1. 1st International Conference on Academic
Communication Journals (Barcelona, 27/02/2015)
and open access
Facultat de Biblioteconomia i Documentació
Universitat de Barcelona
3. 1 Introduction
is digital, online, free of
charge, and free of
most copyright and
Open access is a
• We are convinced that
will work better with this
4. 1 Introduction (ii)
Maturity of the movement
•10+ years from first declarations: Budapest
(2002), Berlin (2003), Bethesda (2003).
•Well known by academics, publishers, librarians,
•European Union: Horizon 2020.
•Spain: Ley de la Ciencia y la Tecnología (2011).
5. 1.1 How much OA?
Several studies, based on inferences from
20,4% of the total (Bjork, 2010)
•8,5%, in publishers’ portals (“gold” route)
•11,9% in repositories (“green” route)
37,8% (Chen, 2014)
•Same methodology as Bjork (2010)
6. 1.2 Authors’ perspective
•More audience (downloads).
•More impact (citations).
Obligation to publish in OA.
•H2020, universities’ mandates, etc.
•They have to know the conditions of their
publications’ copyright licences for archiving
them in repositories.
7. 1.3 Publishers’ perspective
They are adapting their business model to
the OA framework.
•Introducing APC (Article Processing Charges) [v.
•Seeking economic support (universities, funding
bodies, etc.). [v. 2.2.2].
They are adapting copyright licences to
make it easier for authors to include their
publications in personal webpages and
8. 1.4 Objectives
1. Analyse the main challenges of open
•To increase quantity.
•To consolidate new business models (or means
•To be recognized for quality.
1. Analyse the situation of Spanish
communication journals in relation to open
9. 2 Open access journals
Their quality and recognition are similar to
•Based on peer review.
But … they have to:
Increase their proportion in the academic
journals scenario. [v. 2.1]
Consolidate their business models and
economic sustainability. [v. 2.2]
Avoid “contamination” from predatory
journals. [v. 2.3]
11. 2.1 Some data about OA journals
By “quality”: (Source: Ulrich’s)
• 9 % journals in JCR (930 of 10,036)
• 13 % of peer review journals (8,703 of 67,495)
By country: (Source: Ulrich’s)
• Brazil: 63%
• Spain: 37%
• USA: 9%
By fields: (Archambault, 2013)
• Biomedicine: 61%
• Social sciences: 32%
• Communication & Textual Studies: 21% (21st of 22
13. 2.2 How to finance OA journals?
Article processing charges (APC)
Consortia of users
14. 2.2.1 Article Processing Charges (APC)
Publishing charge payment by the author
using research funds.
Cost: from 400 to 3.000 euros per paper.
Common in health sciences and in countries
with well-financed research.
Some data (from DOAJ):
•32% of journals use APC.
•Mainly in Medicine, Science, etc.
•Low presence in Social sciences and, especially,
in Communication journals.
17. 2.2.1 APC (ii)
Finch report (2012) adopts / defends this
kind of author-side payment.
It permits the reconversion of the publishing
industry (ex., OpenChoice, de Springer).
New publishers have appeared: PLOS,
BioMedCentral, Hindawi, etc.
H2020 and other research programs permit
18. 2.2.2 Public financing
Processing charges are paid by public
administration (universities, research
Very common in Humanities and Social
sciences (little funding for research).
Prevalent in countries from the scientific
19. 2.2.2 Public financing (ii)
Best example: Brazil (Rodrigues, Abadal, 2014)
•More than 90% of high quality journals are OA.
•More than 250 journals in WoS and Scopus.
•Public administration (CNPq, CAPES): annual
call of 2 M euros (for 200 best journals)
•Scielo: Dissemination platform.
•Universities: technical support, training, human
20. 2.2.3 Users’ consortia
Agreement between big users for making
centralized payments which finance
•Libraries (and consortia).
•Funder agencies and research institutes.
Feasible in special and well defined fields
(for example, High energy physics).
The individual payment is assigned
according to several indicators (scientific
production, uses, etc.)
Example: SCOAP3 (begun January 2014).
21. 2.2.4 Other ways
Sale of services
•Reprints (for authors).
•These complement the other ways mentioned
•Options more often used for books than for
22. 2.3 Predatory journals
Journals without quality (in peer-review,
originality, scientific advisors, etc.).
Priority: to obtain APCs paying no attention
to scientific content.
Jeffrey Beall (librarian at Univ. Colorado)
•Denounces bad practices and bad practitioners.
•More than 500 journals and 650 publishers
(“potential, possible, or probable”).
28. 3.2 Type of access
Type of access Examples
Gratis Publisher pays the cost
Gratis after an
Content can be accessed
after a period of time.
Hybrid Subscription journals with
OA articles (via APC).
29. 3.2 Type of access (ii)
Type of access Communication Total of journals
Gratis 88 % 70 %
Gratis after an
7 % 11 %
Hybrid 2 % 1 %
3 % 15 %
30. 3.3 Self-archiving
Publishing policies of journals with regard to
granting permission for self-archiving in open
access repositories (Sherpa-Romeo).
Important for facilitating green route.
32. 3.4 Open access
How we can define an open access journal?
We will consider only the journals which are:
• self-archiving (blue or green) is permitted
Communication OA journals: 44 (77%).
Spanish OA journals: 43%.
33. 3.4 Open access (ii)
Green Blue White Unknown
Gratis 13 34 0 7 54 (88%)
0 2 2 0 4 (7%)
Hybrid 0 1 0 0 1 (2%)
Restricted 1 0 1 0 2 (3%)
14 (23%) 37
3 (5%) 7 (11%)
34. 4 Conclusions
The main challenge to OA journals now is,
probably, to find sustainability models and
also battle for quality against predatory
In Spain, communication journals have
adopted by a large majority the open access
• 88 % are gratis immediately
• 84 % grant permission to self-archive
• 77 % open access (crossing both conditions).
35. 4 Conclusions (ii)
These figures are over the average and the
explanation lies in the proportion of
academic and governmental publishers
(90% for communication respect to 57% for
36. 5 References
Abadal, E. (2012). Acceso abierto a la ciencia. Barcelona: UOC.
Abadal, E. (2012). "Retos de las revistas en acceso abierto: cantidad,
calidad y sostenibilidad económica". Hipertext.net.
Archambault, Eric; Amyot, D.; Deschamps, P.; Nicol, A.; Rebout, L.;
Roberge, G. (2013). Proportion of open access peer-reviewed papers at
the European and world levels—2004-2011. Brussels: European
Comission, 2013, http://www.science-
Björk, B-C et al. “Open access to the scientific journal literature:
situation 2009”. PLoS ONE, 2010, v. 5, n. 6.
Budapest Open Access Initiative: Ten years on from the Budapest Open
Access Initiative: setting the default to open (2012).
37. 5 References (ii)
Chen, Xiaotian (2014). “Open access in 2013: reaching the 50%
milestone”. Serials Review, 40:1, 21-27, DOI:
Finch, Janet (2012). Accessibility, sustainability, excellence: how to
expand access to research publications.
- Melero, R.; Rodríguez-Gairín, J.M.; Abad-García, F.; Abadal, E. (2014).
"Journal author rights and self-archiving: the case of Spanish journals",
Learned Publishing, vol. 27, no. 2, p. 107-120. (
Rodrigues, R.; Abadal, E. (2014). "Scientific journals in Brazil and
Spain: alternative publishing models". Journal of the Association for
Information Science and Technology, Volume 65, Issue 10, pages
2145–2151, October 2014. (http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asi.23115)
Suber, Peter (2012). Open access. Massachussets: MIT Press.