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Pollution of water- Ashish
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  • 1. Pollution of WaterAshish Kumar SinghRoll no.11Guided by Dr. Laxmikant L.
  • 2. DEFINITIONA change in the chemical, physical,biological and radiological quality ofwater that is injurious to its existing,intended or potential use
  • 3. Where do Water pollutants come from? Point Sources – A single definable sourceof the pollution, e.g. a factory, a sewageplant, etc. Point-source pollution is usuallymonitored and regulated.
  • 4. Non-point sources – is not a single source,but a wide range of sources, e.g. runoff fromurban areas, or farmland. Non-pointsources are much more difficult to monitorand controlWhere do Waterpollutants come from?
  • 5. Water Pollution
  • 6. Pollution of Water1. Industrial pollution2. Surface pollution3. Groundwatercontamination4. Sewage pollution5.Oil pollution6.Thermal pollution
  • 7. Water pollutants Industrial EffluentsThis waste water may contain acids, alkalis, salts, poisons,oils and in some cases harmful bacteria. Mining and Agricultural WastesMines, especially gold and coal mines, are responsible forlarge quantities of acid water. Agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and herbicidesmay wash into rivers and stagnant water bodies. Sewage Disposal and Domestic WastesSewage as well as domestic and farm wastes often polluterivers and dams.
  • 8. Water pollution
  • 9. Non-persistent (degradable)water pollutants These compounds can be broken downby chemical reactions or by naturalbacteria into simple, non-pollutingsubstances such as carbon dioxide andnitrogen. if the pollution load is high, this processcan lead to low oxygen levels andeutrophication. This damage is reversible.
  • 10. Non-persistent (degradable)Water pollutants Domestic sewage Fertilizers Some industrial wastes
  • 11. Persistent Water pollutants This is the most rapidly growing type ofpollution This includes substances that degrade veryslowly or cannot be broken down at all; They may remain in the aquatic environmentfor years or longer periods of time. The damage they cause is either irreversibleor repairable only over decades or centuries
  • 12. Persistent Water pollutants some pesticides (e.g., DDT, dieldrin) petroleum and petroleum products PCBs, dioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) radioactive materials such as strontium-90,cesium-137, radium-226, and uranium metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium
  • 13. Other water quality pollutants warm water from cooling towers(thermal pollution) floating debris garbage foam
  • 14. 1. Classes of WaterpollutantsPathogens  Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa,Parasitic Worms, Colliform Bacteria Used AsIndicators Of Water QualityOxygen Demanding Wastes  Organics That AreDecomposed By Bacteria And That Use A Lot OfO2, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Decreases, And BODIncreasesWater Soluble Inorganic Chemicals  Acids,Salts, Toxic Metal Compounds Like Mercury, AndLead.Inorganic Plant Nutrients  Water SolublePhosphates, Nitrates => Algal Blooms, DecreasedDissolved O2, Increased BOD.
  • 15. 2. Classes of Waterpollutants Organic Chemicals  Oil, Gas, Plastics, Pesticides, CleaningSolvents, Detergents, Etc.  Radioactive Isotopes  Are Biologically Amplified To HigherConcentrations In The Food Chain.Ionizing Radiation cause Birth Defects, Cancer.  Warmed Water  From Power Plants.Decreases DO And Increases Susceptibility To Diseases.
  • 16. Industrial Waterpollution Industries discharge a variety ofpollutants in their wastewater includingheavy metals , resin pellets, organictoxins, oils, nutrients, and solids.
  • 17.  Over 1 billion people lack access tosafe water supplies, while 2.6 billionpeople lack adequate sanitation. Thishas led to widespread microbialcontamination of drinking water. Water-associated infectious diseasesclaim up to 3.2 million lives each year,approximately 6% of all deathsglobally.Microbial contaminationMicrobial contamination of water
  • 18. Acid rain Acid rain is formed when moisture in theclouds mixes with sulfur or nitrogen in theair. The sulfur and nitrogen get into the air bythe burning of fossil fuels such as coaland gasoline. The average pH of rainfall is4.3.
  • 19. Mass fish kills
  • 20. Disease burden from water pollution Water-associated infectious diseasesclaim up to 3.2 million lives each year,approximately 6% of all deathsglobally. The burden of disease frominadequate water, sanitation, andhygiene totals 1.8 million deaths andthe loss of greater than 75 millionhealthy life years.
  • 21. Oil Pollution of water Both Point and Nonpoint Sources Largest source of oil pollution is pipelineleaks and runoff–61% ocean oil pollution river & urbanrunoff–30% intentional discharges fromtankers–5% accidental spills from tankers
  • 22. CONTROL OF WATERPOLLUTION Nonpoint Pollution Sources and LandManagement–Reduce nutrient loading through landuse regulations–Source reduction is cheapest andmost effective way to reducepollution. Banning phosphate detergents Soil Conservation Sewage Treatment Remediation
  • 23. SEWAGE TREATMENT
  • 24. MUNICIPAL SEWAGETREATMENT Primary Treatment - Physical separation of largesolids from the waste stream. Secondary Treatment - Biological degradation ofdissolved organic compounds.– Effluent from primary treatment transferred intotrickling bed, or aeration tank Effluent from secondary treatment is usually disinfected(chlorinated) before release into nearby waterway. Tertiary Treatment - Removal of plant nutrients(nitrates and phosphates) from secondary effluent.– Chemicals, or natural wetlands.
  • 25. Water Remediation Extraction techniques are used to pumpout polluted water for treatment.–Oxidation, reduction, neutralization,or precipitation. Living organisms can also be usedeffectively to break down pollutedwaters.
  • 26. Solutions on Water Pollution•Prevent groundwater contamination•Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff•Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation•Find substitutes for toxic pollutants•Reduce resource waste•Reduce air pollution•Reduce poverty
  • 27. Referance PARK’S TEXTBOOK OF PSM WWW.WATERWORLD.COMWWW.WATERWORLD.COM WWW.WIKIPEDIA.ORG WWW.SLIDESHARE.COM
  • 28. Thank you