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Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011
 

Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011

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Open access in chemistry: information wants to be free. A presentation given at the Internet and Chemistry session at the ACS Spring National Meeting 2011.

Open access in chemistry: information wants to be free. A presentation given at the Internet and Chemistry session at the ACS Spring National Meeting 2011.

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    Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011 Open access in chemistry: from ACS Spring Meeting 2011 Presentation Transcript

    • Open access in chemistry:information wants to be free?
      Jan Kuras, Deborah Kahn, Bryan Vickery
      Chemistry Central
      London, UK
      American Chemical Society National Meeting, March 27-31, 2011
      Technical session: Internet and Chemistry
    • Information wants to be free?
      Free of access restrictions?
      Free of charge?
      Free of standards and organization?
    • Objective:“An honest and philosophical assessment of open access in chemistry”
      A good time to review...
      20 years of more widespread interest in OA...
      Over 10 years since BioMed Central, PubMed Central, PLoS started...
      (10 years since Internet Journal of Chemistry launched...)
      About 5 years since PubChem, Chemistry Central, ChemSpider, eMolecules started...
      A major Study of Open Access Publishing (SOAP) undertaken in 2010
      No scientific concepts were harmed in the making of this presentation
    • What Open Access is
      Free & permanent unrestricted online access
      Authors retain copyright
      Data can be redistributed and reused freely
      What Open Access isn’t
      • Self publishing
      • A means to bypass peer review
    • What motivated open access?
      Serials crisis: rising subscription prices, decreasing library budgets
      Online publishing opportunities & technologies, and subsequent data linking, integration, reuse and mining
      The “Open” movement: open data, open source, open standards, open access
      Unrestricted access to publicly funded research to maximize impact
    • Significant timelines in the open access movement 1991-2011
      PubChem
      OASPA
      SPARC
      eMolecules
      Chemistry
      initiatives
      Bethesda
      Statement
      ChemSpider
      Open
      Archives
      Initiative
      Budapest
      Initiative
      Chemistry
      Central
      ChEMBL
      arXiv
      2010
      2004
      2002
      1998
      2000
      2008
      2006
      1991
      NCBI/
      GenBank
      Berlin
      Declaration
      BioMed
      Central
      PLoS
      PubMed
      NIH OA
      mandate
      Wellcome
      OA mandate
      ICSA
      US Federal Research
      Public Access Act
      PubMed
      Central
      Biomedicine
      initiatives
    • Chemistry publishing: current position
      Number of chemistry journals? Well, CAS indexes over 1,500 core journals
      No chemistry-specific server for peer-reviewed papers cf. PubMed Central
      No pre-print culture cf. arXiv for physics
      No funder mandates such as Wellcome Trust, NIH
      University/Research institute mandates frequently not implemented by chemists
    • Open access in chemistry: current position
      Directory of Open Access Journals: approx. 130 chemistry journals (amongst approx. 6,000 total OA journals)
      Publishers include: Chemistry Central; Beilstein; Hindawi; Bentham; MDPI
      Lots of Society, University and Independent journals
      IUCr Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online
      Business model: article-processing charge (APC)
      Either passed on to author or covered by publisher
      Major publishers allow authors to make papers OA through additional payment
      ACS; RSC; Wiley-Blackwell; Springer ; Elsevier
      Some publishers allow self-archiving
      RSC; Elsevier; Springer; Nature
    • Journals listed in
      Chemistry
      journals
      ~130 OA chemistry journals
    • Recent studies & reports on OA
      The value of new scientific communication
      models for chemistry (Velden, Lagoze: 2009)
      Open access to the scientific journal literature:
      situation 2009 (Björk et al: 2010)
      Study of Open Access Publishing
      (SOAP 2010)
    • Open Access to the Scientific Journal Literature: Situation 2009
      OA prevalence on an article basis accessible through Google search
      Random sample of 1,837 science journals
      Sources: Web of Science; Scopus; DOAJ, Ulrich’s Periodicals Directory
      9.7% Chemistry journals
      Study year was 2008; time of study was Sept-Oct 2009 to ensure capture of “embargoed” and delayed OA articles
      Overall, 20.4% papers were freely available
      8.5% in OA journals (“Gold”); 11.9% in repositories (“Green”)
      At 13%, chemistry has the lowest share of OA papers
      5.5% in OA journals (“Gold”); 7.4% in repositories (“Green”)
      Earth sciences (33%); Physics (23.5%); Medicine (22%); Biological sciences (19%)
    • Value of new scientific communication models for chemistry
      Failure of new communication models in chemistry
      Compare GenBank, PubMed Central, arXiv
      Barriers not technical: chemists embracing open initiatives & technologies
      CML, InChI, open source tools, open notebook science, OA journals and repositories
      Issue of latency: delayed in comparison with other disciplines?
      Complex socio-technical issues: IP and secrecy about research details?
      Influence of societies and society publishing
      with commercial interests and proven journal business models
      Influence of journal prestige, impact factors, citation advantage, etc.
      The “reward system” is coupled to the communication system by relying on IFs and citations, which makes chemists risk-averse in trying new models
    • Study of Open Access Publishing (SOAP)
      Multidisciplinary study including physical, life and social sciences, financed by the European Commission
      Coordinated by CERN with Springer, SAGE & BioMed Central; Max Planck Digital Library; and UK Science & Technology Facilities Council
      To “describe and compare the offering and demand for open access publishing in peer-reviewed journals”
      Assessment by large scale multidiscipline international survey
      Reached over 1.5 million recipients with over 54,000 respondents
      42,000 Responses analyzed, including over 2,300 chemists
      Caveat: “self-selection” bias in favour of scientists with an interest in OA
    • Demographics: chemists’ experience and affiliation
      n=2338
    • Number of OA articles published by respondents in last 5 years
      By subject areas
    • Would OA journals be beneficial in chemistry?
      Smallest “Yes”
      in survey
      n=2308
    • Percentage of researchers who say OA journals would be beneficial
      By subject area
    • Percentage of chemists who say that OA journals would be beneficial
      By research experience
      “Emerging”
      chemists?
    • Less
      Society
      influence?
    • Why are OA journals beneficial in chemistry?
      n=967
    • Why aren’t OA journals beneficial in chemistry?
      n=192
    • What are the reasons not to publish in OA journals?
      Same across all sciences
      n=503
    • Publication fee charged for last OA article?
      n=1058
    • How was the publication fee covered?
      n=381
    • How easy was it to obtain funds for publication?
      n=330
    • The prevalence of Impact Factors in OA journals
      Compared to
    • Finally, responses from chemists on positive, neutral and negative statements about open access
    • n=2139
      n=2131
      n=2140
    • n=2137
      n=2124
      n=2144
    • n=2133
      n=2123
      n=2140
    • Analysis and Conclusions
      Chemistry has the lowest share of OA journals and papers amongst the physical and life sciences
      Chemists have similar concerns around quality and funding as exist(ed) in other sciences
      Plus there are further habitual and cultural issues in chemistry, e.g. society influence, the reward system
      There are positive indications of support for open access in chemistry
      Is OA in chemistry approx. 5 years behind life sciences?
    • Positive signs from SOAP
      Almost 80% of chemists agree that OA journals are beneficial
      Equally spread across experience levels and types of research institute
      Compares favourably with biology and medicine at 90%
      Major reasons why OA is considered beneficial
      Benefit to the scientific community, author and public
      Financial considerations
      Over 50% of chemists have published 1 or more papers in OA journals
      Contributions from biochemists, medicinal chemists, cheminformaticians, crystallographers
      Compares unfavourably with over 80% of biologists
    • The obstacles
      Major reasons for not publishing in OA journals for chemists:
      Lack of funding , presence of publication fees (44%)
      Perception of journal quality (38%)
      Publication fee charged:
      Almost 60% were not charged
      For remainder: fee included in research funds (30%) or unassigned research funds used (30%)
      Over 50% of chemists state it is difficult to obtain funds
      Fewer than 50% of chemists in universities and research institutes are likely to publish in OA journals
    • Changes for OA to grow in chemistry
      Change in habits, culture and the conservatism amongst chemists
      Satisfaction with current model – no appetite for change
      Support for university/research institute OA mandates
      Attitudes of societies, influence of society publishing
      with commercial interests and proven journal business models
      Perceptions of journal prestige, and influence of impact factors, citation advantage, etc.
      The “reward system” is coupled to the communication system by relying on IFs and citations, making chemists risk-averse in trying new models
      Availability and provision of publication funds
      From funding bodies and universities/research institutes
      OA Mandates from funding agencies and universities/research institutes
    • Factors to accelerate progress
      Advocacy amongst key opinion leaders in chemistry
      OA chemistry journals obtaining Impact Factors
      Transfer of high quality journals to OA model
      More chemists supporting open initiatives and technologies
      In outliers e.g. cheminformatics, crystallography
      Embracing mainstream chemistry
      The growth of the “Open” movement:
      Open data, open source, open access, open notebooks
    • Our prediction.....
      “Over the next 5 years, open access in chemistry will continue to grow steadily in support and in publication volumes. This will be primarily driven by chemists in outlying subject areas wanting to enhance the visibility, verifiability and reproducibility of their data, and to a lesser extent by mainstream researchers. Important ‘tipping points’ will be increased availability of funds, OA mandates from funders and universities/research institutes, and journals obtaining and improving their impact factors.”
    • Thank you for your attention
      Jan Kuras
      jan.kuras@chemistrycentral.com
      www.chemistrycentral.com
      www.chemistrycentral.com/blog
      twitter @Chem_Central
      ...come talk to me...