1. Chp 1 PROJECT:-A project is a sequence of unique, complex, and connected activities having one goal or purpose andthat must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specification.Characteristics of a Project • Sequence of Activities • Unique Activities • Complex Activities • Connected Activities • One Goal • Specified Time • With in Budget • According to SpecificationProject ParametersFive constraints operate on every project:ScopeQualityCostTimeRESOURCES The Scope Triangle
2. TYPES OF CREEPS IN A PROJECT:-1.SCOPE CREEP2.HOPE CREEP3.EFFORT CREEP4.FEATURE CREEP CHP 2------What is Project Management?PM is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order tomeet project requirements. (PMI)PMis an art.is a science.has a set of tools and methods
3. Q.What do you understand by project management life cycle?The project management life cycle consists of various phases in the life of a project.Thesephases/stages are as under:-1.Scope the Project.2.Develop the Project Plan.3.Launch the Plan.4.Monitor/Control Project progress.5.Close out the Project. The TPM life Cycle
4. RELATIONSHIP Product Development Life Cycle and TPM
5. The Project Development Life Cycle Pain Curve
6. CHP 3What do you understand by conditions of satisfaction in a Project? How arethese developed? Show Diagrammatically?Ans:Definition of Conditions of Satisfaction (COS):These are the conditions on which the client and the Project Manager agree as a result of theirNegotiations about a particular project.Development of COS:The client makes a request for a project to the project Manager. At this point both partiesdefine exactly what the request is and what kind of response is appropriate. The deliverablefrom the conversation is COS.This process is explained with the help of following diagram. Establishing the Condition of Satisfaction
7. What is POS? Discuss its purposes Ans: The project overview statement (POS) is a short document ideally one page that concisely states; what is to be done in the Project? Why it is to be done? And what business value, it will provide to the enterprise when completed. The COS provides input to generate the POS. Purposes of POS: 1. To obtain approval of the Project from Senior Management (Competent Authority). 2. Inherited Project. 3. Unsolicited Individual Initiative. 4. A reference for the team. Q. Discuss various parts of the POS and draw a sample POS?Ans:- The POS has five component parts:- 1. Problem / Opportunity. 2. Project Goal. 3. Project objectives. 4. Success Criteria. 5. Assumptions, Risks, Obstacles.Sample POS is drawn Below
8. SAMPLE FORM --POS CHP 4DEFINATION OF WBS:-The work Breakdown Structure(WBS) is a hierarchical description of the work that must bedone to complete the Project,as defined in the Project over view Statement.(POS).Severalprocesses can be used to create this hierarchy.
9. Work Breakdown StructureWBS for a house
10. Q.Explain briefly the Approaches to build/generate the WBS?There are two main Approaches to build/generate WBS:- 1. TOP-DOWN APPROACH 2. BOTTOM-UP APPROACH.CRITERIA TO ENSURE COMPLETENESS OF EACH ACTIVITY IN WBS.
11. Developing the WBS is the most critical part of the JPP session. If we do this part right, the restis comparatively easy. How do you know that you’ve done this right? Each activity must possesssix characteristics to be considered complete. That is, completely decomposed. The sixcharacteristics are as under: 1. SIX CRITERIA TO TEST FOR COMPLETENESS IN THE WBS 2. Status/completion is measurable. (Measurable Status)2. Start/end events are clearly defined. (Bounded)3. Activity has a deliverable.4. Time/cost is easily estimated.5. Activity duration is within acceptable limits.6. Work assignments are independent.If the activity does not possess these six characteristics, decompose the six activity and ask thequestions again. As soon as an activity possesses the six characteristics, there is no need tofurther decompose it. As soon as every activity in the WBS possess these six characteristics, theWBS is defined as complete.
12. CHP 5 Six Methods for Estimating Activity Duration• Similarity to other activities• Historical data• Expert advice• Delphi technique• Three point technique• Wide-band Delphi technique DELPHI TECHNIQUE First Pass DELPHI TECHNIQUE Second Pass
13. THREE POINTS TECHNIQUES DELPHI TECHNIQUE • PESSISMISTIC. The pessimistic time is that duration that would be experienced ( or has beenThird Pass experienced) if every thing that could go wrong did go wrong, yet the activity was completed. • MOST LIKELY. The most likely time is that time usually experienced. APPLYING THREE POINT TECHNIQUE APPLYING THE WIDE-BAND DELPHI TECHNIQUES Combining the Delphi and three-point methods results in the wide-band Delphi techniques. It involves a panel. As in the Delphi technique. In place of a single estimate the panel members are asked, at each iteration, to give their single estimates for the duration of the chosen activity. The results are computed for each of the three estimates, and the averages are used the optimistic, pessimistic, and most likely estimates of activity duration.
14. CHP 6 BASIC TERMINOLOGY IN BASIC TERMINOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTING PERT/CPM CONSTRUCTING PERT/CPM 4. Slack/ Float of an Activity:- It is the time1. Project Network Diagram:- It is a duration for which an activity can bePictorial representation of the sequence slacked/Floated.in which the project work can be done 5.EST:- Earliest Start time of an activity. 6.LST:- Latest Start time of an activity.2.Activity:- Chunk Of Work. 7.EFT:-Earliest Finish time of an activity.3.Slack/Float Activity:- it is that type of 8.LFT:- Latest Finish Time of an activity.Activity which can be started earlier or 9.Critical Path:- It is the largest path or sequence of Activities (in terms of Activity Timefinished later without affecting the time Duration), through the Network Diagram.duration of the Project CONSTRAINTS WHICH EFFECT SAMPLE NETWORK DIAGRAM SEQUENCING OF PROJECT ACTIVITIES There are Four type of constraints which 2 effect the sequence of Project Activities:- 1. Technical constraints. 1 3 2. Management constraints. 4 3. Inter Project constraints. 4. Date Constraints.Question: Calculate Critical Path From Above Network Diagram ACTIVITIES DEPENDENCIES ACTIVITIES DEPENDENCIESA dependency is a relationship that exist 1. Finish to Start (FS):- When Abetween activities. To say that Activity B finishes B start.depends on Activity A. It means Activity A BA produces a deliverable which is 2. Start to Start(SS):- Activity A & Bneeded in order to do the work Start Togetherassociated with Activity B. there are AFour type of Activity Dependencies. B
15. ACTIVITIES DEPENDENCIES ACTION PLAN3. Start to Finish (SF):- Activity B can Activity Precedence Time Durationonly finish when Activity A has Started. A - 5 Days B - 4 Days C A 6 Days A B D B 2 Days E B 5 Days4. Finish to Finish (FF):- Activity A and F C, D 8 DaysActivity B finish at the same time. Assignment:- Draw a PERT/CPM from above Action Plan. Calculate critical Path? Please submit this Assignment to A the Teacher in next Class. B PERT/CPM OF ACTION PLAN GIVEN AS ASSIGNMENT 2 4 1 5 3 Critical Path =A+C+F = 5 Days + 6 Days + 8 Days = 19 Days
16. CHP 7 RESOURCE LEVELLING Resource Scheduling ProblemResource Leveling is a process thatProject Manager follows to schedule howeach resource is allocated to activities inorder to accomplish work with thescheduled start and Finish dates of theActivity. The Scheduled start and Finishdates of every Activity are constrained bythe Project Plan to lie entirely within theirES-LF window. WORK PACKAGEResource- Leveling Strategies It is a written document which You can use three approaches describes the work (task) to be to level project resources. done in an Activity. Each work 1. Utilizing available Slack. package is assigned to a single 2. Shifting the Project Finish individual called an activity Date. Manager or work Package 3. Smoothing. Manager. The Manager is responsible for completing the Activity on Time. WORK PACKAGE FORMAT OF A WORK ASSIGNMENT SHEET PACKAGE 1. Work Package Assignment Sheet. 2. Work Package Description Report.
17. WORK PACKAGEDESCRIPTION REPORT
18. CHP8 Definition of JPP Session Objectives of JPP session It is a group session in which all of the people who are involved in the Project To develop a Project Plan, meet to develop the detailed Plan. This which meets the conditions of session can last from one to three days satisfaction (COS) as and can be work-intensive. Often there is a conflict between session Attendee, but negotiated between the client the final result of this meeting is an and the Project Manager, and agreement; about how the project can be as described in the Project accomplished within specified time, budget, resource Availability and overview statement (POS) customer specification. DELIVERABLES FROM JPP Project Proposal The culmination of all the planning is the SESSION project proposal. The project proposal is the 1. Work Break Down Structure. deliverable from the JPP session and is 2. Activity Duration Estimates. forwarded to the senior management team for 3. Resource Requirements. approval to do the project. It states the complete business case for the project. This 4. Project Network Schedule. includes expected business value, as well as 5. Activity Schedule (start date cost and time estimates. and End Date for each In addition to this information, the proposal Activity. details what is to be done, who is going to do 6. Resources Assignments. it, when it is going to be done, and how it is 7. Project Notebook. going to be done. It is the roadmap for the project CONTENTS OF PROJECT PROPOSAL1. Back Ground.2. Objectives.3. Overview of Approach to be Taken.4. Detailed Statement of Work.5. Time and cost Summary.6. Appendices (Annexures)
19. CHP 9chapter9-1 MOTIVATORS(BY HERZBERG)Herzberg identified following CHAPT 9-2Motivators:- HYGIENE FACTORS(BY HERZBERG)1. Achievement 1.Company Policy2.Recognition 2.Administrative Practices3.Advancement and growth 3.Working Conditions4.responsibility 4.Technical Supervision5.Work itself. 5.Interpersonal Relations 6.Job security 7.Salary. Chapt 9-3 Motivators Which are Controlled by Chapt 9-4 the Actions of a Project Manager:- COMPONENTS OF PROJECT TEAM 1.Challenge 2.Recognition 1.Project Manager 3.Job design 2.Core Team a.Skill variety 3.Contracted Team:- a.Shortage of staff b.Task identity b.Shortage of Skills c.Task Significance d.Autonomy e.Feed back.
20. CHP 10 BALANCING CONTROL PURPOSES OF CONTROL SYSTEM High Control - Low risk Low control - High Risk1. To Track Progress But control also implies rigidity1. To detect variance from plan. and structure. Both tend to stifle creativity. The project manager2. To take corrective Action. should allow the Team members to have some Latitude to exercise their individuality. Hence there should be optimum level of control.TOTAL COST OF CONTROL CHANGE CONTROL FORM& RISK TYPICAL CHANGE CONTROL PROCESS
21. CHP 11 CHAPTER 11-1 STEPS IN CLOSING OUT THE PROJECT 1.GETTING CLIENT ACCEPTANCE 2.INSTALLING PROJECT DELIVERABLES 3.DOCUMENTING THE PROJECT 4.POST IMPLEMENTATION AUDIT 5.THE FINAL REPORT 6.CELEBRATING SUCCESSCHAPTER 11-2POST IMPLEMENTATION AUDIT.• The post implementation Audit is an evaluation of the Project Goal and activities achievement as measured against the project plan,budget ,time,deadlines,quality of deliverables,specifications and client satisfaction.• CONTINUED ON NEXT SLIDECHAPTER 11-3SIX QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED DURINGPOST IMPLEMENTATION AUDIT.1.Was the project goal achieved?2.Was the project work done on time,within budget,and according to specifications?3.Was the client satisfied with project results?4.Was the business value realized?5.What lessons were learned about your project management methodology?6.What worked?What did not?
22. CHP 12 Project Management Q: Define Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM). Discuss statistical Validation of the Approaches Critical Chain Approach? Critical Chain Project Mangement The critical Chain is defined as the longest duration 1. Traditional Project Management path through the project considering the task dependencies and resource constraints. (TPM) Approach. The planning, scheduling and maintenance of critical 2. Critical Chain Project chain throughout the course of the project. Moreover by giving priority to the critical chain, the Project Management (CCPM) Approach Manager identifies scheduled Tasks around the most constrained resources and completes the Project in less time as compared to TPM Approach. Justification of CCPM Approach 1. Common Cause Variations. The CCPM approach use These occur naturally and are mathematical statistics to handle always Present. We live with that common cause variations and in and Plan accordingly. this way, it completes the same 2. SPECIAL Cause Variations. Project in less time as compared to These are the variations which can be managed by the Project TPM Approach. Manager. For this we prepare Risk Management Plan. Statistical Validation of CCPM Approach CONCLUSIONEvery task has a contingency. The contingencyis the difference between two probable estimate 1. An empirical study was carried outestimatestimate. esestimates. D A B C and it has been proved that by Statistical analysis, that CCPMIn the above Diagram, there are four tasks, and Approach completes a Project inthey have Four contingencies. less time as compared to TPM A B C D Approach. Therefore, we can sayIn the above Diagram, (By CCPM that CCPM Approach is statisticallyapproach) all contingencies have been Valid.aggregated. Therefore, it is easy tomanage it
23. Q: Assume that your organization is interested Comparison and Contrast of Two in using CCPM along with TPM; what criteria approaches;TPM and CCPM. would you use to decide, which approach 1. Both Approaches are identical to the makes more sense for a given Project? point, where Project Network is drawnAns: and critical path is identified.1. Definition of TPM:Project Management is a method and set of techniques 2. Thereafter CCPM Manager developsbased on the accepted principles of management used critical chain Plan.for planning estimating and controlling work activities toreach as desired end result on time, with in budget and 3. CCPM is more scientific and make use ofaccording to specifications. Mathematical statistics to reduce special2. Definition of CCPM: (Already given in previous slide) cause variations, which reduces the time duration of Project. CONCLUSIONWe have discussed both approaches, thatis TPM and CCPM. In order to decide whichapproach makes more sense for a givenproject, it depends upon the nature of theProject. In case the time duration of theProject is more essential, we would like tohave CCPM Approach otherwise we canadopt TPM approach