Prof. Cristos Xiloyannis DiCEM- Università degli Studi della Basilicata   TECNICHE SOSTENIBILI PER LARIDUZIONE DELLA CARBO...
Free carbon* supplies on the Earth                 (G tons) Lal, 1997; Zucconi 1999) Hydrosphere                        Pl...
Annual global carbon emissions during the past 50 years      (billions metric tons per year)8                             ...
Background: Agriculture causing Climate Change • Agriculture is responsible for almost   half of all human-related CH4 and...
Background: Agriculture-related GHG Emitting Activities  25% of total GHG emissions in  2004         Source: Smith, et al....
Background: Agriculture-related GHG EmittingActivities  25% of total GHG emissions             Agriculture & forest activi...
The potential role of agriculture in mitigating climatechange                                              • Agriculture i...
What is Climate-SmartAgriculture? CSA is agriculture that  • increases yields (poverty reduction &    food security),  • m...
% Sostanza                                 Inizio della   Organica                                 coltivazione     4,5   ...
CO2 Emission in Italy (Source: EEA 2004)(Total annual 580.7 Mt)Industry                            50.6%Urban (Transport, ...
…in ITALY     Actual eqCO2 emissions      (580.7 Mt year-1 at 2004)                                  “distance from Kyoto”...
La diminuzione annuale dello 0,1% diSOC nei suoli agricoli in Italia,corrisponde a 275 Mt di CO2. Circametà delle emission...
Soil fertilityOrganic matter in South Italy0,8 - 1,3%
Sostenibile                            convenzionale                         Soil managementCompost (15 t ha-1)Mineral N i...
t/ha C    t/ha CO2                                        15.07                                4.11compost (%P.S)   Humidi...
Produzione Rifiuti Urbani in ITALIA (t anno-1) x 1000        (fonte ONR - APAT)340003200030000280002600024000        1996 ...
Raccolta differenziata (RD) anno 2004 (fonte ONR - APAT)45%40%                L’aumento della RD riduce lo smaltimento in ...
…la matrice organica da rifiuto a risorsa (fonte CIC)
cost for unit of fertilizzer in the compostunità fertilizzantidistribuite con il      N          P          K       total ...
limit C outputReduction of natural CO2 emissions from soil         heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration soil wat...
effect of soil water availability
Davidson, 1998Hanson et al., 2000; Raich et al.,2000;                                          Water ContentSmith et al., ...
….. Carbon balance into the soil                                         CO2 = DM × 0,45 × 3,67                           ...
mean (2001-2008) Annual Net Primary Productivity (CO2eq, t ha-1 year-1)       Net Primary Productivity                    ...
CO2eq emissions and stock variations in the 2 systems                                       Sustainable      Conventional ...
CO2 Balance in the Orchard        Sustainable                           Conventional   Oil yield 1552 Kg                  ...
Kg of CO2 per L of Extra Vergin Oil                       Sustain.       Conven.CO2 in orchard          -8.62          +17...
The increase of carbon in the soil of olive trees: 2000-2006 (sustainable management without compost).  Carbonio Organico ...
CO2 Balance in a Mature Peach Orchard    -180    -160    -140    -120    -100fi    2            s                -80       ...
CARBON FOOTPRINT                                                         Sustainable     Conventional      FIELD (Material...
To increase the Carbon content in the soil of one hectareof orchard (30 cm depth) from 1% to 2% are necessaryabout 10 year...
Carbon accumulated in plant structures:                                    12- 20 t ha-1 Carbon                           ...
Generi più rappresentati (sono di più nel sistema sostenibile, alcuni producono              glomalina)                 So...
Maggior numero di funghi (e anche   di batteri, non mostrati qui) nelsistema sostenibile (diluizione 10-2)                ...
…….as intestinal flora for humans……………
roots with ifes and spores of glomus intraradices (10 X).
….economic advantage?   Sustainable                                         CO                           Conventional     ...
SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT ANDsoil water holding capacity
sustainable                                            Inerbito                                                           ...
Ksat (Guelph)       Ksat class                           (mm d-1)      (Rossi Pisa, 1997)Sustainable (confined)       160 ...
ETo - Precipitazioni (mm)                     200                                                                deficit =...
Soil Water Content – SWC (mm)                       TOP POSITION                   29-03-2007             31-03-2008Soil  ...
S. Giuliano’s Dam
…..soil management    Was it only a rainfall intensity                      effect ?????
Domanda mondiale di acqua nei diversi settori  domestico        36   industria             180  agricoltura               ...
Water footprint per capita                              3000                                             Domestic water co...
The water footprint componentsGreen water footprint► volume of rainwater evapotranspirated orincorporated into product.Blu...
- Risorsa limitata????- Aumento domanda settore agricolo e di altri settori- Incremento popolazione ……                    ...
annual
rainfall
–
400-500
mm,
water
deficitwater footprint (blue)                       800-1000
mm/year,
drip
irrigation ...
Deficit annuale                            Metapontino 250                                              (media 20 anni)   ...
“water cost” (blue component) to produce oneKg of peaches in South and North Italy.              yield                    ...
“Water Foot-Print”   150-250            L/kg(early – late ripening)
m3/ha                LEAVES                  19.0                FRUITS                  16.8   WINTER PRUNNING           ...
L’acqua evapotraspirata dal pescheto entra nelciclo dell’acqua…..                ??                …..ritornerà allo stess...
Efficienza di distribuzione dell’acqua nei varimetodi irriguisommersione             45%infiltrazione           55-75 %asp...
ETc = (Kc * ETo)/ efficienza metodo**Oscilla da 0,5 a 0,95 in piena produzione
Regione BasilicataDelibera 2359/2001“Miglioramento dell’efficienzadei sistemi irrigui”conversione verso sistemi irrigui am...
WUE media giornaliera in chiomeintere di piante di pesco.                                  Y trasversale  O)              ...
Ottimizzazione ed Applicazione stress idrico controllatoDal germogliamento              Periodo post raccoltaalla raccolta...
12.000                                          pioggia media 1999-2000=m3 1.017          10.000                          ...
Marketable Yield value (€)                                                        EWUE =                                  ...
Consorzio di Bonifica Bradano e Metaponto                       TARIFFE MEDIEQUOTA FISSA (area ionica):                   ...
….a superficie   ….a volumi
Elementi minerali apportati kg ha-1 con l’acqua d’irrigazione (7.000 m3 ha-1) di pozzi della Val d’Agri              1 ann...
PARTICOLARE DEL PRELIEVO DEI CAMPIONI
SITE 1 .…soil conductivity under the emitter       before beginning irrigation and at the end of irrigation season        ...
Water sources for agriculture in            Israel1989   1990 1992 1995 1998 2001 2005 2010
University of   University of     Italian Society of    Basilicata       Palermo       Horticultural Science           VII...
Il gruppo di lavoro:C. XiloyannisB. DichioV. NuzzoG. CelanoG. MontanaroG. TataranniA. SofoA. PaleseE. LardoA. MininniA. Tu...
Total and per capita CO2 emissions in various country(source: UNFCCC, EEA, DIW Berlin)                       Total emissio...
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012
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Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012

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24imo Forum di Medicina Vegetale - Bari, 13 dicembre 2012. Per saperne di più, leggi i reportage su Agronotizie:
• http://agronotizie.imagelinenetwork.com/difesa-e-diserbo/2012/12/20/la-medicina-vegetale-incontra-il-clima/17020
• http://agronotizie.imagelinenetwork.com/difesa-e-diserbo/2012/12/20/alieni-diserbi-e-normative/17022
• http://agronotizie.imagelinenetwork.com/difesa-e-diserbo/2012/12/20/pubblico-chiama-privato-risponde/17021

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Cristos Xyloiannis-fmv-bari-2012

  1. 1. Prof. Cristos Xiloyannis DiCEM- Università degli Studi della Basilicata TECNICHE SOSTENIBILI PER LARIDUZIONE DELLA CARBON E WATER FOOTPRINT
  2. 2. Free carbon* supplies on the Earth (G tons) Lal, 1997; Zucconi 1999) Hydrosphere Plants Fungi 39 x 10 3 0.43 x 103 78.2% 93.2% Animals Protozoa Bacteria 0.12 x 103 21.8% Atmosphere 0.75 x 10 3 Biosphere Pedosphere 1.8% 0.55 x 10 3 1.55 x 10 3 1.3% 3.7%* (except for sedimentary carbonates and fossil fuels)
  3. 3. Annual global carbon emissions during the past 50 years (billions metric tons per year)8 380 ppm7 Atmosphere CO2 36065 3404 32032 2801 1957 today Source: National Geographic. Oct 2007 - IPCC
  4. 4. Background: Agriculture causing Climate Change • Agriculture is responsible for almost half of all human-related CH4 and N2O emissions • By 2030, these annual emissions are projected to substantially increase – N2O up by 35-60% – CH4 up by 60% Source:IPCC, 2007
  5. 5. Background: Agriculture-related GHG Emitting Activities 25% of total GHG emissions in 2004 Source: Smith, et al., 2007
  6. 6. Background: Agriculture-related GHG EmittingActivities 25% of total GHG emissions Agriculture & forest activities contributing to climate change in 2004 Source: Smith, et al., 2007 Smith, et al. 2007 DB Research 2011
  7. 7. The potential role of agriculture in mitigating climatechange • Agriculture is expected to contribute 18% of total GHG emission reductions Other • Together with better forest management, the two sources are Sources of expected GHG emission 33% of the total reductions abatement potential Source: Smith, et al., 2007.
  8. 8. What is Climate-SmartAgriculture? CSA is agriculture that • increases yields (poverty reduction & food security), • makes yields more resilient in the face of worsening weather conditions (adaptation), and • transforms the farm into a solution to the climate change problem (mitigation). (World Bank , 2012)
  9. 9. % Sostanza Inizio della Organica coltivazione 4,5 3,8 Gestione Gestione convenzionale sostenibile 3.2 Frazione Inversione della SO della tendenza labile 2.6 Frazione della SO duratura 1.9 0 20 40 60 80 Anni dall’inizio della coltivazioneRielaborato da WBGU Special Report:The Accounting of Biological Sinks and Sources Under the Kyoto Protocol
  10. 10. CO2 Emission in Italy (Source: EEA 2004)(Total annual 580.7 Mt)Industry 50.6%Urban (Transport, waste + Other ) 40.0%Agriculture 9.4%
  11. 11. …in ITALY Actual eqCO2 emissions (580.7 Mt year-1 at 2004) “distance from Kyoto” (95 Mt anno-1 eqCO2) maximum eqCO2 permitted (485.7 Mt year-1)
  12. 12. La diminuzione annuale dello 0,1% diSOC nei suoli agricoli in Italia,corrisponde a 275 Mt di CO2. Circametà delle emissioni annue totali diCO2 (580 Mt) dell’intero Paese
  13. 13. Soil fertilityOrganic matter in South Italy0,8 - 1,3%
  14. 14. Sostenibile convenzionale Soil managementCompost (15 t ha-1)Mineral N if necessary Fertilization Mineral fertilizers Pruning material
  15. 15. t/ha C t/ha CO2 15.07 4.11compost (%P.S) Humidity % 24.8 pH 7.98 N (total) % 1.52Carbon organ. % 33.8Organic matter % 58.27 Humus % 10.4 C/N 22.2 P2O5 % 0.68 K2O % 1.4
  16. 16. Produzione Rifiuti Urbani in ITALIA (t anno-1) x 1000 (fonte ONR - APAT)340003200030000280002600024000 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006
  17. 17. Raccolta differenziata (RD) anno 2004 (fonte ONR - APAT)45%40% L’aumento della RD riduce lo smaltimento in discarica….35% RECUPERARE LA MATRICE ORGANICA!30%25%20%15%10%5% Emilia Romagna0% Val DAosta Lombardia Campania Basilicata Sardegna Piemonte Abruzzo Calabria Toscana Marche Veneto Molise Liguria Sicilia Puglia Umbri Lazio Friuli Trentino
  18. 18. …la matrice organica da rifiuto a risorsa (fonte CIC)
  19. 19. cost for unit of fertilizzer in the compostunità fertilizzantidistribuite con il N P K total average cost compost 228 33,8 130,8 392,6 N P2O5 K20 total compost € 67,95 € 10,07 € 38,98 € 117,00 € 0,30Mineral fertilizers € 310,22 € 158,81 € 76,11 € 545,14 € 1,39 The cost of the Compost is 7.8 €/t Se si considera il costo di trasporto (Veneto) il costo per unità fertilizzante arriva ad 1,67euro
  20. 20. limit C outputReduction of natural CO2 emissions from soil heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration soil water availability factors which affect soil temperatures soil respiration soil microbiological fertility
  21. 21. effect of soil water availability
  22. 22. Davidson, 1998Hanson et al., 2000; Raich et al.,2000; Water ContentSmith et al., 2003; Ryan et al., 2005; TemperatureHuang et al., 2005; Cook et al., Root Density2008; Growing SeasonLongdoz et al., 2000; Qiao et al., Microbial biomass2009;Granli e Steinkamp et al., 2001.
  23. 23. ….. Carbon balance into the soil CO2 = DM × 0,45 × 3,67 (Norby et al., 2004) Carbon Input Net Carbon allocated in soil Carbon output (respiration roots e microbics) suolo Critical point to measure
  24. 24. mean (2001-2008) Annual Net Primary Productivity (CO2eq, t ha-1 year-1) Net Primary Productivity Sustainable Conventional (NPP) System System CO2eq (t ha-1 year-1) Above Ground NPP 28.38 11.03 Yield 9.06 3.99 Olive permanent structures 1 0.60 0.60 Pruning material 6.11 4.84 Senescent leaves 2 1.60 1.60 Spontaneous vegetation 11.01 - epigean biomass Below Ground NPP 10.43 5.51 Olive root biomass 3 7.68 5.51 Spontaneous vegetation root 2.75 - biomass 4 Total NPP -38.81 -16.55 1 calculated according to Almagro et al. (2010). 2 estimated according to Sofo et al. (2005). 3 estimated as the 50% of the annual biomass production of olive trees (Cannell, 1985). 4 estimated as 20% of the above-ground part (Celano et al., 2003).
  25. 25. CO2eq emissions and stock variations in the 2 systems Sustainable Conventional System System CO2eq (t ha-1 year-1) Total emissions +25.42 +27.37 Anthropogenic +2.42 +1.53 Fertilizers, pesticides Farm operations and transport Pruning residues burning - +4.84 Soil respiration1 +23.00 +21.00 Total NPP - 38.81 - 16.55 Difference -13.39 +10.821elaborated from data reported by Almagro et al. (2009) and Testi et al. (2008)
  26. 26. CO2 Balance in the Orchard Sustainable Conventional Oil yield 1552 Kg Oil yield 672 Kg-8.62 Kg CO2 equivalent/Kg oil +17.59 Kg CO2 equivalent/Kg oil
  27. 27. Kg of CO2 per L of Extra Vergin Oil Sustain. Conven.CO2 in orchard -8.62 +17.59CO2 in Mill +0.13 +0.13Packing +1.81 +1.81Balance -6.68 +19.53
  28. 28. The increase of carbon in the soil of olive trees: 2000-2006 (sustainable management without compost). Carbonio Organico (%) 2006 2.0 1.5 2000 1.0 0.5 Equivalent of about…. 0.0 61 t ha-1 of CO2 0-5 cm 1 2 5-10 cm 10-30 cm 3 4 30-60 cm In the top 30 cm of soil
  29. 29. CO2 Balance in a Mature Peach Orchard -180 -160 -140 -120 -100fi 2 s -80 s a t o -60 -40 -20t / h a d i C O 0 +20 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 +40 Sustainable Conventional
  30. 30. CARBON FOOTPRINT Sustainable Conventional FIELD (Materials & Machines) 0.63 0.84 Fertilizers, Oils, Human labour, Steel, Iron, Wood, Pesticides, Irrigation. Plant/soil C-BALANCE - 1.31 2.05 Soil Respiration, Cover Crops, Pruning material, Production, Compost, etc. Winery Phase Water, Chemical products, Steel, Manpower, 0,13 0,13 Energy, Fermentation. Packing Phase 1,02 1,02 Glass, Cork, Paper, Aluminum, Glue, Labor, Energy. Distribution 0,44 0,44 From Italy to Germany Kg CO2 bottle-1 0.91 4.48 (9500 bottles, 0.75 L) - 80 %
  31. 31. To increase the Carbon content in the soil of one hectareof orchard (30 cm depth) from 1% to 2% are necessaryabout 10 years and the soil will fix about 15 t ha-1 year-1 ofCO2
  32. 32. Carbon accumulated in plant structures: 12- 20 t ha-1 Carbon (45-75 t ha-1 CO2) In 15 years
  33. 33. Generi più rappresentati (sono di più nel sistema sostenibile, alcuni producono glomalina) Sostenibile Convenzionale Aspergillus Aspergillus Streptomices Mucor Phaeoacremonium Penicillium Armillaria Cladosporium Rosellinia Mucor Acremonium Cladosporium Alternaria Phaeoacremonium Rosellinia Phyalophora Cylindrocarpon Microdochium
  34. 34. Maggior numero di funghi (e anche di batteri, non mostrati qui) nelsistema sostenibile (diluizione 10-2) Sostenibile Convenzionale
  35. 35. …….as intestinal flora for humans……………
  36. 36. roots with ifes and spores of glomus intraradices (10 X).
  37. 37. ….economic advantage? Sustainable CO Conventional C C 2 CO CO O2 O2 2 2 CO CO 2 2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 ???? Euro per t CO2
  38. 38. SUSTAINABLE SOIL MANAGEMENT ANDsoil water holding capacity
  39. 39. sustainable Inerbito 0-10 cm 0-10 a a profondità (cm) 10-20Depth cm Regolari 20-30 a Irregolari Allungati 30-40 a 40-50 a 10-20 cm 0 2 4 Lavorato 8 6 10 12 Macroporosità (% ) 0-10 a b profondità (cm) 10-20Depth cm Regolari 0-10 cm 20-30 b Irregolari Allungati 30-40 b 40-50 ab 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 10-20 cm Macroporosità (%) Macroporosity %
  40. 40. Ksat (Guelph) Ksat class (mm d-1) (Rossi Pisa, 1997)Sustainable (confined) 160 medium-lowConventional 13 very low(confined)
  41. 41. ETo - Precipitazioni (mm) 200 deficit = 855 mm 160 120 80 ET0 40 precipitazioni 0 apr giu ago ott dic feb mesi dellanno Massimizzare l’immagazzinamento delle acque meteoriche nel suolo esplorato dalle radici
  42. 42. Soil Water Content – SWC (mm) TOP POSITION 29-03-2007 31-03-2008Soil SS CS Δ SS CS Δlayer (cm)0-50 108.6 85.6 23.0 110.9 102.1 8.850-100 115.7 59.2 56.5 110.0 91.2 18.8100-150 104.3 39.0 65.3 111.1 90.3 20.8150-200 80.1 39.0 41.1 110.1 80.9 29.1total 0-200 408.7 222.8 185.9 442.0 364.5 77.5SS: Sustainable SystemCS: Conventional System
  43. 43. S. Giuliano’s Dam
  44. 44. …..soil management Was it only a rainfall intensity effect ?????
  45. 45. Domanda mondiale di acqua nei diversi settori domestico 36 industria 180 agricoltura 800 0 200 400 600 800 1000 m3/persona/anno (Thames Water)
  46. 46. Water footprint per capita 3000 Domestic water consumption Industrial goods Agricultural goods 2500Water footprint (m /cap/yr) 20003 1500 Global average water footprint 1000 500 0 Thailand Pakistan Mexico Indonesia Russia USA Nigeria China Japan Brazil India Italy [Hoekstra & Chapagain, 2008]
  47. 47. The water footprint componentsGreen water footprint► volume of rainwater evapotranspirated orincorporated into product.Blue water footprint► volume of surface orgroundwater evapotranspirated,incorporated into productor returned to other catchment or the sea.Grey water footprint► volume of polluted water.
  48. 48. - Risorsa limitata????- Aumento domanda settore agricolo e di altri settori- Incremento popolazione …… 70% Agricoltura 30% industria, civile
  49. 49. annual
rainfall
–
400-500
mm,
water
deficitwater footprint (blue) 800-1000
mm/year,
drip
irrigation species irrigation yield H2O/Kg H2O/ volume t/ha fresh liter of m3/ha weight product olive 1000 4 250 1515 (traditional) olive 3000 8 380 2273 (high density) olive (super 5000 10 500 3030 high-density) grapevine (wine) 1000 10 100 143 peach 5000 25 200 - apricot 3000 20 150 - kiwi 8000 40 200 -
  50. 50. Deficit annuale Metapontino 250 (media 20 anni) 850 mm 200 fonte: Reg. Basilicata 150 100 50mm 0 ETo 250 200 Deficit annuale Pioggia 158 mm Cesenate 150 (media 10 anni) 100 fonte: Cons. Bonif. Canale Emiliano Romagnolo 50 0 gen mar mag lug set nov
  51. 51. “water cost” (blue component) to produce oneKg of peaches in South and North Italy. yield Irrigation Liters 2 O H Liters H 2O Water cons. m3 ha-1 Kg of irrigation -1 t ha m3 ha-1 peaches of kg peach Springlady South 20 6.000 5.000 300 250 North 20 3.000 1.182 150 59 Fayette South 30 8.000 7.000 267 233 North 30 4.000 2.339 133 78
  52. 52. “Water Foot-Print” 150-250 L/kg(early – late ripening)
  53. 53. m3/ha LEAVES 19.0 FRUITS 16.8 WINTER PRUNNING 1.7 SUMMER PRUNNING 1.9 total (m3) 39.4 <1% of distributed waterYIELD 20 t ha-1,Irrigation volume 4000 m3 ha-1
  54. 54. L’acqua evapotraspirata dal pescheto entra nelciclo dell’acqua….. ?? …..ritornerà allo stesso suolo???
  55. 55. Efficienza di distribuzione dell’acqua nei varimetodi irriguisommersione 45%infiltrazione 55-75 %aspersione 65-75%microirrigazione 90-95%
  56. 56. ETc = (Kc * ETo)/ efficienza metodo**Oscilla da 0,5 a 0,95 in piena produzione
  57. 57. Regione BasilicataDelibera 2359/2001“Miglioramento dell’efficienzadei sistemi irrigui”conversione verso sistemi irrigui amicroportata, realizzazione vasche,sostituzione tubazioni adduttrici fatiscenti
  58. 58. WUE media giornaliera in chiomeintere di piante di pesco. Y trasversale O) 9 2 8 vasetto /mg H 7 palmetta 6 WUE (mg CO 2 5 4 3 Rielaborata da Giuliani et al.
  59. 59. Ottimizzazione ed Applicazione stress idrico controllatoDal germogliamento Periodo post raccoltaalla raccolta 100% ETc Stress idrico Kc ridotti=0,5 marzo/iniz.luglio. iniz. Fine settembre
  60. 60. 12.000 pioggia media 1999-2000=m3 1.017 10.000 3 /ha 0m 8.000 5.500 m3 2.50m3 ha-1 di mio 6.000 p ar 3.000 m 3 4.000 Ris 2.000 0 ETo controllo 55% ETc mar-ott inizio- fino raccolta raccolta- fine irrig.
  61. 61. Marketable Yield value (€) EWUE = Irrigation water (m3)Volume irriguo (L) /Kg difrutta Sostenibile € 2,11Sostenibile 220 Convenzionale € 1,34Convenzionale 380 160 77 139 140 62 Cumulatve Yield t/ha 120 100 107 80 60 40 20 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sostenibile Convenzionale
  62. 62. Consorzio di Bonifica Bradano e Metaponto TARIFFE MEDIEQUOTA FISSA (area ionica): € 115 / ha (bonifica + irrigazione)CONSUMINO CONTATORI (a prenotazione): € 180,76 / haSI CONTATORI (valle Bradano – Metaponto): € 0,031 / m3 (altre zone): € 0,041 / m3
  63. 63. ….a superficie ….a volumi
  64. 64. Elementi minerali apportati kg ha-1 con l’acqua d’irrigazione (7.000 m3 ha-1) di pozzi della Val d’Agri 1 anno Nell’intera duratacloruri 1.036 15.540 del frutteto,solfati 511 7.665 15 annibicarbonati 2.303 34.545sodio 1.218 18.270 Asportaz. Diff.magnesio 406 6.090 45 6.045calcio 924 13.860 45 13.815azoto 37 555 1.350 -798potassio 112 1.680 560 1.120
  65. 65. PARTICOLARE DEL PRELIEVO DEI CAMPIONI
  66. 66. SITE 1 .…soil conductivity under the emitter before beginning irrigation and at the end of irrigation season µS/cm 0 -20 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 -40Soil depth (cm) -60 At the end of -80 irrigation season -100 -120 Before -140 irrigation -160 -180 -200 (mm) 01 Apr 2004 25.1 2004 Rainy days (>10 mm) 25 Apr 2004 16 source: ALSIA - Basilicata Region 13 May 2004 13.2 26 July 2004 66.4
  67. 67. Water sources for agriculture in Israel1989 1990 1992 1995 1998 2001 2005 2010
  68. 68. University of University of Italian Society of Basilicata Palermo Horticultural Science VIII International Peach Symposium on 17-20 June, 2013 –Matera (ITALY) Joi nu s in Ma ter a!Matera UNESCO World Heritage site peach2013@unibas.it http://www.unibas.it/peach2013/home.htm
  69. 69. Il gruppo di lavoro:C. XiloyannisB. DichioV. NuzzoG. CelanoG. MontanaroG. TataranniA. SofoA. PaleseE. LardoA. MininniA. Tuzio
  70. 70. Total and per capita CO2 emissions in various country(source: UNFCCC, EEA, DIW Berlin) Total emissions CO2 (Mt) Per capita emissions (t/year) 1990 2000 (* = 2001) 2000 (* = 2001) Australia 259 502 26,8 Canada 421 726 24,0 USA 4844 7001 19,0 Arabia Saudita 160 271 13,1 EU 15 * 3152 4120 11,0 Sud Africa 291 354 8,5 Cina (+ Hong Kong) 2389 2893 2,3 India 595 908 0,9

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