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(Slideshare) lesson#10)-tauhid-course-(12-december-2012)

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(Slideshare) lesson#10)-tauhid-course-(12-december-2012)

  1. 1. “TAUHEED AS-SIFAT” – AN INTRODUCTION LESSON - # 11 “INTRODUCTION TO THE LE ODU E STUDY OF TAUHEED” M S A NEW -COUR Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults CH ] conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail BAT [2012 IT CAN ALSO BE A 16 weekly class started from: September 2012 REFRESHER COURSE Every Saturday night @ 8pm – 10pm FOR MUSLIM Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, PARENTS, EDUCATORS, IN #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE. For further information and registration OPEN TO ALL contact E -mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279 Using curriculum he has developed especially for English-speaking Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. “To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” UPDATED 12 DECEMBER 2012ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  2. 2. PREVIOUS TOPICSll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  3. 3. BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – This is not unique to WHO ALONE IS THE Muslims. Even pagan CREATOR DIVINE. worshippers and (AL-KHALIQ-QIYYAH ) idolaters acknowledge this. This is where Muslims BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – differ with pagan WHO ALONE IS THE worshippers, idolaters SUSTAINER DIVINE. and unbelievers, because they erroneously ascribe ( AR-RUB-BUBIYYAH ) to others besides Allah similar ‘Divine’ roles in the Sustainment of this universe.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  4. 4. It can be discern that people’s idea or knowledge that God exist, generally pertains to Him being the Creator. But, when we further consider God’s role in the universe and man’s life, differences occur. Those who deny Him as the only Absolute Sustainer, Cherisher of the universe, would inadvertently be ascribing to others this divine role. BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – WHO ALONE IS THE DIVINE. ( AL-ULUHIYYAH )ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  5. 5. Therefore, because some people’s knowledge of God may still be ambiguous, they need to have clear understanding of what we mean by “Divinity and the concept of the Divine” termed – Uluhiyyah. That in regard to God being “Divine” (ILAAH) – there is only One, Who alone is the Divine, without associates or partners. This is termed – TAUHEED AL-ULUHIYYAH.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  6. 6. PREVIOUS TOPICSll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  7. 7. Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  8. 8. Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT) “Say : He is Allah, the Absolute One. Allah is the Eternal, the Most Besought of all *, He begets not, and neither is He begotten; and there is nothing that could be compared to Him.” (Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 1-4)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  9. 9. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I Criterion which clarify our concept of God [1] The name, proper noun for God is “ALLAH “ He, most Exalted, is the Absolute One: indivisible, unique, the only Divine, without any other, before or after. If one entertains the possibility of another like “ Allah”, then his understanding of what constitute the “Divinity” is flawed.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  10. 10. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I Criterion which clarify our concept of God “Allah” : Arabic proper noun; name for God, it refers to the One and Only, the Unique Creator, Lord Sustainer of the Universe, Who Alone is God – there is none besides Allah. No equivalent translation in non-Semitic language.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  11. 11. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I Criterion which clarify our concept of God [2] “Allah” is referred to as “As-Somad” (in Arabic) which has a profound meaning. There is no equivalent word for it in English, and requires explanations. *the original Arabic word “As-Somad” means “the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of all being”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  12. 12. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I Criterion which clarify our concept of God “As-Somad” is therefore applied to God Alone. It comprises the concept of the Primary Cause and Eternal, independent Being; and also the idea that everything existing or conceivable goes back to Him as its source; and is therefore dependent on Him for its beginning as well as for its continued existence.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  13. 13. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I Criterion which clarify our concept of God [3] “Allah” – is the only “Divine”. Islam categorically refute any false notion which people ascribe to the “Divine”, especially that of God procreating (begetting another God). A “Divine” exists without need for any other, whereas “ son” requires a father. These two terms together are antithetical (contradictory and absurd).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  14. 14. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I Criterion which clarify our concept of God [4] Since “Allah” – is Unique and the only “Divine”, there is nothing that can be compared to Him, absolutely there can be no equivalent. Whatever we can visualize or imagine, fall short of Allah’s Exaltedness, and must be negated - Glory be to Allah ( SUB- HAANALLAAH ! ).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  15. 15. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I Only Allah is the God (al- ilaah), there is no other that is God except “Allah”. “LAA-ILAA-HA-IL-LALLAAH”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  16. 16. S TOPIC OUS PR EV I IMPORTANT TO NOTE Conceptually regarding this aspect, i.e. to only regard Allah as the only Absolute One in His Divinity (ULUHIYYAH), and to regard Allah as the only Absolute Sustainer (RUBBUBIYYAH) marks the True Criterion in the belief in the Oneness of Allah. Those who assert that the non-Muslims, including even the MUSHRIKEEN in Makkah during the Prophet’s s.a.a.w period also adhere to TAUHEED AR- RUBUBIYYAH, are grossly mistaken. Acknowledging Allah as the exclusive ROBB-AL-‘AA-LAMEEN, is one of the cornerstone of TAUHEED - to be attested and affirmed daily in our prayer – which the others do not truly acknowledge.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  17. 17. S PIC S TO VIO U PREll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  18. 18. ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  19. 19. SAY: "O you who deny the truth (AL-KAAFIRUN)! I do not worship that (MA’BUD) which you worship, and neither do you worship that (MA’BUD) which I worship! And I will not worship that (MA’BUD) which you have [ever] worshipped, and neither will you [ever] worship that (MA’BUD) which I worship. Unto you, your DEEN (religion and moral law), and unto me, mine!“ (Qur’an: al-Kaafirun: 109: 1-6)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  20. 20. TO CONTINUEll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  21. 21.  This is the continuation from my previous “Intermediate Lesson on Islam - TAUHEED” module *. In that part one module, we have covered topics of : [1] Introduction to the various Approaches in Developing AQEEDAH - TAUHEED (Attestation to Oneness of God). [2] TAUHEED AL-KHAALIQIYYAH [3] TAUHEED AR-RUBUBIYYAH [4] TAUHEED AL-ULUHIYYAH WAL- ‘UBUDIYYAH So now, for Tauheed part two module, I shall cover “TAUHEED AS-SIFAT”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  22. 22. “LIMITLESS in His glory is thy Sustainer, the Lord of almightiness, [exalted] above anything that men may (attribute) devise by way of definition!” (Qur’an: Shaffat: 37: 108)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  23. 23. “Utterly remote is Allah, in His limitless glory, from anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!!” (Qur’an: Shaffat: 59: 23)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  24. 24. H DD IMA N MUQA UCTIO DO INTR This is one of the traditional approaches in ensuring the understanding of attributes of Allah, amongst Muslims who are exposed to other religious or philosophical views, does not deviate from that of the pious predecessors’ (Salafus-Soleheen)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  25. 25. "(To know Allah) Think and reflect upon Allahs attributes (Sifaat) and do not try to think of (reality of) His Essence (Dzat).“ (Hadith reported by Abu-Shaykh – al Jami’ : 134 Risalah Tauhid)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  26. 26.  When the Qur’an was revealed, it succinctly expounded and clarify the message of TAUHEED, in the best Arabic to the Arabic-speaking people whose mastery of Arabic was at the highest.  In fact, the Arabs then, had recognized the Qur’an as a miracle - Divinely revealed - not the speech of man.  And they knew very well the metaphors, the linguistic eloquence, the profound and depth to meanings, the detail and the general, etc. of the Qur’anic language - which to them, are adequately self-explanatory.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  27. 27.  Unfortunately, mastery of the Qur’anic (classical) Arabic language amongst the Muslim masses tends to diminish, or it may become weakened , except amongst Islamic scholars.  Thus the Muslims in general, have had to rely upon Islamic jurists and scholars from whichever MADZAAHIB (schools of theology and jurisprudence), to guide them regarding the teaching of Islam.  Each strove to preserve and transmit the traditional scholastic methods of understanding primary sources (AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH) and continue teaching these wisdom to the masses.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  28. 28.  The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which became the exemplary era from which Muslims of later period relied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings and principle methodology (MANHAJ), are called the period of the pious predecessors (SALAFUS-SOLIHEEN).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  29. 29.  The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which became the exemplary era from which Muslims of later period relied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings and principle methodology (MANHAJ), are called the period of the pious predecessors (SALAFUS-SOLIHEEN). “The best of mankind – (believers) – are in my generation, then (a generation) after it, and then (another generation) after that.” (Hadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  30. 30.  During the first three generations (Qurn’ Salafus-Soliheen), religious or theological disagreements or dissensions amongst Islamic scholars were very rare.  But inevitably schism did arose much later as prophesised :ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  31. 31.  During the first three generations (Qurn’ Salafus-Soliheen), religious or theological disagreements or dissensions amongst Islamic scholars were very rare.  But inevitably schism did arose much later as prophesised : “And whoever amongst you live after me will see many conflicts (disagreements), let him then adhere to whatever they know of my Sunnah and the Sunnah of my Rightly guided Successors (Khalifah).” (Hadith reported by Ahmad)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  32. 32.  It was compounded by the people being exposed to other cultural-thoughts, philosophy and methods (especially from the ancient Greek-Persian-Indo civilizations) .  Thus the method and approach to teaching the Qur’anic creed of TAUHEED of the pious generation (Salafus-Solih), had to be revised to preserve the true understanding of AQEEDAH*, lest misinterpretations due to man’s own weakness may occur.  Please note, it is the approach, method of teaching that was revised, not the Creed (AQEEDAH). This is in conformity with the Prophet’s Sunnah s.a.a.w.: “Speak to people in accordance with their intellectual capacity.”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  33. 33.  In the first three generations (SHAHABI, TABI’ and TABIT-TABI’IN – period ), the AQEEDAH of the Muslims regarding MA’RIFATULLAAH (Knowledge in Knowing Allah) was never a problem.  Although differences of opinion regarding politics and other secondary issues did occur, yet in deriving understanding of theological and creedal matters (AQEEDAH) , reliance upon revealed knowledge (QUR’AN & AHADITH) overrides any human speculations.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  34. 34.  It was in later era (known as ‘KHALAF ’ era), when many non-Arabs came into Islam; when adherence to primary sources by the general Muslims decreased, whereas the learning and translation of all available sciences from other civilizations especially the Greek philosophy - and speculative theology and rational discourses became popular - that problems arose.  The dominance of the rationalists (MU’TAZILITE) scholars threatened to undermine the traditional reliance upon Revelation.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  35. 35.  When the Mu’tazilites (rationalists - influenced by Greek philosophy) introduced innovations (BID’AH) that threatened to undermine and replace the true creed (AQEEDAH) which must remain consistent with that of the Prophetic generation, that Islamic scholars – notably Imam Abul Hassan al-Ash-’arie and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi et. al. ; - came up with the relevant response to safeguard its theological belief – (termed as the creed of “the People of Tradition and the Community” or “AHLUS- SUNNAH WAL- JAMA-’AH ”).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  36. 36.  At that time there was tension between several extreme views : LITERALISTS [1] The Literalists – who follow textual basis (AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH) as it is, and refusing the use of reasoning (TA’WIL ) in understanding those verses which are allegorical (MUTASHA-BIHA), since most from SALAF generation refrained from interpreting these. Yet the difference with them from the SALAF generation was that many amongst them tend to insist on the literal meaning of these verses (or allow such erroneous literal understanding in the mind of the masses to persist), and thus created controversy (FITNAH).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  37. 37.  At that time there was tension between several extreme views: LITERALISTS [1] The Literalists – There were some amongst them who were even accused of being ‘anthropomorphic’ (MUJASIMAH ) or ‘those who rely on allegorical verses’ (MUTASHA-BIHA) - for asserting (or subtly insinuating) that these verses are to be accepted literally - highlighting them (without explaining its correct meaning) and were adamant in chastising as deviant, whoever are providing the necessary explanation thereof through TA’WIL. Yet these are clearly metaphors.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  38. 38.  At that time there was tension between several extreme views: LITERALISTS [1] The Literalists – They ruled that doing TA’WIL to be a heretical innovation (BID’AH DOLAA-LAH), although we know that there were many of Prophet’s companions who interpreted and did TA’WIL. Not only this, they even went on to condemn logic and philosophy, and many other ‘new’ ideas and improvements developed due to changing needs in teaching the Muslims.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  39. 39.  Then another group with yet another extreme view appear : RATIONALISTS [2] The Rationalists – They were those who regarded reasoning as being higher than that of Revelation - that in their interpretations of the Revealed texts (AL-QUR’AN & AHADITH), they advocated drastic changes even to the Scriptural text itself ( tampering -TAHRIF).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  40. 40.  Then another group with yet another extreme view appear : RATIONALISTS [2] The Rationalists – Their radicalism in using reason, perhaps were the very cause why the ‘literalist’ reacted (albeit, they the literalists were equally guilty of being radical too, in the other extreme.) Some of these Rationalists were accused of being religious ‘innovators’ (MUB-TADI’ ) because of these attempts, seen as people of HAWA (followers of desire) rather than of revelation – changing the DEEN to suit their thinkiing.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  41. 41.  The third group with another extreme view were the : PSEUDO-SUFIS [3] The Pseudo-Sufis – These were groups claiming to be Sufis yet display ignorance of the SHARI’AH in their belief and practices of Islam.  Because of them, the ‘literalists’ and ‘rationalists’ gained credibility for attacking ‘Traditional Islamic scholars’ mistaking them to be similar in their views, whereas these (Traditional) scholars had condemned all ‘pseudo Sufis‘ and regarded them also as religious ‘innovators’ (MUB-TADI’ ) of that time.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  42. 42.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). “Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced that ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witness over yourselves” (Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  43. 43.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). “Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.” (Qur’an: Baqarah: 39: 18)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  44. 44.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). “Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear signs; for them is a dreadful penalty.― “ (Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 105)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  45. 45.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID:ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  46. 46.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: “Allah most Exalted will never allow the affairs of my ummah to be with what deviates (from Truth) forever; so follow the majority (of my ummah – SAWAA-DUL-A’-ZOM). Allah’s hand is upon the Jama’ah (united community), whoever defers away from it , defers toward Hell-fire.” (Hadith reported by al-Hakim from Ibn Jarir)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  47. 47.  (874 – 936CE) Imam Abul Hassan Ash-’arie in fact, begun as a MU’TAZILI (rationalists) but returned to the fold of pure creed (AQEEDAH of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH), and thus was most competent to refute the MU’TAZILI, by upholding the Revealed basis of the creed of the SALAF generation (NAQLIYAH), and supported it with logic and reasoning approaches (‘AQLIYAH) in argument and explanation, relevant to refute those rationalists of his time because they were familiar with it and favour such approaches in their argument and discourses.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  48. 48.  His method, sometimes termed as the school (MADZHAB) of Imam Ash-’arie (ASH-’ARITE), reconciled these two extreme views of the time (Literalist-Rationalist), but most importantly, it preserved and provide guidance in how should the Muslims’ understanding the creed of the AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH should be, based upon Revealed text (NAQLIYAH), yet putting the use of reason (‘AQLIYAH) and rational arguments as important and necessary, but not higher than the proof of revelation.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  49. 49.  As one’s belief in God is conceptual, the use of reason must not be left unguided without God’s Revealed proof – because man, instinctively, has the tendency towards ‘anthropomorphism’ (to imagine God as in human form) if left to his own device.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  50. 50.  His method was further developed by Imam Abu Mansur Maturidi (853- 944CE) and Imam Muhammad bin Yusuf As- Sanusi (895CE) and since then has been taught – as a legacy of and represent the creed of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH *, which serves to circumvent the likelihood of the ‘rationalists’ and ‘literalists’, resurfacing again with their extreme views. * This was the creed which has been unanimously understood to conform with and represent the creed (AQEEDAH) of the SALAF generation – in the subsequent generations which follow them, known as KHALAF generations.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  51. 51.  It must be appreciated, that this methodology was developed (as were the “MADZAAHIB” in FIQH and other Islamic sciences e.g. Musthalah-al-Hadith , Tafsir, Nahwu, Qira’at, etc.) after the time of the SALAF era – precisely because it was needed to provide relevant response to the challenges of the time, in guiding and educating the subsequent generation of the Ummah in later times, upon the Right Path.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  52. 52.  It’s objective in fact was to uphold and defend the pristine Creed of the SALAFUS-SOLIH against the challenges of the subsequent generations prone to attacks by the rationalists, the anthropomorphist and innovators of the DEEN (MUBTADI’ ) – albeit, using the approaches relevant to address and refute their erroneous assertions accordingly.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  53. 53.  Arguing that the method cannot be accepted because it (the method) was never used by the SALAF generation and by the earlier Muslim Scholars e.g. Imam Malik  (711 – 795CE), Imam Shafi’ie (745-820CE), etc. - this is tenuous, childish and only exposed the persons’ lack of understanding of the fuller history of Islam and of the Muslim intellectuals and Islamic scholarship; the development of creedal and Islam’s legal history (TARIKH TASH-RI’) .ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  54. 54.  It is foolish to argue that this methodological approach (of the ASH-’ARIYAH) is categorised as “BID’AH” (innovation) and not part of Islamic heritage and scholarship – just as they had erroneously dismissed every other “MADZAAHIB” that developed after the era of the SALAFUS-SOLIH – categorized by them as “BID’AH” too, simply because they themselves have not understood its relevance and are clearly unappreciative of how it has saved the Ummah from misguidance.  Their dismissive attitude may be regarded perhaps as naïve by some, and this strict rigidity reveal sheer arrogance - a sign of ungratefulness towards the intellectual legacy of most of our earlier Islamic scholars.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  55. 55.  Similarly, it is indeed foolish to ‘ritualistically’ teach the ASH’ARIE – MATURUDIYY method, (merely repeating them mechanically from traditional text) without linking (highlighting) it’s relevance in the present context of ideological thoughts, explaining how it is to be applied in correcting the errors of current intellectual discourse in AQEEDAH.  Remember, AQEEDAH is not to be taught merely as a subject, but the inculcating understanding or rather instilling a believe (Creed) in such a way to convince people of the Truth. To believe is to be convinced with ‘certainty’, rather than simply to ‘know’ or be informed of various subjects or information.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  56. 56.  In today’s context, this methodology is much needed as safeguard for the Muslim’s understanding of the Islamic creed against the onslaught of “secularist-atheistic-rationalists” ideas being propagated .  It must be noted that even now, there are Muslim intellectuals who have been influenced by their Orientalist mentors, and are seeking to glamorize and revive the MU’TAZILITE discourses.  These are the “Liberal Muslims” or we would rather refer to them as NEO-MU’TAZILITES. * NEO – means “new”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  57. 57. ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  58. 58. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  The original MU’TAZILITES were followers of Wasil bin Atha’ (700–748CE) who begun learning the Greek philosophy and logic.  In discussing religion and theology, because they adamantly regard “reason” (‘AQL) as foremost even to be above revelation (WAHYU) , they broke away from AHL-SUNNAH WAL JAMA’AH.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  59. 59. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  In spite of this misguidance, they had contributed much towards eradicating ‘blind and literal ’ adherence to text, and gross lack in using logical arguments (logic and reason) in matters of proving the Islamic creed (AQEEDAH).  In engaging these original MU’TAZILITES, the AHLUS-SUNNAH scholars had triumphed over them and was able to refute all of their false assertions - even using their mode of philosophy and rational arguments.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  60. 60. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  In can be said that this MADZHAB had long ceased to exist , extinct – although their ideas are still studied for comparison and as part of Islamic intellectual history by Muslim scholars in USUL- UDDEEN.  It was the Orientalists who were fascinated by them and had sought to revive their ‘rationalism’ . But this had long been confined mostly in intellectual discourses and academic writings (much of it in non-Arabic languages).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  61. 61. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  When in recent years, Muslims who had began studying Islam from these Orientalists and in Western-based learning institutions, MU’TAZILI ideas now is being promoted by these Muslims. Even to the extent of starting movements , reading groups etc., mostly supported by secular institutions seeking to undermine the traditional MADZAAHIB and the traditionalists.  In fact they are not “MU’TAZILITE” , but a pretender of one, trying to gain acceptance from unsuspecting Muslims.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  62. 62. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  These NEO-MU’TAZILITE are made to look ‘progressive’ and with logical thoughts whereas these were ‘rehashed’ ideas (rather poor imitations which) have already been refuted by past scholars of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL JAMA’AH – the knowledge of these refutations are still available amongst traditional Islamic scholars.  Other names they may claim for themselves e.g.: “Liberal Islam”, “Islamic Reformers”, “Modernist Muslim”, “Progressive Islam” , “Radical Muslim thinkers” etc.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  63. 63. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  It is most unfortunate that the general Muslims are ’lazy’ to learn Islam – the traditionally transmitted teachings - and are contented to be ‘simplistic’ in their grasp on knowledge of their AQEEDAH.  Or they are being misled by those who mock the traditional ASH’ARITE school of AHLUS-SUNNAH , even accusing it to be a ‘deviant’ sect while favouring another extreme group, the literalist view of the “NEO-SALAFIS”. waAllaahu a’lam * NEO – means “new”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  64. 64. ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  65. 65. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  As explained, the original term SALAF (‘predecessor’) refers to the Muslims in the first three generations closest to our Prophet Muhammad’s period (s.a.a.w.).  After that era, all Muslims are regarded as KHALAF (‘successor’).  The purity of the SALAFI ’s adherence to basic source of Islamic knowledge (AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH), had ensured that no changes were made to these early text.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  66. 66. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  Yet, the reality is that certain verses (statements) in the QUR’AN and AHADITH are metaphorical, and must not be understood literally.  The people of SALAF generation, because of their excellent grasp of Islam and mastery of Qur’an classical Arabic, it had ascertained that no confusion nor misinterpretation occurred regarding their common understanding of these allegorical (metaphorical) verses in the text.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  67. 67. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  When asked about these allegorical verses (AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT), they would accept the words as they are (to ensure no tampering of the original text) and “leave its meaning to Allah” (TAFWIDW) without takyif (by asking how) nor ta’thil (denying the words as it is used) nor tamthil (making similitude for them), but most importantly they all forbade and warned against these verses AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT , to be taken and understood literally.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  68. 68. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  In the KHALAF period, to prevent the general Muslims from the mistake of taking these allegorical verses AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT literally, Islamic scholars apply TA’WIL (interpretation) to them, ever since. This has been adhered to by subsequent scholars of AHLUS-SUNNAH.  It is obvious, why TA’WIL generally was not done previously was because there was no such danger of misinterpretation by the people during that SALAF period (unlike in later KHALAF era).ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  69. 69. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  During KHALAF period, leaving these verses without the right TA’WIL, will definitely invite ‘misinterpretation’ from the general masses, and have even led to the rise of deviant MUJASSIMAH (anthropomorphist) groups.  Those who may not be aware, please note that TA’WIL on the Qur’an itself was approved by the Prophet s.a.aw. when he prayed for Allah to grant Ibnu Abbas r.a. this knowledge.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  70. 70.  When later, the controversially known scholar from Harran Imam Taqiyuddin Ibn Taymiyyah (1263 -1328CE) , raised the objection again regarding TA’WIL, it rekindled once more the controversy (FITNAH) , the opportunity for the MUJASSIMAH (anthropomorphist) and the literalists since then, to justify and promote their misguided agenda.  Imam Ibn Taymiyyah may have valid concern then, at the period when his views could be scrutinized by his peers or more competent Islamic scholars of his time.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  71. 71.  And indeed some of his views were accommodated but all his other controversial views have been well refuted.  But in todays context, bringing up his controversial views had again caused much confusion to the common Muslims whose knowledge of Islam, generally, is very much deficient.  This was compounded when many of these new ‘SALAFIS’ even condemned other Muslims studying the Islamic traditional sciences of Theology (‘ILMU KALAM), logic (MANTIQ), philosophy (FALASIFAH), Sufism (TASAWWUF) etc.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  72. 72.  A revived interest of promoting his opinions, especially in the early 20th century Arabia, led to the ‘literalist’ group using it to re- introduce many controversial discourses – worldwide.  In the absence of right TA’WIL, the general Muslims thus would be easily misled to think in anthropomorphic terms.  Although aware of this danger, yet many from this group adamantly promoted this kind of discourse and some even went on to condemn all those doing TA’WIL (or even the following of a MADZHAB) as wrong, nay as “deviancy” .ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  73. 73.  To gain credence from public, they even styled themselves as the SALAFIYYIN – (or SALAFIS), as though implying, that the rest of the Muslims have not adhered to the true methodology of the “early pious predecessors”, but only their group “are upon the true path.”  We need to qualify and acknowledge that we do not here refer to those who are true and legitimate followers of any MADZAAHIB . We respect those amongst them who honestly identify themselves with the HANABALI and AHLIL-HADITH rather than using the term SALAFI label and claim exclusivity for themselves.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  74. 74.  It is the misappropriation of the label “SALAFI ” which is misleading, and therefore needs to be highlighted and corrected.  This ‘movement’ which was formed rather late (truncated) in history, still belongs to the KHALAF period, and cannot be the “SALAF “ as referred to by the Prophet s.a.a.w.  Thus we would rightfully termed them as NEO-SALAFIS. waAllaahu a’lam * NEO – means “new”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  75. 75. ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  76. 76. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Islam has to be implemented in three aspects, viz. Belief, Practice and Perfection – (IIMAN-ISLAM-IHSAN).  It is from IHSAN , that later on, the Sciences of the “Self” (‘ILMUN-NAFS) or “Human Disposition” (AKHLAQ), or “Purification of the Self” (TAZKIYA-AN-NAFS), or Detachment (ZUHUD), or “Knowledge of the Divine“ (IRFAN), or Sufism (TASAWWUF )” etc. were developed.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  77. 77. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially term ‘TASAWWWUF’ ) should first understand that the general definition of these, are in fact all referring to a common objective of: “the practice of Islam at the level of IHSAN.”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  78. 78. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially term ‘TASAWWWUF’ ) should first understand that the general definition of these, are in fact all referring to a common objective of: “the practice of Islam at the level of IHSAN.” “Al-Ihsan (righteousness or best conduct) is that you worship (serve) Allah as though you are seeing Him; while you see Him not, yet truly He sees you” (Hadith reported by Muslim)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  79. 79. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  As in all things Islam, there are ADAB to be strictly obeyed. This aspect IHSAN in fact, are regarded as the aspect of perfecting a Muslim’s state of “Submission or worship or servitude to Allah.”  Therefore, this comes after development of their correct belief (IIMAN) and proper understanding of the Shari’ah (FIQH), without which, those indulging in this may be led astray – NA-UUDZU- BILLAAH. (we seek Allah’s protection)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  80. 80. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  We should heed the warning and advice of Imam Malik r.a. who said: “He who TASAWWAFA (practices Sufism) without learning FIQH (Sacred Law) corrupts his Faith (becomes a ZINDIQ), while he who learns FIQH (Sacred Law) without TASAWWUF (practicing Sufism) corrupts himself (becomes a FASIQ). Only he who combines the two proves True (TAHAQQUQ).” (Iqaz al-himam fee sharh al-Hikam)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  81. 81. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  As we have learnt, that the primary cause for SHIRK is ignorance. Especially when acts of worship and matters pertaining to the religion are “blindly imitated ” , as when rituals or ‘belief’ are followed without possessing true knowledge.  It is from this group (pseudo-Sufis ) that many religious terminologies ( regarding special terms pertaining to AQEEDAH as it is used by the true MUTASAWWIF ) may also be “carelessly parroted” to the general public by them, which may cause FITNAH.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  82. 82. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Yet it is doubtful that most of them (and the general Muslim public) truly understand their true profound and exclusive meanings. Thus the ignorance and confusion of knowledge is compounded.  This is further exacerbated by many of them neglecting the pursuit in serious learning of the DEEN, but instead they promote highly their “Dzikr” sessions to people who may actually have little or inadequate basic Islamic knowledge.ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  83. 83. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  And just like the NEO-SALAFIS, these NEO-SUFIS also in a way, are claiming exclusivity for themselves, as though implying (and some don’t even hide their arrogance by asserting that) other Muslims who do not identify themselves with their group (TARIQAH), are not really “practicing Islam at the level of IHSAN” or perhaps “not as good as us the SUFIS”. They even styled themselves as “AHLIL-HAQIQAT (Esoteric)” while condemning others derogatively as “AHLI-SHARI’AT (Exoteric)”. WaAllaahu a’lamll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  84. 84. ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  85. 85. “And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favour of the prophets (NABIYYIN), the steadfast affirmers of truth (SwIDDIQEEN), the martyrs (SHUHADAA) and the righteous (SwOLIHEEN). And excellent are those as companions. That is the bounty from Allah, and sufficient is Allah as Knower.” (Qur’an: an-Nisa’: 4: 69-70)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  86. 86. “Those who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it : those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.” (Qur’an: Az-Zumar:39:18)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  87. 87. “Exalted is your Lord (ROBB), the Lord of might, above what they describe. And peace upon the messengers. And praise to Allah, Lord (ROBB) of the worlds.” (Qur’an: Saffat: 37: 180-182)ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  88. 88. IMPORTANT DU’A ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH “O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  89. 89. TO BE CONTINUED -ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012
  90. 90.      All welcome to visit my web-blog: http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/  http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ 90ll Rights Reserved © Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail. 2012

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