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Training 1207897380040065-8 (1)


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Training 1207897380040065-8 (1)

  1. 1. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing particular job. Its purpose is to achieve a change in the behavior of those trained and to enable them to do jobs better. Training is a continuous process. 2
  2. 2. On the basis of purpose several types of training programmes are offered to employees.  Induction or Orientation Training  Job Training  Apprenticeship Training  Internship Training  Refresher Training or Retraining  Training for Promotion 3
  3. 3. The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. 4
  4. 4. The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. 5
  5. 5. An organizational training program involves the following:  Identifying the training needed by the organization .  Obtaining and providing training to address those needs .  Establishing and maintaining training capability  Establishing and maintaining training records.  Assessing training effectiveness. 6
  6. 6. In deciding what structure is appropriate, it is helpful to revisit what has to be done when delivering a training service. A training service normally has the following roles: Training manager: Leads, manages, and integrates with organization's strategy. Trainer/facilitator: Delivers, presents and facilitates the learning. Instructional designer: Designs the documents the training program. Administrator: Organises venue, printing, logistics, training records etc. Internal consultant: Diagnoses, facilitates change and meetings, liases with consultants. Training broker: (Both internal and external role) Finds external providers. 7
  7. 7. Exclusive Internal Structure. Exclusive External Structure. The Eclectic Structure. 8
  8. 8. Economics. Ideology. Head count reduction. Quality. Preparedness. 9
  9. 9. 10
  10. 10.  Merits  More direct.  Large no. of people can be instructed at a same time.  Time factor  Controlled by the instructor  Demerits:  Minimum active involvement  Less motivation  Ability of learners  Lectures cannot be remembered 11
  11. 11. Merits:  improvement over lecture  great value in modifying attitude  members can defend their views Demerits:  size should be small  individuals may not appreciate  will give rise to heated arguments 12
  12. 12. Merits  Criticism from peers  Participation  Loyalty Demerits  Tension and enmity  May hurt a member 13
  13. 13. Merits  Amusing and Practical approach. Demerit  Lot of merriment hence seriousness may be lost.  Observer may not be convinced of his bad communication. 14
  14. 14. Merits  Opportunity to develop insight.  Imp of feelings and emotions  Observation  Feedback Demerits  Time consuming  Boring 15
  15. 15.  Merits  Active involvement  Practise decision making  Exchange ideas  Instant feedback  Demerits  Cost is more  Intense emotions  Artificial  Not universally applicable 16
  16. 16. Executive people are those who have authority over others in the operations of the enterprise. The caliber and performance of managers will largely determine the success of any business. 17
  17. 17. Knowledge management. Behavior change Attitude change Performance change 18
  18. 18. Improvement in technical performance Improvement in conceptual performamce Improvement in human skills Stimulate juniors 19
  19. 19. To develop all those who are under him. Providing for future and present needs of the firm. Provide opportunity for every manager to take an active part in his own development. 20
  23. 23. Advantages:  Superior can guide the employee even though there is no management programs.  Evaluation and feedback. Disadvantages:  Superior may be authoratian.  Coaches ability .  Superior should not be dominant. 24
  24. 24. Advantages:  Discussions, recommendations, criticism, comments. Disadvantages:  Waste of time.  Frustration if participants don’t understand this method. 25
  25. 25. Merits:  Provides stimulating discussion.  Employee can defend his analytical and judgemental views.  Systematic way of thinking. Demerits:  Time consuming.  Rushing towards a solution. 26
  26. 26. Group members address questions such as what ,when,where ,how of situation in which an which an incident developed.Clues are trackled down if they seem to offer reliable insight into why of the situation.And then decision is taken accordingly. 27
  27. 27. Merits  Decisions are rapid.  Feedback is objective.  Promising managers get a prospective of the company as a whole.  Inexpensive  Can be easily organized. 28
  28. 28. Demerits:  Discourages originality.  Logical solutions suggested tends to be abstracted from compulsions . 29
  29. 29. Merits:  Less cost. Demerits:  Difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision making on the jobs  Individuals act differently in real life situations. 30
  30. 30. Merits:  Emplyee can learn more about their own weakness and strengths develop insight into how they react to others and vice versa. Demerits:  Trainers often create stressful situations. 31
  31. 31. 32
  32. 32. What is Training? Distinction between Training and Development Why Training is necessary? What can Training do for Employees? Types of Training Methods of Training Difficulties in various Training Programs Why Training Fails? How to make Training Effective? 33
  33. 33. 34 Learning Dimensions Training Development Who? Non-managerial personnel Managerial Personnel What? Technical and mechanical operations Theoretical, Conceptual ideas Why? Specific job-related purpose General knowledge When? Short-Term Long-Term
  34. 34. Increase Productivity Quick Learning Higher Productivity Standardization of Procedures Less Supervision Economical Operations Higher Morale Preparation of Future Managers 35
  35. 35. Training helps the employees or work-force in the following ways:  Confidence  New Skills  Promotion  Higher Earnings  Adaptability  Increased Safety 36
  36. 36. On the Job Training  Instruction is highly disorganized and haphazard and not properly supervised. Lack of motivation. Low productivity when he is unable to fully develop. Skilled trainer Learners are often subjected to distractions of a noisy shop floor or office. Mostly used for unskilled and semiskilled jobs. 37
  37. 37. Vestibule Training The splitting of responsibilities leads to organizational problems. Additional investment in equipment is necessary This method is of limited value for the jobs which utilize equipment which can be duplicated. The number of trainees are large. Mostly used for semiskilled jobs. 38
  38. 38. Off the Job Training Minimum active involvement of trainees. One-way Communication. Can raise arguments. Some individuals may tend to dominate. Time consuming to arrive at an any decision . Effectiveness depends on the skill of leader. Mostly used for development of higher level employees and executives. 39
  39. 39. Benefits of training are not clear to top management. The top management hardly rewards supervisors for carrying out effective training. The top management rarely plans and budgets systematically for training. Trainers provide limited counseling and consulting services to rest of the organization. 40
  40. 40.  The middle management without proper incentives from top management ,does not account for training in production scheduling.  Without proper scheduling from above, first line supervisors have difficulty production norms if employees are attending training programmes.  Training external to the employees unit sometimes teaches techniques on methods contrary to the practices of the participants organization. 41
  41. 41. Contents of training program be chalked out after identifying the training needs or goals. Training should be job relevant. Should be conducted by well qualified and experienced trainers. Should recognized that all the trainees do not progress at the same rate. 42
  42. 42. Regular constructive feedback concerning his progress in training and implementation of the newly acquired abilities. 43
  43. 43. 44
  44. 44. About executive training  Who are the executives in organizations  Their functions of executives in organization  Purpose and objective of executive training 45
  45. 45.  Methods of executive training ▪ ON-THE-JOB TECHNIQUES ▪ OFF-THE-JOB TECHNIQUES 46
  46. 46. ON-THE-JOB TECHNIQUE 1)The Coaching or guided Method. 2)Job Rotation or Channel Method of Development. 3)Participation in deliberation of the Boards and Committees. 47
  47. 47. The Coaching Method  thinking processes and operative skills.  guide and instructor.  follow up suggestions and corrects errors.  objective of coaching. 48
  48. 48.  Advantages  least centralized staff co-ordination.  feedback and evaluation  Disadvantages  authoritarian.  relies on coaches’ ability  no training atmosphere.  Effectiveness of the method 49 The Coaching Method
  49. 49. Job rotation or channel method of development movement of executives  for beginning level managers  from 6 months to 24 months  great deal of job experience  overall knowledge and familiarity  horizontal or lateral  on a planned basis  on a situational basis 50
  50. 50.  Advantages  Develops inter-departmental co-operation  Boredom and monotony are reduced  Chance to step into a higher position  Equal chance for advancement  Best utilization  Disadvantages  Upsets family and home life  Difficult to adjust  Demotivate intelligent and aggressive trainees  A highly competitive game  Established operations are disturbed 51 Job rotation or channel method of development
  51. 51. Participation in Deliberation of the Junior Board and Committees or the Multiple Management technique For middle and senior level managers  Real life actual problems  Opportunity for managers to share  Make a recommendation  Exposure to other members 52
  52. 52.  Advantages  Opportunity to gain knowledge  Identify those who have executive talent  Practical experience of group decision making  Inexpensive  Better human relations climate  Disadvantages  Only for middle and senior level managers  Does not permit any specific attention  Tend to be discursive lacking authority 53 Participation in Deliberation of the Junior Board and Committees or the Multiple Management technique
  53. 53. OFF-THE-JOB TECHNIQUE 1) The Case Study 2) Incident Method 3) Role Playing 4) In Basket Method 5) Business games 6) Sensitivity Training 7) Simulation 8) Grading Training 54
  54. 54. OFF-THE-JOB TECHNIQUES The Case Study  Actual business situation  Appraise and analyze  Suggest solutions  Actual decision known to the executives only  Compared with the various solutions  Stimulating discussion  Improving decision making abilities 55
  55. 55. Incident Method Stimulate self-development  Intellectual ability  Practical judgement  Social awareness  Studies a written incident  Short term decisions  Find out what, when, where, how of the situation 56
  56. 56. Grid Training  Several possible leadership styles  Two basic orientation  Concern for people and concern for production  Lasts for 3 to 5 years  Weekend conference  Discussion, analysis and solution 57
  57. 57. THANK YOU