Analysis of burnt bone:Discovering the circumstances of             burning
Why study burnt boneMany UsesUse of fire in prehistory, dietary and cooking  habits, animal sacrifices, migration and trad...
What are the Circumstances of burning•   Temperature•   Time•   Soft tissue•   Oxidation•   Other objects (metals)•   Loca...
Analysis techniques• Colour• Fracture patterns• Elemental analysis (ICP-MS/XRF)• Other analytical techniques (XRD,FTIR,  e...
Fracturing
Colour & TemperatureStage   Temperature range   Colour description                         Munsell                        ...
Colour & Metals• Characteristic colour for  each metal:e.g.• Bronze: Green/Blue• Iron: Red• Zinc: Yellow
Problems with colour analysis• Secondary change• Many confounding variables
External clues• The melting of another material with a known or  calculable melting point• E.g. Glass melts at 500°C to ov...
Elemental analysisUse:                    Examples:• Identification of     • XRF  compounds or elements • ICP-MS• Good at ...
Other analysisUses                        ExamplesDistinguishing burnt from   • XRD  unburnt                   • FTIRLooki...
XRD          NaCaPO4, CaO, MgO30   40                  50                   2-Theta - Scale
BibliographyShipman, P., Foster, G. and Schoeninger, M. (1984).  Burnt Bones and teeth: an experimental study of  colour, ...
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Analysis of burnt bone by Alison Nicholson Session 9 2012

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Analysis of burnt bone by Alison Nicholson Session 9 2012

  1. 1. Analysis of burnt bone:Discovering the circumstances of burning
  2. 2. Why study burnt boneMany UsesUse of fire in prehistory, dietary and cooking habits, animal sacrifices, migration and trade in life stock, firing of cities, cannibalism, witch executions and funerary practises2 Questions• What are the bones?• What are the circumstances of burning?
  3. 3. What are the Circumstances of burning• Temperature• Time• Soft tissue• Oxidation• Other objects (metals)• Location
  4. 4. Analysis techniques• Colour• Fracture patterns• Elemental analysis (ICP-MS/XRF)• Other analytical techniques (XRD,FTIR, electron microscopy)• Use of external clues
  5. 5. Fracturing
  6. 6. Colour & TemperatureStage Temperature range Colour description Munsell (dominant colour)1 20-285 °C Neutral white/ pale yellow 5Y 8/2, 10YR 8/42 285-525 Reddish brown, dark grey brown, neutral N 2.7 5/0 dark grey, reddish yellow 7.5YR 8/33 525-645 Neutral black, medium blue, some reddish 10YR 7/2 yellow4 645-940 Predominately neutral white, with light N 9/0 blue grey and light grey N9.5/05 940+ Neutral white with some medium grey and N9.5/0 reddish-yellow
  7. 7. Colour & Metals• Characteristic colour for each metal:e.g.• Bronze: Green/Blue• Iron: Red• Zinc: Yellow
  8. 8. Problems with colour analysis• Secondary change• Many confounding variables
  9. 9. External clues• The melting of another material with a known or calculable melting point• E.g. Glass melts at 500°C to over 2000°C depending on the type of glass
  10. 10. Elemental analysisUse: Examples:• Identification of • XRF compounds or elements • ICP-MS• Good at detecting staining- Metals/ minerals• Thermal decomposition
  11. 11. Other analysisUses ExamplesDistinguishing burnt from • XRD unburnt • FTIRLooking at the degree of • Electron Microscopy burning:• Recrystallization• Thermal decompositionPenetration of staining
  12. 12. XRD NaCaPO4, CaO, MgO30 40 50 2-Theta - Scale
  13. 13. BibliographyShipman, P., Foster, G. and Schoeninger, M. (1984). Burnt Bones and teeth: an experimental study of colour, morphology, crystal structure and shrinkage. Journal of archaeological science, 11, pp.307-325Harter, R.(2011). Piltdown man. http://home.tiac.net/~cri_a/piltdown/piltdown.htmlNicholson, A.(2011). The effect of multiple burning on bone mineral
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