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Preserving biodiversity and soilProfessor Jim Harris       structure and functionSchool of Applied SciencesCranfield Unive...
Talk outline • Global challanges • Life in the soil and soil function • Effects of land use • Ecosystem service framework ...
Challenges• Global climate change• Sea level rise• Agricultural intensification• Food and water security• Loss of biodiver...
Ellis and Ramankutty 2008
Life in the soil/soilfunction Soils are remarkably complex •Physically •Chemically •Biologically
5 cm   5 mm
HOW MUCH LIFE ISTHERE ?                   SOIL BIOMASS                    • handful of arable soil                       (...
5 tonnes per hectare –                            equivalent to 100 sheepgrassland – 20 times greater = 2000 sheep per hec...
THE WORKING SOILENGINE                              FOOD WEBS:                                     SOIL ORGANIC           ...
C storage            Regulated by    Soil    •StructureC   biota            •Chemistry            •C input quality & quant...
Effects of land use onsoil biodiversity, functionand carbon
Organic Matter losses due to land-use                   600                   500OM loss kg/ha/yr                   400   ...
Change in soil carbon in response to change in                           land use (redrawn from Guo and Gifford 2002)     ...
Hendrix et al 1986
Increasing susceptibility to disturbance
Cumulative perennial ryegrass yields with and withoutearthworms, in organically and inorganically fertiliser regimes      ...
Soil type                          Susceptibility                            To each                          Degradation ...
Ecosystem servicesapproach formonitoring what isgoing on•Framework for assessment•Natural Capital
Land Use Change        •Deforestation        •Urbanization        •Agricultural Expansion        •Conversion to grazing   ...
Soil-dependentecosystem services
Critically, these areRENEWABLE services
Options for the futureto maintain andenhance soil resources•No/min till•Land sparing•Mixed landscapes•Reserves and hydropo...
Effect of soil management on soil microbial biomass-C                                      (redrawn from Feng et al 2003) ...
Effect of soil managment on soil organic matter                        40                                                 ...
Location of straw residues dependant on tillage type                      100                      90                     ...
Effect of conventional and no-till managment on                                     aggregate stability (redrawn from Rhot...
Effect of land-use on sediment losses               Grass ley            Direct sowing                 Stubble            ...
Economic return (redrawn from Al-Kaisi and Xin 2004)                           250                           200Economic r...
Redrawn from Hodgson et al (2010) Ecol.Lett
Combining land-usecan lead to significantbiodiversity gains –Butterfly abundancesin different land usetypes               ...
Conclusions • Achieving food security and soil health is a complex   issue requiring careful consideration and quantificat...
Thank you for listening!
MethodologyPotential Ecosystem Map•   Digital Terrain Model•   Soil Maps•   Geology Maps•   Climate data•   Land-use data•...
One model to bindthem all…….
Ecosystem service map
Ecosystem service map
Ecosystem service map
Ecosystem service map
Presentation of Jim Harris, Professor at Cranfield University, at Food, Fertilizers and Natural Resources Conference by Fe...
Presentation of Jim Harris, Professor at Cranfield University, at Food, Fertilizers and Natural Resources Conference by Fe...
Presentation of Jim Harris, Professor at Cranfield University, at Food, Fertilizers and Natural Resources Conference by Fe...
Presentation of Jim Harris, Professor at Cranfield University, at Food, Fertilizers and Natural Resources Conference by Fe...
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Presentation of Jim Harris, Professor at Cranfield University, at Food, Fertilizers and Natural Resources Conference by Fertilizers Europe

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Presentation of Jim Harris, Professor at Cranfield University, at Food, Fertilizers and Natural Resources Conference by Fertilizers Europe

  1. 1. Preserving biodiversity and soilProfessor Jim Harris structure and functionSchool of Applied SciencesCranfield UniversityBedfordshire UK
  2. 2. Talk outline • Global challanges • Life in the soil and soil function • Effects of land use • Ecosystem service framework for monitoring and decision support • Options for the future to maintain and enhance soil resources • Conclusions
  3. 3. Challenges• Global climate change• Sea level rise• Agricultural intensification• Food and water security• Loss of biodiversity
  4. 4. Ellis and Ramankutty 2008
  5. 5. Life in the soil/soilfunction Soils are remarkably complex •Physically •Chemically •Biologically
  6. 6. 5 cm 5 mm
  7. 7. HOW MUCH LIFE ISTHERE ? SOIL BIOMASS • handful of arable soil (c. 200g) • approximately 0.5 g of fresh biomass (mainly ‘microbial’) • Over 10,000 species per gram (conservative estimate)
  8. 8. 5 tonnes per hectare – equivalent to 100 sheepgrassland – 20 times greater = 2000 sheep per hectare
  9. 9. THE WORKING SOILENGINE FOOD WEBS: SOIL ORGANIC PLANT MATERIAL CARBON MATTER BACTERIA THE FUEL OF FUNGI THE SOIL ENGINE PROTOZOA NEMATODES INSECTS ARACHNIDS MOLLUSCS WORMS MAMMALS
  10. 10. C storage Regulated by Soil •StructureC biota •Chemistry •C input quality & quantity •Community phenotype C loss
  11. 11. Effects of land use onsoil biodiversity, functionand carbon
  12. 12. Organic Matter losses due to land-use 600 500OM loss kg/ha/yr 400 300 200 100 0 Forest Bare Agriculture Agroforestry Land-use type Redrawn from McDonald et al (2002)
  13. 13. Change in soil carbon in response to change in land use (redrawn from Guo and Gifford 2002) Crop to secondary forest Crop to plantation Crop to pasturePercentage change Native forest to pasture Pasture to crop Native forest to crop Native forest to plantation Pasture to plantation Overall -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60
  14. 14. Hendrix et al 1986
  15. 15. Increasing susceptibility to disturbance
  16. 16. Cumulative perennial ryegrass yields with and withoutearthworms, in organically and inorganically fertiliser regimes Redrawn from Boyle et al (1997)
  17. 17. Soil type Susceptibility To each Degradation Pressure Degradation Pressures Actual LostLand Use •Physical degradation Services Costs •Chemical •Biological Resultant Ecosystem Service flow Benefits
  18. 18. Ecosystem servicesapproach formonitoring what isgoing on•Framework for assessment•Natural Capital
  19. 19. Land Use Change •Deforestation •Urbanization •Agricultural Expansion •Conversion to grazing •Agricultural intensification Ecological knowledgeEcosystem consequences•Food, fibre, timber for human consumption•Climate feedbacks•Disease•Water quantity and quality•Biodiversity Societal values Assessment of trade-offs
  20. 20. Soil-dependentecosystem services
  21. 21. Critically, these areRENEWABLE services
  22. 22. Options for the futureto maintain andenhance soil resources•No/min till•Land sparing•Mixed landscapes•Reserves and hydroponics
  23. 23. Effect of soil management on soil microbial biomass-C (redrawn from Feng et al 2003) 250 Conventional No-till 200Biomass-C (ug/g) 150 100 50 0 Feb May October Month
  24. 24. Effect of soil managment on soil organic matter 40 Conventional 35 No-till 30Organic matter (g/kg) 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 to 1 1 to 3 3 to 7.6 7.5 to 15.2 Depth (cm)
  25. 25. Location of straw residues dependant on tillage type 100 90 Conventional 80 Reduced No-tillPercentage of total 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 20-25 Depth (cm) Redrawn from Tebrugge and During 1999
  26. 26. Effect of conventional and no-till managment on aggregate stability (redrawn from Rhoton et al 2002) 60Percentage of soil by weight 50 Conventional No-till 40 30 20 10 0 0 to 1 1 to 3 3 to 7.6 7.5 to 15.2 Depth (cm)
  27. 27. Effect of land-use on sediment losses Grass ley Direct sowing Stubble Buffer stripWinter wheat (no added P) Winter wheat Stubble tillage Cultivation Cross-ploughing Normal Ploughing 0 200 400 600 800 1000 mg/litre Redrawn from Puustinen et al 2004
  28. 28. Economic return (redrawn from Al-Kaisi and Xin 2004) 250 200Economic return (USD/ha) 150 100 50 0 No-till Chisel-plough Ploughed Tillage type
  29. 29. Redrawn from Hodgson et al (2010) Ecol.Lett
  30. 30. Combining land-usecan lead to significantbiodiversity gains –Butterfly abundancesin different land usetypes Redrawn from Hodgson et al (2010) Ecol.Lett
  31. 31. Conclusions • Achieving food security and soil health is a complex issue requiring careful consideration and quantification of trade-offs • The Ecosystem Services approach offers a sound framework to analyse options • The options for land use require a greater understanding of our soils, and a higher resolution to make decisions resulting in sustainable landscapes.
  32. 32. Thank you for listening!
  33. 33. MethodologyPotential Ecosystem Map• Digital Terrain Model• Soil Maps• Geology Maps• Climate data• Land-use data• Hydrological function• Socio-economic models• Climate change scenarios
  34. 34. One model to bindthem all…….
  35. 35. Ecosystem service map
  36. 36. Ecosystem service map
  37. 37. Ecosystem service map
  38. 38. Ecosystem service map

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