Constraints of management dynamics in hec


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Constraints of management dynamics in hec

  1. 1. P a g e |2 Vol. 10 Issue 9 (Ver 1.0) December 2010 Global Journal of Management and Business Research Constraints of Management Dynamics of Higher Education in Pakistan GJMBR-A Classification (FOR) 740300 Hafiz Ghufran Ali Khan1, Dr Awais e Siraj2, Aneela Sultana3Abstract-Teaching and learning have been at the heart of by students in their educational career at higher since the inception of mankind in this world. Highereducation is meant to develop the ability of a student to think II. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYclearly, logically and honestly and to promote clear and criticalthinking skills in student; the teacher himself/herself needs to This research study is significant in many very much clear in his /her capabilities, duties and Primarily in this study the constraints of managementresponsibilities. This study contributes towards the dynamics of Higher Education in Pakistan is beingunderstanding of the major constraints of management identified so that every literate Person can be aware of thedynamics of higher education in Pakistan. The major issue and HEC could become able to strive in their ownconstraints are Financial, socio-cultural, technological, capacity to resolve them. Secondly this study will help theavailability of skilled man power, quality and are of HEC to minimize its management concerns and then it willinfrastructure, which were taken as independent variables to directly impact the student performance and a particularbe tested against the dependent variable of management ofhigher education in Pakistan and student willingness and increase to the quality of education.The level and quality ofinterest taken as moderating variable. Higher Education Higher Education in Pakistan started experiencing changeCommission of Pakistan is putting serious efforts to overcome when Higher Education Commission replaced thethese main constraints to promote higher education in University Grants Commission in 2002. Pakistan is a veryPakistan. Three different public universities namely Quaid-I- large country with very diversified population which carriesAzim University, International Islamic University and Federal diverse ethnic and linguistics features. Some of its problemsUrdu University of Science and Technology based in Islamabad are related to regional poverty, few from external pressures andwere studied to collect in depth knowledge in the form of some are from attitudinal factors and they all are requiredprimary data about different constraints of higher education to be identified and addressed. This research study providesfaced by students and a sample of 500 students were studiedout of a total population of 9000 students studying at higher us with an overview of the overall situation of differentlevels (Masters, M.Phil and Ph.D). Enough of the already constraints of management dynamics of higher educationavailable relevant literature was studied and Interpretation of in Pakistan. Some people might argue that the HEC hasthe data gave us the findings that concrete measures must be not had enough time for its programs to take root. There isformulated and implemented by Higher Education some truth in this way of thinking, but an equally forcefulCommission of Pakistan to minimize the deteriorating impact opposing argument is that the working of the HEC should beof these constraints for the management of higher education in brought out in to the light as quickly and as frequentlyPakistan and strategic plans must be introduced in higher as possible, so that false turnings leading to irremediableeducation similar to that of corporate world. educational or developmental must not practiced. This I. INTRODUCTION research study also focuses on identifying the factors which serves as constraints of the management dynamics of higherT ertiary education represents the “Higher Education” and in Pakistan this education is provided at three level-degree colleges operates at provincial and at federal level. education causing very low rate of success in Pakistan. III. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYGenerally they are affiliated with the universities in public 1) The major objective includessector for award of degrees. Secondly, institutes, who hasdegree awarding status but their span of academic activity in The exploration of the constraints of management dynamicsterms of number of disciplines taught, is limited, and finally of higher education in university level. For the present study I concentrated on 2) The specific objectives are as followthree public sector universities based in Islamabad.In thepresent research the unit of study is “management 1) To find out the effect of social problems of studentsdynamics” and “students” getting education under the HEC as a constraint to the level of higher education inrecommended universities. The study is based on the Pakistan.concept of major constraints of management dynamics faced 2) To find out the effect of financial problems of___________________________ students and quality of education as a constraint toAbout1-Faculty of Management Sciences International Islamic University the level of higher education in Pakistan.Islamabad, Pakistan hghufran@yahoo.comAbout2- Department of Management Sciences Bahria University IslamabadPakistan awsiraj@hotmail.comAbout3- Department of Anthropology Quaid-e-Azam University IslamabadPakistan
  2. 2. Global Journal of Management and Business Research Vol. 10 Issue 9 (Ver 1.0) December 2010 P a g e | 3 3) Theoretical framework life experience in earning education in different universities Dependent variable of this research study is given below: under the umbrella of the higher education of Pakistan, and an attempt is made to ascertain the effect of these potential • Constraints of management dynamics of higher independent variables on the chosen dependent variable education such as constraints of management dynamics of higher The following factors are taken as independent variables of education in Pakistan.the study. V. POPULATION • Socio cultural Problems • Financial management problems The population of the present study is all the students of • Willingness and interest of students has been taken three universities who are at the masters, M.phil and Ph D as the moderating variable. level. And the sampled population is the students of masters, M.phil and Ph D level education in Quad-i-Azam IV. METHODOLOGY University, Islamabad, Islamic International University, Islamabad and the Federal Urdu university ( Islamabad The present study is based on grouping subjects which campus). The total size of the population in these threealready tend to have something happened to them as part of universities is 19000. 1) Sample The sample of the present study is 500 which are about 2% of the population size. Level of QAU IIU FUU (Isb) Total studies Pop. Sample Pop. Sample Pop. Sample Pop. size Sample size size Size size size size size Masters 2100 103 4400 216 1800 88 8300 407 M. Phil 400 19 600 29 300 15 1300 63 PhD 200 10 400 20 - - 600 30 Total 2700 132 5400 265 2100 103 10200 500 Where QAU = Quad i Azam university IIU = Islamic International university FUU = Federal Urdu University allotted numerical value as 1, 2, 3, and so on and every component of question was coded alphabetically.In the VI. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION present study, first the data is arranged in groups andThe data collocation method used in the present study is classes. Then coded material was transferred on a graphinterview schedule.It is the combination of interview sheet and afterwards with its help simple and contingencytechniques and questionnaire method. A questionnaire was tables are made, for each characteristic of the unit of study.constructed and the respondents were face-to- face VII. ANALYSISinterviewed. The questionnaire is formulated in English. 5%of the questionnaires were rechecked to ensure the validity As this is a descriptive research, that is we have to describeand reliability of the data. After the collection of data the the indicators of the study so the data has been analyzed byquestions were edited and discrepancies were revalidated constructing tables and chart to study the nature of data. Inand rectified in an organized way.In the present research this present study our main task was to elicit all those factorstwenty-five respondents were interviewed randomly selected which creates hurdles towards higher education, those vari-out of the universe to check the validity. As a result some ables are like personal and social development, quality as-changes were made in the interview schedule. Similarly the surance, teaching and learning, administrative problem/language of the questions was further simplified and research facilities, human and material resources, andnecessary corrections were made to finalize the interview financial problems. For that purpose research had been ori-schedule. Almost all questions were close-ended, that is, ginated from primary level onward and then data was testedoptions were given after every question. This method is through statistical tools. Further more all the responses ofconvenient and swift for respondents to answer, answer of variables have been described through tables and charts.different respondents are easier to compare, answer areeasier to be coded and statistical analysis, and the responses VIII. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATIONScan clarify that questions are short, clear, and direct. After Poor economic condition of the people of Pakistan is athe data was collected, each interview schedule was given a constraint to promote higher education.serial number and the each question and questions in theinterview schedule were allotted a symbols which is knowas a code numbers. In the present study every question was
  3. 3. P a g e |4 Vol. 10 Issue 9 (Ver 1.0) December 2010 Global Journal of Management and Business Research Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent Valid 1.00 114 22.7 22.7 22.7 2.00 274 54.7 54.7 77.3 3.00 100 20.0 20.0 97.3 4.00 2 2.7 2.7 100.0 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.00 Total 500 100.0 100.0 Poor economic condition of the people of Pakistan is a constraint to promote higher education Response 1) InterpretationAccording to calculations, 22.7% strongly agreed and 54.7% 2.70% respondents disagreed. Consequently, we mayrespondents agreed with the statement that poor economic conclude that poor economic condition of the people ofcondition of the people of Pakistan is a constraint to Pakistan is a constraint to promote higherpromote higher education. 20.0% had shown neutrality, education.Socio/cultural values of different regions of Pakistan work as a constraint. Cumulative Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent 74 14.7 14.9 14.9 Valid 1.00 2.00 14 2.7 2.7 17.6 3.00 153 30.7 31.1 48.6 4.00 146 29.3 29.7 78.4 5.00 106 21.3 21.6 100.0 Total 492 98.7 100.0 Missing System 7 1.3 Total 500 100.0 Socio/cultural values of different regions of Pakistan work as a constraint
  4. 4. Global Journal of Management and Business Research Vol. 10 Issue 9 (Ver 1.0) December 2010 P a g e | 5 Response 2) InterpretationAccording to calculations, 14.7% strongly agreed and 2.7% Financial problems faced by students and their parents workrespondents showed agreement with the statement that as the major constraint in attaining higher education,Socio/cultural values of different regions of Pakistan work majority of respondents agreed with this concept. Socialas a constraint.30.0% had shown neutrality, 29.30% and cultural values of the people of certain regions ofrespondents disagreed and 21.3% had strongly disagreed. Pakistan don’t allow co-education at higher level which is aConsequently, we may conclude that Socio/cultural values constraint to higher education management inof different regions of Pakistan work as a constraint. Pakistan.Social problems faced by the teachers adversely affect their teaching abilities, students also agree that lack of IX. CONCLUSION library and laboratory facilities may also lead to ineffectiveThis section focused on major conclusions which are given teaching.below: X. REFERENCES 1) Shaukat Ali Raza, Dr. Muhammad Amir Hashmi and nt.pdf Rahmat Ullah. “Major Issues and Problems in High- 9) Government of Pakistan. (1998), “National Education er Education: the University Student’s Perspective” Policy (1998-2010)”, Islamabad, Ministry of Education, 2) Barker, J. A. B. (1992), “Paradigms: The Business p.65. Discovering the Future”, Harper Business. 10) Government of Pakistan. (2001), “Ten Year Perspective 3) Sharma, U. and Lawrence, S. (2002), Development Plan 2001-11 and Three Year “Commodification of Education and Academic Development Program 2001-04”, Islamabad, Labour: Using the Balanced Scorecard in a Planning Commission, pp144, 389, 406. university setting”, Critical Perspectives on 11) Haq, K. (1987), “Human Resources Development in Accounting, Vol. 13, No. 5/6 pp. 661-677. Pakistan”, in K. Haq, and U. Kirdar, (Eds). (1988), 4) Malik, M. (2004), “The Graduation Conspiracy”, Managing Human Development, Islamabad, North South Daily Dawn Lahore, June 6, 2004, (Education Page). Roundtable and UNDP Development Study Program. 5) Mukthar, A. (2001), “Pakistan Teachers 12) Higher Education Commission (ND). “Self Circumstances”, Shirkat Printing Press. Assessment Manual”, Islamabad 6) Nisar, A. et al. (2003), “A Study of Teachers 13) Isani, U.A.G and Virk, M. L. (2003), “Higher Problems of Institute of Education and Research”, Education in Pakistan” (A Historical and Futuristic University of the Punjab, Lahore. Unpublished Perspective). National Book Foundation, Islamabad. Masters Thesis, Institute of Education and 14) Jiwani, A. (2004), “Learning to Learn”, Daily Research, University of the Punjab, Lahore. Dawn Lahore, May 30, 2004, (Education Page). 7) Brook Field, D.S. (1990), “The Skillful Teachers”, 15) The Boston Group, Higher Education in Pakistan: (2 nd Ed), Jassey Boss, San-Franco. Towards a Reform Agenda, a contribution to task 8) Gillani, B.B. (2000), “Using the Web to Create force on improvement of Higher Education in Student-Centered Curriculum. In Robert A. Cole Pakistan (ed,), Issues in Web-Based Pedagogy: A Critical 16) Quality Education in Pakistan International Community Primer. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. (11-13 Dec, 2006), Proceedings of 1st International In Carol A. Carrier, W. Andrew Collins, Robert J. Conference on Assessing Quality Higher Education in Jones. (2000), “Enhancing Student Learning Pakistan, Pearl Continental, Lahore Through Innovative Teaching and Technology Strategies”, A University of Minnesota Proposal to the Bush Foundation. Retrieved on 10-7-06 from
  5. 5. P a g e |6 Vol. 10 Issue 9 (Ver 1.0) December 2010 Global Journal of Management and Business Research17) Boyanov, M. I., S. D. Kelly, K. M. Kemner, B. A. Bunker, J. B. Fein and D. A. Fowle. 2003. Adsorption of cadmium to Bacillus subtilis bacterial cell walls: a pH-dependent X-ray absorp- tion fine structure spectroscopy study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica ActaPages. 67, 18: 3299-3536.18) Chan, Steve. (1997) In Search of Democratic Peace: Problems and Promise. Mershon International Studies Review. 41,1:59-92.19) Goeser, C. 2003. On The Cross of The South: The Scottsboro Boys as Vernacular Christ’s in Harlem Renaissance Illustration. International Review of African American Art. 19, 1: 19-27.20) Holt,-Robert-R. 2003. Some history of a methodological rediscovery. American- Psychologist.58, 5:406-407. db/09.0321) Higher Education Commission of Pakistan Website, [].22) Wikipedia Encyclopedia.23) Encarta