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Training techniques


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Training techniques

  1. 1. TTrraaiinniinngg MMeetthhooddss && TTeecchhnniiqquueess
  2. 2. 2 We Learn 1% through taste 1.5% through touch 3.5% through smell 11% through hearing 83% through sight We Remember 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 80% of what we say 90% of what we say as we act
  3. 3. Traditional Methods Categories Presentation Methods Hands-on Methods Group Building Methods
  4. 4. Presentation Methods • Presentation methods refer to methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information. • This information may include: – Facts or information – Processes – Problem – solving methods • Presentation methods include: – Lectures – Audio-visual techniques
  5. 5. Demonstration Lecture Small Group Activity/ Discussion Case Study Role Play
  6. 6. Presentation Methods: Lecture • Lecture involves the trainer communicating through spoken words what she wants the trainees to learn.
  7. 7. Lecture method One way verbal delivery of content by the trainer Advantages :- 1.Can reinforce trainers credibility 2.Information is concentrated & organized as desired 3.Efficient lots of information can be shared 4.Can be personalized /customized easily Cont….
  8. 8. Variations of the Lecture Method Standard Lecture Team Teaching Student Presentations Panels Guest Speakers
  9. 9. Disadvantages of Lecture Method :- 1.One way; not effective if goal is shared responsibility 2.Details get lost in the shuffle after 15-20 minutes 3.Relative passivity of employees 4.Depends totally on trainers effectiveness and information 5.Usually no record of key points 6.Words and figures can be easily be garbled
  10. 10. Presentation Methods: Audio-Visual Techniques • Audio-visual instruction includes: – Overheads – Slides – Video • It has been used for improving: – Communication skills – Interviewing skills – Customer-service skills – Illustrating how procedures should be followed
  11. 11. Hands-on Methods • Hands-on methods refer to training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning. • These methods include: – On-the-job training – Simulations – Case studies – Business games – Role plays – Behavior modeling
  12. 12. Hands-on Methods: On-the-Job Training • On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior. • OJT includes: – Apprenticeships – Self-directed learning programs
  13. 13. On-the-Job Training (continued) • OJT can be useful for: – Training newly hired employees – Upgrading experienced employees’ skills when new technology is introduced – Cross-training employees within a department or work unit – Orienting transferred or promoted employees to their new jobs
  14. 14. Effective OJT Programs Include: • A policy statement that describes the purpose of OJT and emphasizes the company’s support for it. • A clear specification of who is accountable for conducting OJT. • A thorough review of OJT practices at other companies in similar industries.
  15. 15. Effective OJT Programs (continued) • Training of managers and peers in the principles of structured OJT. • Availability of lesson plans, checklists, procedure manuals, training manuals, learning contracts, and progress report forms for use by employees who conduct OJT. • Evaluation of employees’ levels of basic skills before OJT.
  16. 16. OJT Programs: Self-Directed Learning • Employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning: – When it is conducted – Who will be involved • Trainees master predetermined training content at their own pace without an instructor. • Trainers are available to evaluate learning or answer questions for the trainee.
  17. 17. Self-Directed Learning (continued) Advantages • Learn at own pace • Feedback about learning performance • Fewer trainers needed • Consistent materials • Multiple sites easier • Fits employee shifts and schedules Disadvantages • Trainees must be motivated to learn on their own • Higher development costs • Higher development time
  18. 18. OJT Programs: Apprenticeship • Work-study training method with both on-the- job and classroom training. • To qualify as a registered apprenticeship program under state or federal regulations: – 144 hours of classroom instruction – 2000 hours (or one year) of OJT experience • Can be sponsored by companies or unions. • Most programs involve skilled trades.
  19. 19. Apprenticeship (continued) Advantages • Earn pay while learning • Effective learning about “why and how” • Full-time employment at completion Disadvantages • Limited access for minorities and women • No guarantee of full-time employment • Training results in narrow focus expertise
  20. 20. Hands-on Methods Case method Objectives 1.It can stimulate an analytical process 2.Help in deriving useful generalization of principles 3.Good method in decision making and problem solving 4.Develop in knowledge and skills 5.Real life situations will be shared 6.Effective in enhancing involvement of participants
  21. 21. Hands-on Methods Case method Advantage 1.Can focus the discussion and learning experience 2.Can gain a shared understanding of on the job problems 3.Can provide real world application and customized Disadvantages 1.May impose time limitations for reading and discussion 2.Difficult to develop and incorporate all the necessary details 3.Only builds and demonstrates understanding, not skills.
  22. 22. Hands-on Methods Role play It is conscious attempt to bring out the dynamics and intricacies of various role performed in real life. Role play which participants are required to act out the role of an individual in a situation relevant to the individual.
  23. 23. Hands-on Methods Role play Objectives 1.Role play is key training method for engendering behavioural changes. 2.Role play emphasizes of understanding and appreciating others point of view. 3.Improve the skills in the area of problem solving and decision making. 4.self-expression and interpersonal communication and improves interpersonal effectives.
  24. 24. Case method vs Role play Case method Role Play 1.Presents problem for analysis & discussion 2.Focuses on cognitive learning 3.Ther and then situation 4.Ther is some predictability about the discussion. 5.Emphasis on facts & data 1.Locates life –like interactive setting 2.Thinking and doing 3.Here and now situation 4.This way situation to unfolds 5.Importance of behaviour, reactions & feelings
  25. 25. Hands-on Methods Role play Limitations 1.Who are shy, introvert and multi-cultural for them it is embarrassing. 2.Some feel foolish before playing someone else. 3.This method is open to criticism for lack of realism. 4.Not many trainers have the required skills in writing a role play and conducting it. 5.Actions and behaviour of few participants the whole exercise can be degenerate.
  26. 26. Hands-on Methods Management Game Deals with certain specific aspects of management. Enhances understanding, 1.Typical organisational problems 2.Inter –relatedness of the functions organization. 3.The problem of organisation policy and decision making 4.The problems of working in team.
  27. 27. Hands-on Methods Questioning Method Two types 1.Structured & 2.Free Form Questioning Skills 1.Help in estimating the participants understanding 2.Invite and participation in the group process 3.Provide feedback how the experience is being received
  28. 28. Skills associated with questioning 1.Asking questions of the participants. 2.Handling their answers to your questions. 3.Responding to their questions.
  29. 29. Handling answer to questions 1.Use positive reinforcement for correct answers 2.Acknowledge the effort of the respondent, regardless of whether the answer was right or wrong. 3.Minimise potential embarrassment for wrong or incomplete answers.
  30. 30. Responding to questions There are three acceptable ways to respond to questions. 1.Provide the answer yourself 2.Redirect he question back to the person 3.Defer the question
  31. 31. Hands-on Methods Individual &Group assignments • Developing mental skills the participants may given exercise like planning project or survey typical issues or preparing action plan for the organisation.
  32. 32. Advantages of assignments 1.Oppurtunity to display initiative and creativity 2.They are closer to reality & non threatening 3.Great deal involvement and own learning all their senses 4.Good method to assess the performance of the participants
  33. 33. Group discussion:- aims at structured but informal exchange of knowledge, ideas, and perception on any issue. Generate pile of ideas by examining issues in greater depth, looking at different dimension of the issues.
  34. 34. Limitations of GD 1.Group is large members not get opportunity to participate 2.Dicusson may lack focus and as result, it may be unproductive 3.Some members may dominate and high jack 4.As is group task some members may take it easy and not feel constrained to participate. 5.Leader is unskilled in guiding the discussion and or not familiar with the topic or issues.
  35. 35. Hands-on Methods Panel Discussion Method 1.It is structured discussion format. 2.This format used before participants, views and opinion on a specific topic or issue. 3.The presentations are short lectures rather than a long lecture.
  36. 36. Hands-on Methods Brainstorming method Objective 1.Generating wide range of solutions in solving a problem 2.Developing attitude among participants by encouraging them to listen and participate. 3.Encouraging shy and reluctant participants to share their ideas and thoughts.
  37. 37. Hands-on Methods Field trip It is not an observation visit or a tour but a training activity designed to enhance learning.
  38. 38. Hands-on Methods Demonstration method A demonstration is an illustrated presentation to the participants how to do a thing. Advantages:- 1.Demonstration ahs verbal as well as visual components. 2.Trainer can control the pace and easily alter it to meet needs of the group. 3.Trainer can stimulate participants interest.
  39. 39. Hands-on Methods Basket Exercise Attempts to stimulate the working situation by setting the trainee realistic tasks. The trainees are presented with papers such as letters and memos placed in the basket which they respond individually. Uses:- Development of analytical skills Confidence gaining in decision making
  40. 40. Advantages:- provides concrete subjects for practical work discussion opportunities for active participation Disadvantage:- 1.Time consuming 2.Difficult to achieve real life time situations 3.If handled insensitively it may undermine the confidence of some learners
  41. 41. Hands-on Methods Syndicate Method • Syndicate learning feature of military staff college. • Largely patterned by Henley. • Objective was to encourage managers from these different kinds of enterprise to learn each other. Features:- 1.Composed of members with different expertise drawn from different types of enterprise. 2.Trask oriented sense that there is specified end result. 3.Self managing with in constrains of the programme.
  42. 42. Hands-on Methods Programmed learning Training given off the job. It could used in a formal training programme used. Principles 1.Subject to be taught is to be clearly defined 2.Tehn several units are to be prepared called as ‘frames’ 3.Each frame will consist understandings regarding matter presented in that frame.
  43. 43. Hands-on Methods Sensitivity Training ST focuses on exploring the nature of interpersonal relationships. This method establish learning atmosphere in which self-examination and criticism is rewarded. Where constructive feed back is given to others and where social support given for change efforts.
  44. 44. Objective of ST Self 1.Becoming aware of own 2.Correctly perceiving effects of own behaviour on others 3.Correctly understanding effect of others behaviour on self. 4.Hearing others and acceptable helpful criticism 5.Appropiately interacting with others
  45. 45. Interpersonal & Group relations 1.Establishing meaningful interpersonal relationships 2.Finding a satisfying place in the group 3.Understanding dynamic complexities in group behavior 4.Developing diagnostic skills to understand group problems and processes. 5.Acquring skills of helping the group in task and maintenance problems
  46. 46. Organisation 1.Understanding organizational complexities 2.Developing and inventing appropriate new patterns and procedures 3.Helping to diagnose and solve problems between units of the organisation 4.Working as a member and as a leader
  47. 47. Hands-on Methods Simulations • Represents a real-life situation. • Trainees’ decisions result in outcomes that mirror what would happen if on the job. • Used to teach: – Production and process skills – Management and interpersonal skills
  48. 48. Hands-on Methods Behavior Modeling • Involves presenting trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate. • Provides trainees opportunity to practice the key behaviors. • Based on the principles of social learning theory. • More appropriate for learning skills and behaviors than factual information. • Effective for teaching interpersonal and computer skills.
  49. 49. Group Building Methods • Group building methods refer to training methods designed to improve team or group effectiveness. • Training directed at improving trainees’ skills as well as team effectiveness. • Group building methods involve trainees: – Sharing ideas and experiences – Building group identity – Understanding interpersonal dynamics – Learning their strengths and weaknesses and of their co-workers.
  50. 50. Group Building Methods (continued) • Group techniques focus on helping teams increase their skills for effective teamwork. • Group building methods include: – Adventure learning – Team training – Action learning
  51. 51. Group Building Methods Adventure Learning • Focuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills using structured outdoor activities. • Also known as wilderness training and outdoor training. • Best suited for developing skills related to group effectiveness such as: – Self-awareness – Problem solving – Conflict management – Risk taking
  52. 52. Adventure Learning (continued) • To be successful: – Exercises should be related to the types of skills that participants are expected to develop. – After the exercises, a skilled facilitator should lead a discussion about • what happened in the exercise • what was learned • how events in the exercise relate to job situation • how to apply what was learned on the job
  53. 53. Group Building Methods Team Training • Involves coordinating the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal. • Teams that are effectively trained develop procedures to identify and resolve errors, coordinate information gathering, and reinforce each other.
  54. 54. Components of Team Performance Team Performance Behavior Knowledge Attitude
  55. 55. Group Building Methods Action Learning • Involves giving teams or work groups: – an actual problem, – having them work on solving it, – committing to an action plan, and – holding them accountable for carrying out the plan.
  56. 56. Action Learning (continued) • Several types of problems are used including how to: – Change the business – Better utilize technology – Remove barriers between the customer and company – Develop global leaders
  57. 57. THANK YOU!