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Roman City dig, session 9, 2012: Nutrition in the Ancient World, by Kristin Donner


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Roman City dig, session 9, 2012: Nutrition in the Ancient World, by Kristin Donner

  1. 1.  Nutritional Remains Pottery  Cooking  Transport and Storage Art Literature Cook Books Roman Meal Structure Sample Menu  Plebeian Dinner Format  Aristocratic Dinner Format
  2. 2. Legio XV in Pram, AustriaExcavations provide evidence Scientific analysis of bones & shells indicates animals consumed Seed deposits provide evidence for fruits eaten Preserved food (Pompeii) presents unparalleled evidence Proximity of cooking equipment indicates preparation practices
  3. 3. R.E. Common Ware Coarse Wares & Common Wares Kitchen Ware from Ibiza  Locally made pottery 3rd-7th century AD  Plain, unglazed earthenware vessels Soft, chalky texture  Color variation according to clay and Beige, yellowish color fabric firing methods Either plain or incised decorations  Big temper particles in fabric  Commonly supplied to militaryAfrican Cooking Cooking pots from North Africa Mortaria 2nd-5th century AD  Mortars used for food prep Hard, red fabric  Strong bowls with a flange (for Ash/smoked effect on the rims gripping) and spout Concentric circles  Grit (trituration) on the interior face for strength and textureItalian Ware Kitchen Ware from Italy Pyroxene temper particles Thicker, rougher fabric
  4. 4. Amphorae in the Ecomuseo, Sanisera Amphorae fragment uneathed by Julia Cleary Amphorae  Used for transportation of liquids  Typically wide at girth, narrow at neck  Two handles near the mouth  Often feature a spike at base, for shipping ease
  5. 5. Food, tableware, cookware and food commerce memorialized in… Still-life wall paintings Mosaics Art from the House of Julia Felix
  6. 6. Surviving literature Pliny the Younger – Writer Pliny the Elder – Naturalist Galen – Physician Petronius – Satirist Pliny the Younger Cicero – Statesman Cato the Elder – Agricultural Writer Athenaeus of Naukratis – Writer
  7. 7. Apicius ManuscriptWell-known recipe books Apicius – 4th-5th century AD – De Re Coquinaria Columell – 50 AD – De Re Rustica
  8. 8. Painting from Pompeii Early Rome Late Rome• Breakfast ientaculum ientaculum• Lunch cena prandium• Dinner vesperna cena
  9. 9.  Cena Beverage: Wine to Drink with the Meal, Wine to Water Ratio 1:2, 1:3 or 1:4 Prima Mensa: Vegetable Porridge, Bread (Fish, Meat, Olives on Occasion) Secunda Mensa: (Fruit on Occasion)
  10. 10.  Apperitif: Wine to Stimulate Appetite Cena Beverage: Wine to Drink with the Meal, Wine to Water Ratio 1:2, 1:3 or 1:4 Gustatio or Promulsis: Raw Vegetables, Salad, Eggs, Fish or Shell Fish Prima Mensa: Cooked Vegetables, Meats Secunda Mensa: Fruit, Sweet Pastries Comissatio: Final Wine Course
  11. 11. Ssolgergj. SPQR Banner. Vexilloid of the Roman Empire. 20 June 2008. 28 October 2012. No. 1.“Roman Republic Empire Map”. 27 October 2012. Slide No. 2.“Still Life Showing Eggs, Thrushes, Napkin; House of Julia Felix, Pompeii”. 23 October 2012. Slide No. 7.“Sale of bread at a market stall”. Roman fresco from the Praedia of Julia Felix in Pompeii. 12 March 2009. Slide No. 7.N.S. Gill. “What Did the Romans Eat?”. WGBH. PBS Online. 23 October 2012. Slide No. 8.Wolfgang Sauber. “Pliny the Younger”. Dom S. Maria Maggiore in Como. Fassade: Statue Plinius des Jungerenvon Tommaso und Jacobo Rodari. 14 July 2006. 27 October 2012. Slide No. 8-9.“Apicius”. 21 October 2012. Slide No. 9.“Apicius handwriting” (ca. 900 AC). New York Academy of Medicine. 23 October 2012. No. 9.
  12. 12. N.S. Gill. “Foods of the Classical World. What We Know About What the Ancients Ate and Drank”. WGBH.PBS Online. 23 October 2012. Slide No. 10. Slide No. 10.Andrew Dalby.“Painting from Pompeii, now in the Museo Archaeologico Nazionale, showing a banquet or familyceremony”. Originally from Great Treasures of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Abbeville, 1978. Sourced from Slide No. 10.Lesley Adkins and Roy A. Adkins. “Everyday Life. Food And Drink”. Handbook To Life In Ancient Rome. New York, 1994.Oxford University Press. Pages 342-343. Slide No. 10-15. Slide No. 11.“Preferred Ancient Roman Wines”. WGBH. PBS Online. 21 October 2012. No. 11-12. Slide No. 12. Slide No. 12.Carla Raimer. “Ancient Roman Recipes”. WGBH. PBS Online. 01 November 2000. 23 October 2012. Slides No. 13-15.