul><ul><li>Republic established -> 1950 </li></ul>
  8. 8. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>AUSTRALIA: </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Cook’s voyages -> 1768 – 1779 </li></ul><ul><li>1788 -> first large British settlement </li></ul><ul><li>A penal colony </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Gold rush -> 1950s </li></ul><ul><li>Aborigine people -> diminished </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth II </li></ul>
  9. 9. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>NEW ZEALAND: </li></ul><ul><li>Captain Cook’s voyages -> 1768 – 1779 </li></ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metal tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aborigine people -> diminished </li></ul><ul><li>Maoris more important nowadays </li></ul><ul><li>Queen Elizabeth II </li></ul>
  10. 10. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>SOUTH AFRICA: </li></ul><ul><li>1795 -> Cape of Good Hope </li></ul><ul><li>British vs. Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>British went also northwards -> Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>Port for merchants going to India and Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Diamonds and gold discovered </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with the Boer </li></ul><ul><li>1803 -> Cape Town returned to Dutch </li></ul><ul><li>1806 -> Cape Town colony again to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Independence from UK -> 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>1961 -> Republic </li></ul>
  11. 11. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>WEST AND EAST AFRICA: </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies and protectorates </li></ul><ul><li>19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>West Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gambia, Sierra Leona, Ghana, Nigeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade, military base purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many slaves to America </li></ul></ul><ul><li>East Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya, Egypt, Sudan, Botswana, Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops, farms </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE <ul><li>After 1945 -> decolonisation of the British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth of Nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1931 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider the successor of the British Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolic head -> Queen Elizabeth II </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by former British colonies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  14. 14. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  15. 15. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  16. 16. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  17. 17. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
  18. 18. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE Map of the British Empire in 1921
  19. 19. EXPANSION OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE Commonwealth nowadays
  20. 20. SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE <ul><li>English imposed in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Language brought by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers, soldiers, merchants, administrators, missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education and Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Official or semi-official nowadays </li></ul><ul><li>Late-Modern English -> more words than previous </li></ul><ul><li>English borrowed many words </li></ul>
  21. 21. SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE <ul><li>USA -> 19 th century -> English established </li></ul><ul><li>Canada -> from 1880 on -> English arrived at Pacific Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Australia -> after Gold Rush (1851) </li></ul><ul><li>New Zealand -> 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa -> spoken by an important minority (civil servants, educators, financiers, military, trade, industry) </li></ul><ul><li>East and West Africa -> 19 th century </li></ul>
  22. 22. SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE <ul><li>Different dialects and regional varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Pidgins and Creole languages </li></ul><ul><li>Different accents </li></ul><ul><li>Loanwords (borrowed words from other languages) </li></ul>
  23. 23. SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE <ul><li>Barbecue, cannibal (Caribbean) </li></ul><ul><li>Bungalow, pyjamas, shampoo, bangle, bandana, cashmere, jungle, mandarin, nirvana (India) </li></ul><ul><li>Hickory, moccasin, moose, sequoia, toboggan, totem (American Indian languages) </li></ul><ul><li>Banana, Boer, gorilla, voodoo, zebra (Africa – directly from native languages or through Dutch and Portuguese) </li></ul><ul><li>Boomerang, kangaroo (Australia) </li></ul>
  24. 24. SPREAD OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE English-speaking world (Dark Blue = English spoken natively // Light Blue = Other places where English is official
  25. 25. CONCLUSION <ul><li>British Empire -> powerful and important </li></ul><ul><li>Former colonies still in contact </li></ul><ul><li>Some territories still under the rule of UK </li></ul><ul><li>The British Empire -> great influence for the world </li></ul><ul><li>English language expanded at the same time than British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>English still official or, at least, used nowadays </li></ul><ul><li>Different regional dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Language changes (loanwords) </li></ul>
  26. 26. BIBLIOGRAPHY <ul><li>Fisiak, J. An Outline History of English. Poznan: Kantor Wydawniczy Saww, 1995. </li></ul><ul><li>Gelderen, Elly van. A History of the English Language. John Benjamins Publishing Company: Amsterdam, 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, Robert. British Imperialism. Palgrave Macmillan: New York, 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://english-fans.tgim1.edusite.ru/p16aa1.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.anglik.net/englishlanguagehistory.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.white-history.com/hwr46.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.britishempire.co.uk/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ozedweb.com/history/oz_british_empire_growth.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ozedweb.com/history/oz_british_empire_growth.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia: “Commonwealth”, “British Empire”, “English-speaking world” </li></ul></ul>

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