The effects of environmnetal context on biodiversity in agro-ecosystems: managing for biodiversity and ecosystem services - Mark Emmerson
Prof. Mark EmmersonThe effects of environmental context on biodiversity in agro-ecosystems: managing for biodiversity and ecosystem services. WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning
Sectoral Impacts on Biodiversity and Ecosystem ServicesWP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem FunctioningWP1 Project Team Dara Stanley Lisa Dolan WP1 & 2 Mark Emmerson Pollinators Research Assistant Biocontrol QUB Jesko Zimmerman Florence Hecq WP1 Jane Stout Research Assistant Pollination Carbon sequestration TCD Erin O’Rourke Jens Dauber Padraig Whelan Biocontrol Project Manager Invasions UCC Rosalyn Thompson David Bourke Mike Jones Invasion resistance Project Manager Carbon sequestration TCD ~20 Graduate and Undergraduate Research Assistants
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Food? Fuel?
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Conventional crops Novel Bioenergy Crop
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Novel Bioenergy Crop Novel Bioenergy Crop Miscanthus x giganteus•High dry weight annual yield (25t/h).•Rhizomatous perennial grass with a C4photosynthesis pathway.•Originates in Asia.•Adapted to temperate climates.•Introduction subsidised in Ireland.
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Conventional crops Conventional Crops •Oilseed rape •Conventional winter wheat •Conventional pasture Provide reference controls against which to compare the effects of planting Miscanthus x giganteus.
The role of Energy Crops in landscapes.Source or refuge for Biodiversity Sink for Biodiversity
The experimental design and sampling effort for studying the Valuation of Ecosystem Services natural enemy biodiversity of bioenergy crops.Pollinators €535 Million UK EconomyEnemiesNatural €3.6 Billion US EconomyArablePlants ?Unknown?Carbon Seq. €847 Million UK Economy NEA (2011), Power (2010)
WP1. Impacts of Energy Crops on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning• Quantify the effects of novel energy crops on the biodiversity of agricultural ecosystems (O’Rourke et al., Stanley et al., Emmerson et al.)• Define the relationship between biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem services in agricultural systems (Emmerson et al.)• Assess impacts of high and low intensity energy crop farming on diversity. (O’Rourke et al.)• Document landscape scale effects of intensification on biodiversity in energy crops. (Bourke et al.)
The experimental design and sampling effort for studying the Experimental Design natural enemy biodiversity of bioenergy crops. CROP TYPE Carbon Sequestration MT MG OSR CT CG EDGE MARGIN CENTREpollinators Arable Plants Natural Enemies
Study Area Counties: Wexford Kilkenny Conventional Grass Miscanthus on Tillage Carlow Miscanthus on Grass Waterford Winter Oilseed Rape Tipperary Conventional Tillage Cork
Pollination services Dara Stanley TCD• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of pollinators? c 20 b,c Species Richness b b 15 a,b 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 MG CG MT CT OSR Crop Type
Pollination services Dara Stanley TCD • How do energy crops affect the Biodiversity of pollinators? 6.0 MT MG 5.8 OSR CT CG 5.6Pollination Potential 5.4 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.6 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 log10(Species Richness)
Erin O’RourkeBiocontrol services UCC• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of natural enemies? 20 Species Richness b a,b 15 a a a 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 MG CG MT CT OSR Crop Type
Erin O’Rourke Biocontrol services UCC • How do energy crops affect the Biodiversity of natural enemies? 1.5 MT MG 1.0 OSR CT CG) 0.50.75Consumption (M 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 log10(Species Richness)
Rosalyn ThompsonProduction services UCC• How do energy crops affect theBiodiversity of arable plants? b b b 30 b Species Richness 25 20 a 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 MG CG MT CT OSR Crop Type
Rosalyn Thompson Production services UCC • How do energy crops affect the Biodiversity of arable plants? 3.2 MT MG OS CT CG 3.0log 10 (Percent Cover) 2.8 2.6 2.4 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Log10log10(Species Richness) (Species Richness)
Information to inform policy• Different energy crops affect components of biodiversity differently.• We can account for these context dependencies.• Manage for directly for biodiversity and you manage for the delivery of associated ecosystem services indirectly.• Information to inform composition of bioenergy crops that maximise biodiversity.• Diversity of crop types at the landscape scale has positive effects on landscape diversity.
AcknowledgementsAll PhD students and Post Doctoral Researchers working on SIMBIOSYS. Many Farmers that enabled the work. Funders: EPA
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