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Library as publisher


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Academic libraries are increasingly investing in new efforts to support their research and teaching faculty in the activities they care about most. Learn why becoming a publisher can help meet the most fundamental needs of your research community and at the same time can help transform today’s inflationary cost model for serials. We will explore not only why to become a publisher but exactly how to achieve it, step by step, including careful selection of publishing partners, choosing the right platform for manuscript submission and editorial workflow management, one-time processes to launch a new journal, conducting peer reviews, maintaining academic quality, and measuring impact. We’ll also cover the broader range of publishing activities where libraries can have an impact, including open access monographs, general institutional repositories and subject-based author self-archiving repositories. We will close with a review of tools, services, and communities of support to nurture the new library publishing venture.

See accompanying handouts 1-7

Lauren Collister
Electronic Publications Associate, University of Pittsburgh

Timothy S. Deliyannides
Director of the Office of Scholarly Communication and Publishing and Head of Information Technology, University of Pittsburgh

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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Library as publisher

  1. 1. The Libraryas PublisherTimothy S. Deliyannides, MSISDirector, Office of Scholarly Communication and Publishingand Head, Information TechnologyUniversity Library System, University of PittsburghNASIG 2013 Pre-Conference WorkshopBuffalo, NY, June 5, 2013Lauren B. Collister, PhDElectronic Publications AssociateUniversity Library System, University of Pittsburgh
  2. 2. Goals for today Explore the benefits of the Library becoming aPublisher Learn about Open Access journal publishing – whatit is, what it isn‘t and why it‘s important Follow a detailed case study of the University ofPittsburgh Review other ways that libraries can be involved inpublishing Identify resources to help you get started
  3. 3. LIBRARY AS PUBLISHERNew Trends, New Technologies
  4. 4. Libraries as Publishers – Current Trends More than 75% of ARL libraries offer or plan to offerpublishing services. Most expect to expand these services in future. Dedicated publishing staff are rare. Most do not have sustainability plans. Most plan to expand cost recovery mechanismsmoving forward.Source: Library Publishing Services: Strategies for Success Research Report , v. 2.0.
  5. 5. Why should libraries be publishers? Is your library already involved in publishing, andwhy? What do you hope to learn today? How could publishing fit into your library‘sprograms and services? Why is this topic relevant to libraries? What are some potential hurdles to becoming apublisher?
  6. 6. Why become a Publisher? Provide services that scholars understand, needand value Transform the unsustainable commercialsubscription pricing system Take direct action to support Open Access Deepen our understanding of scholarlycommunications issues
  7. 7. What does Open Access mean to you?
  8. 8. Open Access is… A family of copyright licensing policies underwhich authors and copyright owners maketheir works publicly available A movement in higher education to increaseaccess to scholarly research andcommunication, not limiting it solely tosubscribers or purchasers of works A response to the current crisis in scholarlycommunication
  9. 9. OA Overview Open Access literature is digital, online, freeof charge, and free of most copyright andlicensing restrictions Works are still covered by copyright law, butOpen Access terms apply to allow sharingand reuse All major OA initiatives for scientific andscholarly literature insist on the importanceof peer review
  10. 10. OA is compatible with . . .CopyrightPeer reviewRevenue (even profit)PrintPreservationPrestigeQualityCareer advancementIndexingAnd other features andsupportive servicesassociated withconventional scholarlyliterature
  11. 11. Open Access is not . . . Open Source—applies to computersoftware Open Content—applies to non-scholarlycontent Open Data—a movement to supportsharing of research data (see Free Access—no charge to access, but allrights may be reserved
  12. 12. Open Access—Origins Crisis in scholarlycommunication/publishing– Flat to declining collections budgets– More demand for newer, expensive resources– Greatly increased pricing for serials, electronicresources Rise of Internet and Worldwide Web– Rapid dissemination of new research– Better connectivity between scholars
  13. 13. 01002003004005006001985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010%changesince1990yearbiologychemistryengineering & techgeneral sciencemath & comp sciphysicsCPI (general inflation)ARL expenditures, allserialsCrisis in scholarly journal pricingBill Hooker,April 2009. Data sources: Library JournalAnnual Serials PriceSurveys, Association of Research Libraries, US Dept. of Labor
  14. 14. Growth in scholarly publishing Est. 50 million scholarly research articles published1665-2009 @1.4 million articles per year (2006 est.)—one every22 seconds! Average number of science articles per journalincreased by >47% from 1990 to 2009(Times Higher Education, 8 July 2010) Number of scientific articles indexed by ISI was590,841 in 1990 and 1,015,637 in 2009 – a rise of 72%1990-2009
  15. 15. Concentration of ownership Nearly 50% of the content of the merged ISI Indexesconsists of titles from 5 major publishers—– Elsevier– Wiley– Springer– Taylor & Francis– Sage Top 3 publishers of science journals (Elsevier, Springer-Kluwer, Wiley-Blackwell) accounted for @ 42% of articlespublished (2002) There were over 2,000 publishers of academic journals;no other publisher accounted for >3% of market share(2002)
  16. 16. Other changes in Scholarly Communication New ways of disseminating research– Document repositories & gray literature online– Web sites, blogs, social networks New ways of evaluating research and its impact– Peer review models are changing– Alternative measures of research impact (altmetrics) Changing laws– DMCA– Research Works Act– Google Books Copyright Settlement & aftermath
  17. 17. Changes in scholarly communication Changing economic models– The ‘big deal’– Pay per view model– Open Access publishing– Hybrid Open Access– Self-publishing– The library as publisher
  18. 18. OA Today Over 150 universities around the world mandateOpen Access deposits of faculty works Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ)– lists 9,437 OA journals in 119 countries– (June 2013) Directory of Open Access Repositories (OpenDOAR)– lists 2,284 open archives in 103 countries– (June 2013)
  19. 19. Open Access:Fact or Fiction?Open Access journals usually dont followthe peer review process, which is the mostimportant guarantee of research quality.
  20. 20. Open Access journals are free.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  21. 21. The Open Access business model issupported by fees paid by the authors.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  22. 22. Revenues collected when publishing anOpen Access journal cannot be used tomake a profit.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  23. 23. Its easier to get published in an OpenAccess journal, as long as you agreeto pay the author fee.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  24. 24. Articles in Open Access journals canbe reproduced freely because theyare in the public domain.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  25. 25. Open Access licenses prohibit reuse of thecontent for commercial purposes.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  26. 26. Articles in Open Access journals canreach a broader audience thanarticles in subscription-basedjournals.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  27. 27. Open Access is an international movement.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  28. 28. Research articles published in Open Accessjournals are usually not considered duringfaculty tenure and promotion processes.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  29. 29. Publishing a print version of an online OpenAccess journal is an important step towardincreasing the journals acceptance by thescholarly research community.Open Access:Fact or Fiction?
  30. 30. Case Study:University Library SystemUniversity of Pittsburgh
  31. 31. ULS Leadership in advocacy forOA publishing First library publisher in NorthAmerica to join the Open AccessScholarly Publishers Association(OASPA) Founding member of Coalition for LibraryPublishing Major development partner for PublicKnowledge Project (PKP)
  32. 32. Strategic GoalInnovation in Scholarly Communication Support researchers in– efficient knowledge production– rapid dissemination of new research– open access to scholarly information Build collaborative partnershipsaround the world Improve the production and sharing of scholarlyresearch Support innovative publishing services Establish trusted repositories for the research output ofthe University
  33. 33. Collaboration withUniversity of Pittsburgh Press Press focuses on books andmonographs rather than journals Press Digital Editions– collaborative project between Press andLibrary– 750 books digitized by ULS– includes both in-print and out-of-print titles– all are Open Access
  34. 34.  2001 PhilSci Archive 2001 Electronic Theses & Dissertations 2002 Archive of European Integration 2003 Minority Health Archive 2003 Aphasiology Archive 2009 D-Scholarship@Pitt(general Institutional Repository) 2010 Industry Studies Working Papers 2012 Archive for Essential Limb CareOpen AccessAuthor Self-archiving Repositories
  35. 35. Documents in repositoriesand journals-10,00020,00030,00040,00050,00060,000FY2000 FY2001 FY2002 FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013
  36. 36. FY2000 FY2001FY2002FY2003 FY2004 FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009 FY2010 FY2011 FY2012 FY2013-2 2 35 5 5 5 5 6 7 7 6 7-- --- - -2 349162735Subject based archives and repositoriese-journalsGrowth in number oftitles published
  37. 37. ULS E-Journal Publishing Rapid growth to 35 journals since 2007 Peer-reviewed scholarly research journals Most are Open Access and electronic-only Based on PKP Open Journal Systems (OJS) Editorial teams are located around the world Six journals have multilingual content
  38. 38. Journal publishing goals Propel scholarship at theUniversity of Pittsburgh Extend service beyond the homeinstitution Save ‗at-risk‘ journals withoutthe infrastructure or know-howto go electronic Incentivize Open AccessPublishing worldwide
  39. 39. Student Publications Only supported for Universityof Pittsburgh Provides valuable learningexperience Faculty involvement isrequired to maintain continuity Selection criteria are relaxedfor student publications– Peer review process– Quality of editorial board
  40. 40. Scholarly Exchange™ Approximately 40 additional Open Access journals Acquired by the ULS on August 1, 2012 Hosting service only ULS is NOT the publisher and does not providepublishing services
  41. 41. JOURNAL PUBLISHINGThe Process:
  42. 42. Journal Publishing Strategies Maintain quality andacademic integrity Choose partners carefully Rely on self-sufficienteditors Work smart, not hard Keep costs low
  43. 43. Software Open Journal Systems (OJS) ( Scholastica ( BePress ( Aries Editorial Manager ( Bench>Press ( ScholarOne (
  44. 44. Engaging the Publishing PartnerIntroductory meeting presentation:
  45. 45. We provide:• Hardware and software hosting services• Advice on best practices in e-publishing• Consultation on editorial workflow management• Web-based training for editorial staff• Graphic design services• ISSN Registration• Assignment of DOIs (Digital Object Identifiers)• Assistance in establishing formal acceptance andrecognition of the scholarly content• Digital preservation through LOCKSS
  46. 46. Journal Proposal Form Collects detailed informationon which to base selectiondecision Focus, scope, description ofcontent Justification of need Credentials of Editorial Board Description of review process
  47. 47. Based on self-sufficient editors Editorial staff are expected to become self-sufficientby the time first issue is published Editors are responsiblefor managing:– all content decisions– all processing workflow– all communication withreviewers, authors, readers– all editing, including layout
  48. 48. Selection Criteria Original scholarly content Rigorous blind review process Commitment to Open Access forcontent Editorial Board of internationallyrecognized scholars
  49. 49. Publications Advisory Board Includes leaders in scholarly publishing and OpenAccess issues Provides strategic guidance and expertise for ULSdigital publishing program Assists in development of publication policiesgoverning:– Selection and evaluation criteria for partners– Open Access and Creative Commons licensing– Cost recovery mechanisms
  50. 50. Exercise: evaluating journal proposals
  51. 51. Service Agreement• Builds common understanding beforeproblems occur• Defines roles and responsibilities• Identifies ULS as publisher of record• Articulates policies on:• changes to published content/issuing errata• handling infringement claims,• publication schedule/continuity issues• long-term preservation
  52. 52. Author Copyright Agreement• Comes in several flavors:– Immediate Open Access (standard) CC BY– Delayed Open Access (subscription-based) CC BY-NC-ND• License terms are included in digital rightsstatement in article metadata
  53. 53. Author Copyright Agreement• The author warrants that the work:– belongs to the author– is original– has not been submitted elsewhere– does not infringe others’ copyright• Authors encouraged to deposit works in OAarchives pre- and post-publication• Permission to use third party content is theresponsbility of the author
  54. 54. Creative Commons Licensing Open Access alternative to―ALL RIGHTS RESERVED‖ Standard licenses that make it easy forauthors to share their work with some rightsreserved Allows authors to choose the terms of futureuse that balance between Open Access andprotection of the author‘s interests
  55. 55. Creative Commons:Licensing Terms Attribution (BY) – must credit the author No Derivatives (ND) – may reuse the work, but onlyunaltered from the original Noncommercial (NC) – may not use for commercialpurposes ShareAlike (SA) – allows derivative works, butrequires the same CC license terms be applied toany derivative works
  56. 56. Creative Commons:The 6 licensesAttribution (CC BY)Attribution-ShareAlike (CC BY-SA)Attribution-NoDerivatives (CC BY-ND)Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike(CC BY-NC-SA)Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs(CC BY-NC-ND)
  57. 57. Choose the best CC license for the job Some helpful tools: (CC licensechooser) (wizard on how to mix licenses) (a game topractice mixing licenses)
  58. 58. Graphic Design Brief• Defines the scope of graphic designpossibilities• Explains software design limitations• Prepares the client to give input on design• Defines publisher branding requirements• Establishes process for client input andtimeframe for design
  59. 59. Article TemplateDesign Questionnaire• Defines the look of each formatted article• Echoes web site design• Default is MS Word• Includes publisher‘s formatting andbranding requirements• complete citation including DOI mustappear on each page
  60. 60. Design workHow much of the design do you want to beresponsible for?Do you have staff with the requisite skills at yourdisposal?
  61. 61. After the First Issue Editors become self-sufficient in workflowmanagement Our focus shifts to promotion and indexing– Marketing– Press releases– Registration with abstracting/indexing services
  62. 62. Exercise: getting discoveredWhat techniques can you think of that could enhancediscovery of your journal’s content?Why is this important?How will you know when you’ve been successful?
  63. 63. COSTS AND BUSINESS MODELSJournal Publishing
  64. 64. Business models for journal publishing subscription model (toll access) membership model direct funding agency support institutional subsidy (sponsorship) supported by advertising
  65. 65. Business models for journal publishing:author fees author fees– article processing charges– separate OA fees– may be paid by institution or funding agency– can be membership-based hybrid journals– charge subscriptions PLUS OA author fees
  66. 66. Cost categories for journal publishing Web-based hardware/software platform Application software (manuscript submission/Webdelivery, etc.) Third party services (plagiarism detection, DOIs, XML) Preparation of back issues (digitization & metadata) Preservation (backup, curation, redundant storage) Marketing and promotion Staffing costs
  67. 67. Staffing for journal publishing2.00 FTE OJS operations and customer support0.25 FTE administration, partner relations, marketing0.30 FTE graphic designers0.50 FTE OJS sys admin_____________________3.05 FTE TOTAL100% funded from internal reallocation of operatingbudget
  68. 68. Sustaining the Pitt journalpublishing program Open Access incentivized through subsidies(at least 50% discount) Pitt journals discounted; student publications free Includes base package, with additional services a lacarte such as:– Domain registration– Document layout (per article charge)– XML conversion (per article charge)– Supplementary blog– Special design work & custom programming
  69. 69. Beyond journal publishing Open Access Monographs Institutional repositories Subject-based repositories Preprints archives Conference proceedings
  70. 70. Supporting change in publishingmodels: Multiple approaches OA journal publishing OA Institutional Repository & deposit mandates Support for other OA archives & conference hosting Local OA awareness raising OA advocacy through larger groups (LPC, OASPA) Subsidy of OA author fees (COPE) Support the development of Open Sourcepublishing software
  71. 71. Thinking critically aboutOA publishing Bealls List of Predatory OA Publishers iAWFUL (Internet Advocates‘ Watchlist for UglyLaws)
  72. 72. Resources COPE LPC PKP OASPA SPARC DOAJ SHERPA/ROMEO Creative Commons
  73. 73.
  74. 74. Questions?
  75. 75. Contact usULS Office of ScholarlyCommunication and PublishingTwitter: @OSCP_Pitt Tim Deliyannides, Director Twitter: @deliyannides Lauren B. Collister, Electronic Publications AssociateTwitter: