• Save
Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011

on

  • 3,698 views

Open access in chemistry: information wants to be free. A presentation given at the Internet and Chemistry session at the ACS Spring National Meeting 2011.

Open access in chemistry: information wants to be free. A presentation given at the Internet and Chemistry session at the ACS Spring National Meeting 2011.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,698
Views on SlideShare
3,311
Embed Views
387

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
0
Comments
0

5 Embeds 387

http://researchguides.dartmouth.edu 378
http://dartmouth.beta.libguides.com 6
http://paper.li 1
http://us-w1.rockmelt.com 1
http://www.google.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011 Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Open access in chemistry:information wants to be free?
    Jan Kuras, Deborah Kahn, Bryan Vickery
    Chemistry Central
    London, UK
    American Chemical Society National Meeting, March 27-31, 2011
    Technical session: Internet and Chemistry
  • Information wants to be free?
    Free of access restrictions?
    Free of charge?
    Free of standards and organization?
  • Objective:“An honest and philosophical assessment of open access in chemistry”
    A good time to review...
    20 years of more widespread interest in OA...
    Over 10 years since BioMed Central, PubMed Central, PLoS started...
    (10 years since Internet Journal of Chemistry launched...)
    About 5 years since PubChem, Chemistry Central, ChemSpider, eMolecules started...
    A major Study of Open Access Publishing (SOAP) undertaken in 2010
    No scientific concepts were harmed in the making of this presentation
  • What Open Access is
    Free & permanent unrestricted online access
    Authors retain copyright
    Data can be redistributed and reused freely
    What Open Access isn’t
    • Self publishing
    • A means to bypass peer review
  • What motivated open access?
    Serials crisis: rising subscription prices, decreasing library budgets
    Online publishing opportunities & technologies, and subsequent data linking, integration, reuse and mining
    The “Open” movement: open data, open source, open standards, open access
    Unrestricted access to publicly funded research to maximize impact
  • Significant timelines in the open access movement 1991-2011
    PubChem
    OASPA
    SPARC
    eMolecules
    Chemistry
    initiatives
    Bethesda
    Statement
    ChemSpider
    Open
    Archives
    Initiative
    Budapest
    Initiative
    Chemistry
    Central
    ChEMBL
    arXiv
    2010
    2004
    2002
    1998
    2000
    2008
    2006
    1991
    NCBI/
    GenBank
    Berlin
    Declaration
    BioMed
    Central
    PLoS
    PubMed
    NIH OA
    mandate
    Wellcome
    OA mandate
    ICSA
    US Federal Research
    Public Access Act
    PubMed
    Central
    Biomedicine
    initiatives
  • Chemistry publishing: current position
    Number of chemistry journals? Well, CAS indexes over 1,500 core journals
    No chemistry-specific server for peer-reviewed papers cf. PubMed Central
    No pre-print culture cf. arXiv for physics
    No funder mandates such as Wellcome Trust, NIH
    University/Research institute mandates frequently not implemented by chemists
  • Open access in chemistry: current position
    Directory of Open Access Journals: approx. 130 chemistry journals (amongst approx. 6,000 total OA journals)
    Publishers include: Chemistry Central; Beilstein; Hindawi; Bentham; MDPI
    Lots of Society, University and Independent journals
    IUCr Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online
    Business model: article-processing charge (APC)
    Either passed on to author or covered by publisher
    Major publishers allow authors to make papers OA through additional payment
    ACS; RSC; Wiley-Blackwell; Springer ; Elsevier
    Some publishers allow self-archiving
    RSC; Elsevier; Springer; Nature
  • Journals listed in
    Chemistry
    journals
    ~130 OA chemistry journals
  • Recent studies & reports on OA
    The value of new scientific communication
    models for chemistry (Velden, Lagoze: 2009)
    Open access to the scientific journal literature:
    situation 2009 (Björk et al: 2010)
    Study of Open Access Publishing
    (SOAP 2010)
  • Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009
    OA prevalence on an article basis accessible through Google search
    Random sample of 1,837 science journals
    Sources: Web of Science; Scopus; DOAJ, Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory
    9.7% Chemistry journals
    Study year was 2008; time of study was Sept-Oct 2009 to ensure capture of “embargoed” and delayed OA articles
    Overall, 20.4% papers were freely available
    8.5% in OA journals (“Gold”); 11.9% in repositories (“Green”)
    At 13%, chemistry has the lowest share of OA papers
    5.5% in OA journals (“Gold”); 7.4% in repositories (“Green”)
    Earth sciences (33%); Physics (23.5%); Medicine (22%); Biological sciences (19%)
  • Value of new scientific communication models for chemistry
    Failure of new communication models in chemistry
    Compare GenBank, PubMed Central, arXiv
    Barriers not technical: chemists embracing open initiatives & technologies
    CML, InChI, open source tools, open notebook science, OA journals and repositories
    Issue of latency: delayed in comparison with other disciplines?
    Complex socio-technical issues: IP and secrecy about research details?
    Influence of societies and society publishing
    with commercial interests and proven journal business models
    Influence of journal prestige, impact factors, citation advantage, etc.
    The “reward system” is coupled to the communication system by relying on IFs and citations, which makes chemists risk-averse in trying new models
  • Study of Open Access Publishing (SOAP)
    Multidisciplinary study including physical, life and social sciences, financed by the European Commission
    Coordinated by CERN with Springer, SAGE & BioMed Central; Max Planck Digital Library; and UK Science & Technology Facilities Council
    To “describe and compare the offering and demand for open access publishing in peer-reviewed journals”
    Assessment by large scale multidiscipline international survey
    Reached over 1.5 million recipients with over 54,000 respondents
    42,000 Responses analyzed, including over 2,300 chemists
    Caveat: “self-selection” bias in favour of scientists with an interest in OA
  • Demographics: chemists’ experience and affiliation
    n=2338
  • Number of OA articles published by respondents in last 5 years
    By subject areas
  • Would OA journals be beneficial in chemistry?
    Smallest “Yes”
    in survey
    n=2308
  • Percentage of researchers who say OA journals would be beneficial
    By subject area
  • Percentage of chemists who say that OA journals would be beneficial
    By research experience
    “Emerging”
    chemists?
  • Less
    Society
    influence?
  • Why are OA journals beneficial in chemistry?
    n=967
  • Why aren’t OA journals beneficial in chemistry?
    n=192
  • What are the reasons not to publish in OA journals?
    Same across all sciences
    n=503
  • Publication fee charged for last OA article?
    n=1058
  • How was the publication fee covered?
    n=381
  • How easy was it to obtain funds for publication?
    n=330
  • The prevalence of Impact Factors in OA journals
    Compared to
  • Finally, responses from chemists on positive, neutral and negative statements about open access
  • n=2139
    n=2131
    n=2140
  • n=2137
    n=2124
    n=2144
  • n=2133
    n=2123
    n=2140
  • Analysis and Conclusions
    Chemistry has the lowest share of OA journals and papers amongst the physical and life sciences
    Chemists have similar concerns around quality and funding as exist(ed) in other sciences
    Plus there are further habitual and cultural issues in chemistry, e.g. society influence, the reward system
    There are positive indications of support for open access in chemistry
    Is OA in chemistry approx. 5 years behind life sciences?
  • Positive signs from SOAP
    Almost 80% of chemists agree that OA journals are beneficial
    Equally spread across experience levels and types of research institute
    Compares favourably with biology and medicine at 90%
    Major reasons why OA is considered beneficial
    Benefit to the scientific community, author and public
    Financial considerations
    Over 50% of chemists have published 1 or more papers in OA journals
    Contributions from biochemists, medicinal chemists, cheminformaticians, crystallographers
    Compares unfavourably with over 80% of biologists
  • The obstacles
    Major reasons for not publishing in OA journals for chemists:
    Lack of funding , presence of publication fees (44%)
    Perception of journal quality (38%)
    Publication fee charged:
    Almost 60% were not charged
    For remainder: fee included in research funds (30%) or unassigned research funds used (30%)
    Over 50% of chemists state it is difficult to obtain funds
    Fewer than 50% of chemists in universities and research institutes are likely to publish in OA journals
  • Changes for OA to grow in chemistry
    Change in habits, culture and the conservatism amongst chemists
    Satisfaction with current model – no appetite for change
    Support for university/research institute OA mandates
    Attitudes of societies, influence of society publishing
    with commercial interests and proven journal business models
    Perceptions of journal prestige, and influence of impact factors, citation advantage, etc.
    The “reward system” is coupled to the communication system by relying on IFs and citations, making chemists risk-averse in trying new models
    Availability and provision of publication funds
    From funding bodies and universities/research institutes
    OA Mandates from funding agencies and universities/research institutes
  • Factors to accelerate progress
    Advocacy amongst key opinion leaders in chemistry
    OA chemistry journals obtaining Impact Factors
    Transfer of high quality journals to OA model
    More chemists supporting open initiatives and technologies
    In outliers e.g. cheminformatics, crystallography
    Embracing mainstream chemistry
    The growth of the “Open” movement:
    Open data, open source, open access, open notebooks
  • Our prediction.....
    “Over the next 5 years, open access in chemistry will continue to grow steadily in support and in publication volumes. This will be primarily driven by chemists in outlying subject areas wanting to enhance the visibility, verifiability and reproducibility of their data, and to a lesser extent by mainstream researchers. Important ‘tipping points’ will be increased availability of funds, OA mandates from funders and universities/research institutes, and journals obtaining and improving their impact factors.”
  • Thank you for your attention
    Jan Kuras
    jan.kuras@chemistrycentral.com
    www.chemistrycentral.com
    www.chemistrycentral.com/blog
    twitter @Chem_Central
    ...come talk to me...