Man and nanotechnology

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With the advance of micro and nanotechnology progress is made in many fields of technology. Examples of this are given from work at the MESA+ Institute for nanotechnology at the University of Twente, …

With the advance of micro and nanotechnology progress is made in many fields of technology. Examples of this are given from work at the MESA+ Institute for nanotechnology at the University of Twente, where the author worked up to 2008. The progress is really amazing and there is real reason for being optimistic about the role of technology for future human development. But technology alone is not able to guarantee well-being as there is also guidance needed to use the new technology according to human dignity. The ethical dimension, therefore, is of great importance and should be considered and studied together with the technological aspects. Only in this way nanotechnology can provide a solid foundation of welfare of human beings.
The talk was presented on June 22, 2007 at the European Meeting of university professors in Rome.

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  • 1. man and micro-nanotechnology affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 1 date: 22 June 2007
  • 2. European Meeting of University Professors A new Humanism for Europe: the role of Universities Rome, 21-24 June 2007 WORKSHOP C2: Centrality of Human Being in the Universe Relation between man and micro- nano-technology Alfred Driessen MESA+ Institute, Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands http://ioms.ewi.utwente.nl e-mail (2011): Driessen.Alfred@gmail.com affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 2 date: 22 June 2007
  • 3. Content1. Introduction2. Examples of micro/nanotechnology3. An optimistic view on the role of technology4. The need of ethical considerations5. Conclusions affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 3 date: 22 June 2007
  • 4. 6 transistor radio (~1965)Back to the sixties: 6 transistor radio price: 2 hours of workman affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 4 date: 22 June 2007
  • 5. Moores law today: 1,000,000,000 transistors in a single PC price: 20 hours of workman affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 5 date: 22 June 2007
  • 6. The fabrication of an electronic chip affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 6 date: 22 June 2007
  • 7. The fabrication of an electronic chip affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 7 date: 22 June 2007
  • 8. Can we look into future?With regards to technology: yes, we can!time schedule for implementation year x: discovery of scientific phenomenon year x+10: demonstration of application in laboratory year x+20: start of commercial production year x+30: impact on society visible year x+??: ethical and juridical aspects studied & solvedLets look for micro/nanotechnology now! Xenon atoms on nickel (Don Eigler, IBM) affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 8 date: 22 June 2007
  • 9. “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom”“What I want to talk about is the problem of manipulating andcontrolling things on a small scale.” Richard P. Feynman (1960)“As soon as I mention this, people tell me… about electric motorsthat are the size of a finger nail, and that there is a device on themarket which can write the Lord’s prayer on the head of a pin.“But that’s nothing; that’s most primitive” I want to discuss thestaggeringly small world below.” affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 9 date: 22 June 2007
  • 10. “There is Plenty of Room at the Bottom” close-up of a human hair affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 10 date: 22 June 2007
  • 11. What is NANO? Smallest 2003 1970 nanotube lithography transistors transistors 130 nmatom DNA protein cell virus 1Å 1 nm 10 nm 100 nm 1 μm 10 μm affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 11 date: 22 June 2007
  • 12. Scanning Tunneling Microscope 1986 H. Rohrer G. Binnig affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 12 date: 22 June 2007
  • 13. ‘Quantum coral’ 56 iron atoms on cupper affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 13 date: 22 June 2007
  • 14. Reading of nano-structures Multiple probes affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 14 date: 22 June 2007
  • 15. Writing with moleculesNano-pattern writing by transport of molecules by water meniscusMirkin group Northwestern University affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 15 date: 22 June 2007
  • 16. Lab on a Chip 1970 1980 1990 2003 2006 affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 16 date: 22 June 2007
  • 17. Lab on a Chip Fluidics channels Micro tweezers Nano-sieve affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 17 date: 22 June 2007
  • 18. Example: CO2 sensorCO2 CO2 H+ P VAdvantages• No reference electrode• Small thus integratablein a catheter• Easily accepted in themedical field BIOS, UTwente affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 18 date: 22 June 2007
  • 19. Example: CO2 sensor Pressure sensor Dimensions 2.9x0.9x0.7 mm3 Porous coverGas permeable membrane PCB stick BIOS, UTwente affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 19 date: 22 June 2007
  • 20. CO2 sensor, future developments Clinical trials -> constructing prototype catheter in cooperation with a company and Medisch Spectrum Twente (MST) Diameter: 2 mm BIOS, UTwente affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 20 date: 22 June 2007
  • 21. Nanomechano-optical interactionTransmission Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (T-SNOM)Exploit the tip-induced disturbance for field mapping T-SNOM setup • Raster scanning the probe over the sample • Record the transmission at each probe position Device (SEM image) input outputW.C.L. Hopman, et al., Opt. Express 14, 8745-8752 (2006) 1 mmW.C.L. Hopman et al., JLT (accepted 2007) affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 21 date: 22 June 2007
  • 22. Nanomechano-optical interaction The exact location of the resonator “hot spots” can be found by combining both AFM (height) and optical data possible applications: nanosensor nano-optical switch 1 μmW. C. L. Hopman et al., “Nano-mechanical tuning and imaging of aphotonic crystal micro-cavity resonance,” Optics Express 14, 8745-8752 (2006). affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 22 date: 22 June 2007
  • 23. Optical communication: wavelength router1x1 cm2 area of mask picture of processed device(lithography done in cooperation with ASML) 1.4 x 1.6 mm2 affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 23 date: 22 June 2007
  • 24. Optical communication: wavelength routerPigtailed and packaged deviceKlein et al. 2006with thanks to ASMLand BSIK, Broadband Access affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 24 date: 22 June 2007
  • 25. Optical switch based on ring resonators Ronald Dekker, MESA+ pump pulse: off pump pulse: on picture of device area: 0.004 x 0.003 mm2 <1 ps switching time, > 200 Gbit/s data-rateR. Dekker et al., Optics Express, Vol. 14 (18), pp 8336-8346, 2006. affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 25 date: 22 June 2007
  • 26. What can we espect within a generation?•unlimited tele-presence, audio, video (later including smell and touch)in field of: • entertainment • education • health and care • safety•creation of a virtual world with unlimited access•"intelligence" everywhere: at home, in office, on road•cheap work power - robots - available for routine tasks•sensor networks enabling efficient use of energy and other resources affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 26 date: 22 June 2007
  • 27. Current impact of nano/micro technologyapparatus for personal use: • computers: PCs everywhere, at least one per person • mobile phone • MP3 player • USB memory stick • navigation system • broad-band access • (nearly) free communication • internet • digital cameraglobalization • cost of factory of advanced electronic ICs : 5 000 000 000 $ • same software and hardware used worldwide affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 27 date: 22 June 2007
  • 28. An example of historyThomas Robert Malthus:On population (1798)main hypothesis:Unchecked population growth always exceedsthe growth of means of subsistence.some numbers: Great Britain world population 10 000 000 <1 000 000 000 1798 population 60 000 000 >6 000 000 000 2007population growth in Great Britain in 19th century: 4 xgrowth of national product: 14 x affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 28 date: 22 June 2007
  • 29. An example of historyPaul Kennedy:Preparing for the twenty-first century (1993)Why was Malthus wrong?Malthus did not foresee:•migration•increased agricultural productivity•industrializationmore in general:Malthus ignored dynamics of system affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 29 date: 22 June 2007
  • 30. The anthropic principleBrendon Carter (1973)The Universe (and hence the fundamentalparameters on which it depends) must be such asto admit the creation of observers within it at somestage.A generalized version of the anthropic principleThe Universe (and hence its evolution in time) issuch that man always will develop the technologyand culture needed to live according to humandignity.Example of an actual challenge: energyFossil fuels have been stored during million of years to provide aneasy accessible energy source for humanity during 1-2 centuries.Thereafter man will have had time to develop alternative technologies. affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 30 date: 22 June 2007
  • 31. A too optimistic view?Scientific and technological knowledge: fundamentally goodbut: with new technologies: •new weapons for aggressive wars •new totalitarian systems •new forms of intimidation and criminal behavior •new forms of addiction and abuse •new forms of exploitation •enormous control (manipulation) of behavior of individuals and groupsneeded: ethical assessment and support ethics is art to make good use of the technology new scientific journal: NanoEthics (Springer) affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 31 date: 22 June 2007
  • 32. An important distinctionFurther development of science and technology isnecessary for the current and future world population tolive according to human dignity,but it is not sufficient,it is a necessary condition, conditio sine qua non. affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 32 date: 22 June 2007
  • 33. How to make good use of technology?1) Create conditions for the dialogue between experts intechnique and humanity (ethics) characteristics expert in technology expert in humanity specialist generalist trained in science and trained in humanities technology layman in ethical aspects layman in technical aspects industry & business (semi-) government and ngo affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 33 date: 22 June 2007
  • 34. How to make good use of technology?2) work out scenarios for the introduction of newtechnologiesincl. economic, juridical, pedagogical, psychological, sociologic andethical aspects3) anticipate on opportunities and threatsexample:use of multimedia and internet by children and youth•educate for convenient use•prevent addiction•protect against unwanted contacts•recognize long-term consequences of intense use of multimedia onhealth (RSI, obesity), social behavior, creativity, concentration, etc. affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 34 date: 22 June 2007
  • 35. ConclusionsWe just have made a begin with the application ofmicro/nano technologyThere is reason for optimism of the technologicaldevelopment by manThere is urgent need to study and implement ethicalissues of the application of new technologies.Acknowledgments:Albert van den Berg, Dave Blank of MESA+Ronald Dekker, Wico Hopman, Edwin Klein of IOMS-MESA+ affiliation (2007) Integrated Optical Micro Systems (IOMS) man_and_nanotech.ppt slide 35 date: 22 June 2007