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Recruitment & selection ch# 13 & 14

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Recruitment & selection ch# 13 & 14

  1. 1. Decision Making chapter 13
  2. 2. DECISIONS The two key elements in making the final selection are:  Gathering the evidence  Making the decision
  3. 3. Gathering the evidence The development of the specification at the beginning of the selection process should form the framework for making the decision, and therefore the checklist, for ensuring that all data have been gathered. In using a non-competency based approach the PERSON-specification will be checked to ensure that there is evidence of the Personal qualities, the Experience required, the Record of achievement desired, the Skills and qualifications needed, the fit with the Organization, and whether the Needs of the candidate are likely to be fulfilled in this position. Using the competency-based approach the process is slightly easier because there is a logical structure. Each of the competencies being sought is clear, and the framework for the choice of selection tools will provide a map of where the evidence can be found.
  4. 4. USING DIFFERENT TECHNIQUES TO SEARCH FOR EVIDENCE OF REQUIRED COMPETENCIES Achievement Leadership Creativity Resilience Flexibility Technical Knowledge Judgment Decision Making Planning and Organization People Management Energy Financial acumen
  5. 5. Making the decision There are two main approaches to selection decisions:  actuarial  interpretative The actuarial approach is very mechanistic and objective. The scores for each stage of the selection process are added together and the position(s) offered to the candidate(s) with the highest score(s). It may be the case that certain stages are weighted to give greater emphasis. For example, using a non weighted approach, candidates A and B may be assessed on a five point scale as follows: A B Application 3 3 Test 4 3 First Interview 4 5 Exercise 4 4 Second Interview 4 5 Total scores 19 20
  6. 6. Making the decision And candidate B would be offered the job. A similar approach can be used where each competency is assessed and scored, again using a five point scale for illustration: A B Planning and organizing 3 4 Relationships 4 5 Knowledge 3 3 Judgment 4 3 Adaptability 4 5 Total Scores 18 20 In the second example, each of the competencies would be assessed from different stages or techniques but with some perhaps being measured by more than one technique (assuming, for example, that judgment is measured by a test plus an interview then the final score would be the average of the two).
  7. 7. Both of these examples assume that equal importance would be attached to each stage (in the first example) or each competency (in the second example). It may, of course, be the case that greater importance is to be attached to one or another, and a weighting system would be applied. Using the same examples, if the test in the first example received a weighting of 2.0 and the exercise received a weighting of 1.5, then both candidates would have equal scores. In the second example, weighting competencies of ‘relationships’ and ‘adaptability’ by 1.5 would increase the advantage of B over A.
  8. 8. USING BAR CHARTS TO COMPARE CANDIDATES WITH THE JOB SPECIFICATION Role Profile Candidate Achievement Leadership Creativity Resilience Flexibility Technical Knowledge Judgment Decision Making Planning and Organization People Management Energy Financial acumen
  9. 9. Mistakes  Ignoring the specification may seem an obvious mistake but one that is not always so easily avoided since there can be a danger of the selection assignment becoming a competition rather than a search, and candidates are compared with each other rather than compared with the specification.  over-reliance on a single element can sometimes lead to mistakes where, for example, a first class interview performance is allowed to eclipse concerns about past experience or test results.  The halo effect is a variation on this theme and it occurs where a particular virtue of the candidate is allowed to obscure or downplay negative factors.  Stereotyping occurs positively and negatively. In positive stereotyping, people of a certain age or background or experience in common with others employed, but of no causal relationship to performance, are deemed to be suitable candidates. In negative stereotyping a similar process occurs to the detriment of the candidate.
  10. 10. Mistakes  Mirroring or ‘similarity-identity bias’ occurs where the selector favors a candidate, usually subconsciously, because the candidate matches the selector’s own outlook, experience, etc.  Prejudice occurs both consciously and unconsciously. There are, sadly, still incidents of people being rejected because of physical disabilities or age or social background or ethnicity.  Non-involvement of clients in the selection process and in decision-making may adversely affect the successful integration of the new appointee and therefore corrupt the decision retroactively.
  11. 11. Check and Offers chapter 14
  12. 12. Checking There are three main areas for checking  Document checks  Statutory checks  References.
  13. 13. Documents Documents checking is concerned with verifying that the qualifications, certificates etc, claimed by the candidate can be substantiated. Documents may include personal certificates such as birth and marriage certificates, which may be relevant to the job in terms of minimum age but are more frequently a requirement for satisfying pension scheme eligibility. Since qualifications ought only to be sought and mentioned where they are pertinent to job performance, it follows that any claims ought to be verified and the original documents checked.
  14. 14. Statutory There are certain statutory obligations which must be fulfilled by an employer. Employees must be registered for National Insurance contributions and it is the duty of an employer to ensure that there is such registration for National Insurance purposes. At one time, employees were provided with National Insurance cards which an employer could obtain but nowadays the only ‘proof’ is a National Insurance number which the employee should quote when taking up work. There is still some leeway for employers to allow the employment to begin, and to make payments to the employee, but this can only be a short term arrangement and if the employee cannot provide a National Insurance number within 14 days of beginning employment, the employment must be suspended until such time as a number can be obtained.
  15. 15. References  References from schools or universities, often focusing on academic achievement. Some head teachers decline to provide references because of the sheer workload and the availability of Records of achievement which should provide the evidence employers require.  Personal or character references which generally show that the new employee is a decent sort of person and may be sought from friends, colleagues, acquaintances or, more frequently, ‘reputable’ people in professional positions.  Work references may be the most sought-after. Sometimes such references are simply an open request for information about the candidate, sometimes they may be a closed questionnaire seeking specific information to verify claims made etc, perhaps asking specific questions on employment dates, attendance record, work performance, relationships with people and other pertinent information from their past.  Specialist references such as credit history, medical history and criminal record.
  16. 16. References References are often regarded as a form of check or safeguard rather than being part of the selection process. It is possible to use references as a form of workplace assessment, good results have been achieved through use of 360-degree appraisal, in which managers, colleagues and subordinates assess the performance of an individual and their likelihood of succeeding in a new role it is, however, a complicated process to establish purely for selection decisions. If organizations are already 360- degree appraisal it will be worthwhile considering its use for selection purposes. Along with space for general comments and candidates ‘particular qualities’ and areas for improvement, their internal reference form specifically asks ‘referee’ managers to ‘comment in detail on the following attributes, based on current performance and potential:  Knowledge of the coastguard association  Operational command qualities  Interpersonal skills  Resource management (financial, time, material etc)  Administration, drafting and representational skills.
  17. 17. Offers Conditions Conditional offers fall into two main types of:  Pre-conditions include making the offer ‘subject to receipt of satisfactory references’ or subject to attainment of certain qualification or educational grades ,such pre-conditions should clearly be treated by both the employer and potential employee as deferring the appointment to the new role until such time as the conditions have been met.  Post-conditional offers may include an appointment ‘subject to completion of a satisfactory probationary period’ or (less common nowadays) taking up residence within a certain time period. It should be clear that where such conditions are not subsequently met, the employment will terminate.
  18. 18. Offers Legal Considerations It needs to be remembered that employment is a legal contract. While the new hire may not become an employee until the employment begins, the contract itself is legally enforceable as soon as it is formed. It is formed when:  There is an offer, and acceptance of the offer.  Both parties intent it to be a legally binding arrangement..  There is ‘consideration’ (something of value attached to the contract).  There is sufficient certainty of terms.

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