The strange properties of photons

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The strange properties of the photon: a case study with philosophical implications by Alfred Driessen, Prof. Emer. University of Twente.
Talk presented at Journée « Science, raison et foi » on
Causalite, Temps et Origine de l'Univers
CASTELVIEIL , MARSEILLE, November 12 , 2013
Abstract: When dealing with extremely small and rapidly moving particles, the two great theories of modern physics, Quantum Mechanics and Relativity have to be taken into account. This is especially true for the photon with mass zero and travelling at the speed of light, the maximum speed allowed in Relativity. Strange result are expected, see for example the delayed choice Gedanken-experiment of Wheeler about light travelling over astronomical distances. There is evidence that causality in this and other situations has its origin outside the realm of time. For the philosopher it is a challenging task to understand the observations of the physicist and apply the metaphysical concepts time, space, causality, choice and others adequately. In this talk an attempt is made to look at the challenging behavior of the photon as a physicist as well as a philosopher.

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  • A Revolution in Light Theory Throughout the last century, it was great importance to know if the photon's motion is like a wave or like a particle's motion. Saleh Theory give a coherent answer to this question: https://youtu.be/mLtpARXuMbM
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  • @morteza latifi : excellent . very amazing
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  • Light and its nature have caused a lot of ink to flow during these last decades. Its dual behavior is partly explained by (1)Double-slit experiment of Thomas Young - who represents the photon’s motion as a wave - and also by (2)the Photoelectric effect in which the photon is considered as a particle. A Revolution: SALEH THEORY solves this ambiguity and this difficulty presenting a three-dimensional trajectory for the photon's motion and a new formula to calculate its energy. More information on https://youtu.be/mLtpARXuMbM
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The strange properties of photons

  1. 1. Driessen.Alfred@gmail.com CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 1 12-11-2013
  2. 2. Content Introduction photons and the light cone the strange photon philosophical considerations CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 2 12-11-2013
  3. 3. The cave of Plato (Politeia, 380 B.C.) What we see are the shadows of the world of the ideas CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 3 12-11-2013
  4. 4. The cave of Plato (Politeia, 380 B.C.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=69F7GhASOdM CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 4 12-11-2013
  5. 5. characteristics of classical philosophy classical philosophy deals with nature (Greek: physis) of beings being is central philosophy of being real beings can belong to the visible, observable world; but also invisible, unobservable beings can be real the invisible and immaterial is cause of the visible see, Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquino CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 5 12-11-2013
  6. 6. The demon of Laplace (1794-1827) We may regard the present state of the universe as the effect of its past and the cause of its future. An intellect which at a certain moment would know all forces that set nature in motion, and all positions of all items of which nature is composed, if this intellect were also vast enough to submit these data to analysis, it would embrace in a single formula the movements of the greatest bodies of the universe and those of the tiniest atom; for such an intellect nothing would be uncertain and the future just like the past would be present before its eyes. A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities, 1814 As a member of the new Academy of Sciences, he presented the “scientific system” of that academy to Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon asked: “Where is the place for God in your system?” His answer was: “Majesty, we did not need that hypothesis.” CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 6 12-11-2013
  7. 7. Statement of De Broglie Louis De Broglie, 1892- 1987, Nobel prize in 1929 As science progresses, it is constrained to introduce into its theories concepts of a metaphysical nature – like those of time, space, objectivity, causality, individuality. ....Science frequently ends up engaging in metaphysics without realizing it, and this is not exactly the safest way of doing metaphysics. De Broglie, Revue de metaphysique et de morale, 1947, 3, p 278. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 7 12-11-2013
  8. 8. The cave of Plato and the outside world inside cave outside cave Plato visible world, caused by invisible world, shadow of reality invisible reality invisible causes Aristoteles part of reality, caused by visible and invisible causes invisible reality, unmoved mover, invisible causes De Broglie science and metaphysics metaphysics Laplace deterministic reality unnecessary hypothesis CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 8 12-11-2013
  9. 9. Content Introduction photons and the light cone the strange photon philosophical considerations CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 9 12-11-2013
  10. 10. Space-time diagram present: space-like separated from origin future/past: time-like separated from origin event at origin: -- is caused by events in the past light cone -- has causal effects on events in the future light cone CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 10 12-11-2013
  11. 11. special and general relativity light cone in special relativity light cone in general relativity (curved space) figures from Penrose Cycles of Time, Random House, London 2010 CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 11 12-11-2013
  12. 12. Space-time diagram (1) present: space-like separated from origin future/past: time-like separated from origin CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 12 12-11-2013
  13. 13. Space-time diagram (2) train at rest: at three different moments long train: CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 13 12-11-2013
  14. 14. Space-time diagram (3) moving train: at three different moments long train: CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 14 12-11-2013
  15. 15. Space-time diagram (4) moving train: at three different moments new coordinates of the moving train long train: CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 15 12-11-2013
  16. 16. Space-time diagram (5) consider two events <= time line of train 1: at origin 2: outside the light cone There is an inertial system where these are simultaneous example a traveler in an extremely long moving train needs only to ask his colleague at the wagon at event 2. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 16 12-11-2013
  17. 17. Space-time diagram (6) consider two events <= time-line of the train 1: at origin 2: inside the light cone There is an inertial system where these are at the same place example a traveler in an extremely long moving train needs only to look out the window and wait to see the event. CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 17 12-11-2013
  18. 18. Space-time diagram (7) consider two events 1: at origin 2: on the light cone <= time line of train with speed c There is an inertial system where these are simultaneously at the same place example as before, event at the same place, in addition: because of time contraction: interval of time is zero  t  1  2 / c2  t  1 1  t  0 CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 18 12-11-2013
  19. 19. Space-time diagram (8) consequence for a photon: <= time-line of photon In the coordinate system of the photon, the event of emission and absorption is: -- instantaneously -- without distance emission absorption CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 19 12-11-2013
  20. 20. Content Introduction photons and the light cone the strange photon philosophical considerations CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 20 12-11-2013
  21. 21. formation of a black hole light cones in the vicinity of a black hole figure from Penrose Cycles of Time, Random House, London 2010 CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 21 12-11-2013
  22. 22. time dilatation nearby a black hole x c  constant  t t x t x speed of light c is constant in all coordinate systems, ==> if x becomes smaller, also t diminishes accordingly: (gravitational) time dilatation figure based on Penrose 2010 CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 22 12-11-2013
  23. 23. A clock visible at light-years distance nano-clock: excited atom or molecule emits radiation at a certain frequency cosmological red shift: due to time dilatation of rapidly moving objects: extreme case: background radiation gravitational red shift due to time dilatation nearby a heavy mass (curvature of space, rotation of light-cone) extreme case: horizon of black hole CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 23 12-11-2013
  24. 24. Penrose about photons lecture in University of Leiden 2011 The point is that, according to a massless particle, the passage of time is as nothing. (2010) Eternity is no time at all, for a photon .(2011) CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 24 12-11-2013
  25. 25. A Gedanken-experiment by Wheeler 1978 Wheeler's proposal, experimentally confirmed (Jacques et al. 2007) measuring individual photons from a quasar whose image has been split in two by a galaxy acting as a gravitational lens. Final state: 1) interference set-up: photon follows both paths; 2) telescope view: photon takes a unique path. delayed choice made after billions of years CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 25 12-11-2013
  26. 26. Gravitational lens at 9.5 light-year gravitational lens: ~1011 mass of sun at 9.5 light-year source galaxy: ~108 mass of sun at 11.5 light-year, magnified 40x, appears as ring with 4 pronounced images Van der Wel et al. 2013 (arXiv: 1309.2826v1) CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 26 12-11-2013
  27. 27. Adriaan Fokker, 1887-1972) A. D. Fokker, Universiteit Leiden (1965) Perhaps the deepest enigma brought to light by chronogeometry is the occurrence of zero intervals, connecting events which are located by observers with spatial distance and temporal duration between them. Zero interval means no separation at all, an immediate transmission of momentum and energy, as if there were contiguity…… The mathematical formula is quite simple and plain, nevertheless it relates to one of God's secrets and implies His sempiternal ubiquitous presence. A.D. Fokker, Time and Space Weight and Inertia, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965 CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 27 12-11-2013
  28. 28. Content Introduction photons and the light cone the strange photon philosophical considerations CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 28 12-11-2013
  29. 29. The cave of Plato and the outside world inside cave outside cave Plato visible world, caused by invisible world, shadow of reality invisible reality invisible causes Aristoteles part of reality, caused by visible and invisible causes invisible reality, unmoved mover, invisible causes De Broglie science and metaphysics metaphysics Laplace deterministic reality unnecessary hypothesis CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 29 12-11-2013
  30. 30. The cave of Plato and the outside world inside cave outside cave Plato visible world, caused by invisible world, shadow of reality invisible reality invisible causes Aristoteles part of reality, caused by visible invisible reality, unmoved and invisible causes mover, invisible causes De Broglie science and metaphysics metaphysics Laplace deterministic reality unnecessary hypothesis relativity photon, object of science photon is outside time Penrose photon, object of science eternity is no time at all for a photon Wheeler causality in science delayed choice, causality of final state Fokker relativity and photon evidence for ubiquitous presence outside time CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 30 12-11-2013
  31. 31. Causality classical philosophy (Aristotle, Aquinas) whatever is moved is moved by another or whatever is changed is changed by another. principle of causality David Hume cause: an object followed by another, and where all the objects similar to the first are followed by objects similar to the second. Concerning Human Understanding. Stephan Hawking: Within the universe, you always explained one event as being caused by some earlier event. A brief history of time. What about delayed choice and causality from outside time? CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 31 12-11-2013
  32. 32. A request to philosophers A dream: To bring all knowledge about reality together in a single, consistent view. For this is needed a consistent philosophy (metaphysics) without internal contradiction and in accordance with experience. Problem: The current experience accumulated in science is only accessible to the specialist. Who will enter the dialogue? CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 32 12-11-2013
  33. 33. This talk has been presented at the Journée « Science, raison et foi » Causalite, Temps et Origine de l'Univers CASTELVIEIL , MARSEILLE, November 12 , 2013 CSR: Culture, Science and Religion The Strange Photon pagina 33 12-11-2013

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