Prof. Mark EmmersonThe effects of environmental context on biodiversity in  agro-ecosystems: managing for biodiversity and...
Sectoral Impacts on Biodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesWP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Function...
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning           Food?                                    ...
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning  Conventional crops                      Novel Bioe...
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning                                              Novel ...
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning  Conventional crops                                ...
The role of Energy Crops in landscapes.Source or refuge for Biodiversity   Sink for Biodiversity
The experimental design and sampling effort for studying the              Valuation of Ecosystem Services                n...
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning•     Quantify the effects of novel energy crops on ...
The experimental design and sampling effort for studying the              Experimental Design                natural enemy...
Study Area                                     Counties:                                      Wexford                     ...
Pollination services                             Dara Stanley                                                    TCD• How ...
Pollination services                             Dara Stanley                                                             ...
Erin O’RourkeBiocontrol services                                 UCC• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of natura...
Erin O’Rourke                 Biocontrol services                                  UCC                 • How do energy cro...
Rosalyn ThompsonProduction services                                     UCC• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of...
Rosalyn Thompson              Production services                                                    UCC   • How do energy...
Information to inform policy•   Different energy crops affect components of biodiversity differently.•   We can account fo...
AcknowledgementsAll PhD students and Post Doctoral Researchers working on                      SIMBIOSYS.          Many Fa...
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The effects of environmnetal context on biodiversity in agro-ecosystems: managing for biodiversity and ecosystem services - Mark Emmerson

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The effects of environmnetal context on biodiversity in agro-ecosystems: managing for biodiversity and ecosystem services - Mark Emmerson

  1. 1. Prof. Mark EmmersonThe effects of environmental context on biodiversity in agro-ecosystems: managing for biodiversity and ecosystem services. WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
  2. 2. Sectoral Impacts on Biodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesWP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem FunctioningWP1 Project Team Dara Stanley Lisa Dolan WP1 & 2 Mark Emmerson Pollinators Research Assistant Biocontrol QUB Jesko Zimmerman Florence Hecq WP1 Jane Stout Research Assistant Pollination Carbon sequestration TCD Erin O’Rourke Jens Dauber Padraig Whelan Biocontrol Project Manager Invasions UCC Rosalyn Thompson David Bourke Mike Jones Invasion resistance Project Manager Carbon sequestration TCD ~20 Graduate and Undergraduate Research Assistants
  3. 3. WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Food? Fuel?
  4. 4. WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Conventional crops Novel Bioenergy Crop
  5. 5. WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Novel Bioenergy Crop Novel Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus x giganteus•High dry weight annual yield (25t/h).•Rhizomatous perennial grass with a C4photosynthesis pathway.•Originates in Asia.•Adapted to temperate climates.•Introduction subsidised in Ireland.
  6. 6. WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Conventional crops Conventional Crops •Oilseed rape •Conventional winter wheat •Conventional pasture Provide reference controls against which to compare the effects of planting Miscanthus x giganteus.
  7. 7. The role of Energy Crops in landscapes.Source or refuge for Biodiversity Sink for Biodiversity
  8. 8. The experimental design and sampling effort for studying the Valuation of Ecosystem Services natural enemy biodiversity of bioenergy crops.Pollinators €535 Million UK EconomyEnemiesNatural €3.6 Billion US EconomyArablePlants ?Unknown?Carbon Seq. €847 Million UK Economy NEA (2011), Power (2010)
  9. 9. WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning• Quantify the effects of novel energy crops on the biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems (O’Rourke et al., Stanley et al., Emmerson et al.)• Define the relationship between biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem services in agricultural systems (Emmerson et al.)• Assess impacts of high and low intensity energy crop farming on diversity. (O’Rourke et al.)• Document landscape scale effects of intensification on biodiversity in energy crops. (Bourke et al.)
  10. 10. The experimental design and sampling effort for studying the Experimental Design natural enemy biodiversity of bioenergy crops. CROP TYPE Carbon Sequestration MT MG OSR CT CG EDGE MARGIN CENTREpollinators Arable Plants Natural Enemies
  11. 11. Study Area Counties: Wexford Kilkenny Conventional Grass Miscanthus on Tillage Carlow Miscanthus on Grass Waterford Winter Oilseed Rape Tipperary Conventional Tillage Cork
  12. 12. Pollination services Dara Stanley TCD• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of pollinators? c 20 b,c Species Richness b b 15 a,b 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 MG CG MT CT OSR Crop Type
  13. 13. Pollination services Dara Stanley TCD • How do energy crops affect the Biodiversity of pollinators? 6.0 MT MG 5.8 OSR CT CG 5.6Pollination Potential 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 log10(Species Richness)
  14. 14. Erin O’RourkeBiocontrol services UCC• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of natural enemies? 20 Species Richness b a,b 15 a a a 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 MG CG MT CT OSR Crop Type
  15. 15. Erin O’Rourke Biocontrol services UCC • How do energy crops affect the Biodiversity of natural enemies? 1.5 MT MG 1.0 OSR CT CG) 0.50.75Consumption (M 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 log10(Species Richness)
  16. 16. Rosalyn ThompsonProduction services UCC• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of arable plants? b b b 30 b Species Richness 25 20 a 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 MG CG MT CT OSR Crop Type
  17. 17. Rosalyn Thompson Production services UCC • How do energy crops affect the Biodiversity of arable plants? 3.2 MT MG OS CT CG 3.0log 10 (Percent Cover) 2.8 2.6 2.4 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Log10log10(Species Richness) (Species Richness)
  18. 18. Information to inform policy• Different energy crops affect components of biodiversity differently.• We can account for these context dependencies.• Manage for directly for biodiversity and you manage for the delivery of associated ecosystem services indirectly.• Information to inform composition of bioenergy crops that maximise biodiversity.• Diversity of crop types at the landscape scale has positive effects on landscape diversity.
  19. 19. AcknowledgementsAll PhD students and Post Doctoral Researchers working on SIMBIOSYS. Many Farmers that enabled the work. Funders: EPA

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