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Using curriculum he has developed especially for English-speakingUsing curriculum he has developed especially for English-...
PREVIOUS TOPICSPREVIOUS TOPICS
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD –BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD –
WHO ALONE IS THEWHO ALONE IS THE
CREATORCREATOR DIVINE.DIVINE.
(AL-KHALIQ...
It can be discern that people’s idea or knowledge that God exist, generally
pertains to Him being the Creator.
But, when w...
Therefore, because some people’s knowledge of God as Divine, mayTherefore, because some people’s knowledge of God as Divin...
PREVIOUS TOPICSPREVIOUS TOPICS
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT)Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT)
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee...
Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT)Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT)
““Say : He is Allah, the Absolu...
[1] The name, proper noun for God is “[1] The name, proper noun for God is “ALLAH “ALLAH “
He, most Exalted, is the Absolu...
Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God
PREVIOUS TOPICS
PREVIOUS TOPICS
““All...
Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God
PREVIOUS TOPICS
PREVIOUS TOPICS
[2] “...
Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God
PREVIOUS TOPICS
PREVIOUS TOPICS
““As-...
Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God
PREVIOUS TOPICS
PREVIOUS TOPICS
[3] “...
Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God
PREVIOUS TOPICS
PREVIOUS TOPICS
[4] S...
Only Allah is the God (Only Allah is the God (al- ilaahal- ilaah), there is no other that is God except), there is no othe...
IMPORTANT TO NOTEIMPORTANT TO NOTE
Conceptually regarding this aspect, i.e.Conceptually regarding this aspect, i.e. to onl...
PREVIOUS TOPICS
PREVIOUS TOPICS
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
SAY: "O you who deny the truth (SAY: "O you who deny the truth (AL-KAAFIRUNAL-KAAFIRUN)!)!
I do not worship that (I do not...
NOW TO CONTINUENOW TO CONTINUE
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
 This is the continuation from my previous “IntermediateThis is the continuation from my previous “Intermediate
Lesson on...
““LIMITLESS in His glory is thy Sustainer, theLIMITLESS in His glory is thy Sustainer, the
Lord of almightiness, [exalted]...
““Utterly remote is Allah, in His limitless glory,Utterly remote is Allah, in His limitless glory,
from anything to which ...
MUQADDIMAH
MUQADDIMAH
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
This is one of the traditio...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
"(To know Allah) Think and reflect upon"(To know Allah) Think and reflect u...
 When the Qur’an was revealed, it succinctly expounded andWhen the Qur’an was revealed, it succinctly expounded and
clari...
 Unfortunately, mastery of the Qur’anic (classical) Arabic language
amongst the Muslim masses tends to diminish, or it ma...
 The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., whichThe ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which
becam...
 The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., whichThe ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which
becam...
 During the first three generations (Qurn’ Salafus-Soliheen),
religious or theological disagreements or dissensions among...
 During the first three generations (Qurn’ Salafus-Soliheen),
religious or theological disagreements or dissensions among...
 Beginning with issue of succession, it was compounded later by the people
being exposed to other cultural-thoughts, phil...
 In the first three generations (SHAHABI, TABI’ and TABIT-TABI’IN –
period ), the AQEEDAH of the Muslims regarding
MA’RIF...
 It was in later era (known as ‘KHALAF ’ era), when many non-Arabs
came into Islam; when adherence to primary sources by ...
 When theWhen the Mu’tazilitesMu’tazilites (rationalists - influenced by Greek(rationalists - influenced by Greek
philoso...
 At that time there was tension between several extreme views :
[1] The Literalists – who follow textual basis (AL-QUR’AN...
 At that time there was tension between several extreme views:
[1] The Literalists –
There were some amongst them who wer...
 At that time there was tension between several extreme views:
[1] The Literalists –
They ruled that doing TA’WIL to be a...
 Then another group with yet another extreme view appear :
[2] The Rationalists –
They were those who regarded reasoning ...
 Then another group with yet another extreme view appear :
[2] The Rationalists –
Their radicalism in using reason, perha...
 The third group with another extreme view were the :
[3] The Pseudo-Sufis –
These were groups claiming to be Sufis yet d...
 We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way
(UMMATAN WASOTAN).
““Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balan...
 We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way
(UMMATAN WASOTAN).
““Those who listen to the Word, andThose who lis...
 We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way
(UMMATAN WASOTAN).
““Be not like those who are divided amongst them...
 We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way
(UMMATAN WASOTAN).
PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID:
All Rights Reser...
 We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way
(UMMATAN WASOTAN).
““Allah most Exalted will never allow the affair...
 (874 – 936CE)874 – 936CE) Imam Abul Hassan Ash-’arie in fact, begun as a
MU’TAZILI (rationalists) but returned to the fo...
 His method, sometimes termed as the school (MADZHAB) of
Imam Ash-’arie (ASH-’ARITE), reconciled these two extreme
views ...
 As one’s belief in God is conceptual, the use of reason must
not be left unguided without God’s Revealed proof – because...
 His method was further developed by Imam Abu Mansur
Maturidi (853- 944CE)(853- 944CE) and Imam Muhammad bin Yusuf As-
Sa...
 It must be appreciated, that this methodology was developed
(as were the “MADZAAHIB” in FIQH and other Islamic sciences
...
 It’s objective in fact was to uphold and defend the pristine Creed
of the SALAFUS-SOLIH against the challenges of the su...
 Arguing that the method cannot be accepted because it (the
method) was never used by the SALAF generation and by the ear...
 It is foolish to argue that this methodological approach (of the ASH-’ARIYAH) is
categorised as “BID’AH” (innovation) an...
 Similarly, it is indeed foolish to ‘ritualistically’ teach the ASH’ARIE –
MATURUDIYY method, (merely repeating them mech...
 In today’s context, this methodology is much needed as
safeguard for the Muslim’s understanding of the Islamic creed
aga...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?
 The original MU’TAZILITES were followers of Wasil bin Atha’
(700–748CE)(700–748CE) who be...
Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?
 In spite of this misguidance, they had contributed much
towards eradicating ‘blind and li...
Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?
 In can be said that this MADZHAB had long ceased to exist ,
extinct – although their idea...
Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?
 When in recent years, Muslims who had began studying Islam
from these Orientalists and in...
Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?
 These NEO-MU’TAZILITE are made to look ‘progressive’ and with
logical thoughts whereas th...
Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?
 It is most unfortunate that the general Muslims are ’lazy’ to learn
Islam – the tradition...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?
 As explained, the original term SALAF (‘predecessor’) refers to the
Muslims in the first thr...
Who are the “Who are the “NEO-SALAFISNEO-SALAFIS” ?” ?
 Yet, the reality is that certain verses (statements) in theYet, t...
Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?
 When asked about these allegorical verses (AAYAT
MUTASHABIHAT), they would accept the words ...
Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?
 In the KHALAF period, to prevent the general Muslims from the
mistake of taking these allego...
Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?
 During KHALAF period, leaving these verses without the right
TA’WIL, will definitely invite ...
 When later, the controversially known scholar from Harrancontroversially known scholar from Harran
Imam Taqiyuddin Ibn T...
 And indeed some of his views were accommodated but all his
other controversial views have been well refuted.
 But in to...
 A revived interest of promoting his opinions, especially in the
early 20th
century Arabia, led to the ‘literalist’ group...
 To gain credence from public, they even styled themselves as the
SALAFIYYIN – (or SALAFIS), as though implying, that the...
 It is the misappropriation of the label “SALAFI ” which is misleading,
and therefore needs to be highlighted and correct...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 Islam has to be implemented in three aspects, viz. Belief,
Practice and Perfection – (IIMAN...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially term
‘TASAWWWUF’ ) should first...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially term
‘TASAWWWUF’ ) should first...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 As in all things Islam, there are ADAB to be strictly obeyed. This
aspect IHSAN in fact, ar...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 We should heed the warning and advice of Imam Malik r.a. who said:
““He whoHe who TASAWWAFA...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 As we have learnt, that the primary cause for SHIRK is ignorance.
Especially when acts of w...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 Yet it is doubtful that most of them (and the general Muslim
public) truly understand their...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 And just like the NEO-SALAFIS, these NEO-SUFIS also in a way,
are claiming exclusivity for ...
Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?
 And just like the NEO-SALAFIS, these PSEUDO-SUFIS also in a way,
are claiming exclusivity f...
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
““And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - those willAnd whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - those will
be with the...
““ThoseThose who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in itwho listen to the Word, and follow the best (meani...
““Exalted is your Lord (Exalted is your Lord (ROBBROBB), the Lord of might, above), the Lord of might, above
what they des...
IMPORTANT DU’AIMPORTANT DU’A
““O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be trueO Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true
and gran...
TO BE CONTINUEDTO BE CONTINUED --
All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/
http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/
http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/
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Slideshare (lesson # 10)tauheed-course-(batch-january-2014)-tauheed-as-sifat-introdn-23-april-2014

  1. 1. Using curriculum he has developed especially for English-speakingUsing curriculum he has developed especially for English-speaking Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims.Muslim converts and young English-speaking Adult Muslims. ““To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)”To seek knowledge is obligatory upon every Muslim (male & female)” IT CAN ALSO BE AIT CAN ALSO BE A REFRESHER COURSEREFRESHER COURSE FOR MUSLIMFOR MUSLIM PARENTS, EDUCATORS,PARENTS, EDUCATORS, IN CONTEMPORARYIN CONTEMPORARY SINGAPORE.SINGAPORE. OPEN TO ALLOPEN TO ALL IN THE NAME OF ALLAHIN THE NAME OF ALLAH MOST COMPASIONATEMOST COMPASIONATE MOST MERCIFULMOST MERCIFUL ## 1010 For further information and registration contact EFor further information and registration contact E-mail :-mail : ad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.comad.fardhayn.sg@gmail.com or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279or +65 81234669 / +65 96838279 All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 LESSON “INTRODUCTION TO STUDY OF TAUHEED – (AQA’ID) ” Intermediate Level Islamic course in English for AdultsIntermediate Level Islamic course in English for Adults conducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismailconducted by Ustaz Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail UpdatedUpdated 2323 April 2014April 2014 BATCH - [JANUARY-MAY 2014] 18 weekly class started on :18 weekly class started on : 15th JANUARY 201415th JANUARY 2014 Every Wadnesday night @ 8pm – 10pmEvery Wadnesday night @ 8pm – 10pm Wisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid KassimWisma Indah, 450 Changi Road, #02-00 next to Masjid Kassim ““TAUTAUHHEED AS-SIFAT” –EED AS-SIFAT” – AN INTRODUCTIONAN INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. PREVIOUS TOPICSPREVIOUS TOPICS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  3. 3. BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD –BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – WHO ALONE IS THEWHO ALONE IS THE CREATORCREATOR DIVINE.DIVINE. (AL-KHALIQ-QIYYAH(AL-KHALIQ-QIYYAH )) BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD –BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – WHO ALONE IS THEWHO ALONE IS THE SUSTAINERSUSTAINER DIVINE.DIVINE. ( AR-RUB-BUBIYYAH )( AR-RUB-BUBIYYAH ) This is not unique to Muslims. Even pagan worshippers and idolaters acknowledge this. This is where Muslims differ with pagan worshippers, idolaters and unbelievers, because they erroneously ascribe to others besides Allah similar ‘Divine’ roles in the Sustainment of this universe. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  4. 4. It can be discern that people’s idea or knowledge that God exist, generally pertains to Him being the Creator. But, when we further consider God’s role in the universe and man’s life, differences occur. Those who deny Him as the only Absolute Sustainer, Cherisher of the universe, would inadvertently be ascribing to others this divine role. BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD –BELIEVE IN THE ONE GOD – WHO ALONE IS THEWHO ALONE IS THE DIVINEDIVINE.. ( AL-ULUHIYYAH ) WHO IS THE ‘DIVINE’ ?WHO IS THE ‘DIVINE’ ? All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  5. 5. Therefore, because some people’s knowledge of God as Divine, mayTherefore, because some people’s knowledge of God as Divine, may still be ambiguous,still be ambiguous, they need to have clear understanding of what we mean by “they need to have clear understanding of what we mean by “Divinity and theDivinity and the concept of the Divineconcept of the Divine” termed –” termed – UluhiyyahUluhiyyah.. That in regard to God being “Divine” (That in regard to God being “Divine” (ILAAHILAAH) – there is only One, Who alone is) – there is only One, Who alone is the Divine, without associates or partners.the Divine, without associates or partners. If they even accept or imagine the possibility of there being another ‘Divine’, it isIf they even accept or imagine the possibility of there being another ‘Divine’, it is termedtermed SHIRKSHIRK.. Islam rejects this for our belief is termed –Islam rejects this for our belief is termed – TAUTAUHHEED AL-ULUHIYYAHEED AL-ULUHIYYAH.. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  6. 6. PREVIOUS TOPICSPREVIOUS TOPICS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  7. 7. Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT)Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  8. 8. Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT)Knowledge concerning the “Divine” (ILAAHIYAT) ““Say : He is Allah, the Absolute One.Say : He is Allah, the Absolute One. Allah is the Eternal, the Most Besought of allAllah is the Eternal, the Most Besought of all **,, He begets not, and neither is He begotten;He begets not, and neither is He begotten; and there is nothing that could be compared toand there is nothing that could be compared to Him.”Him.” ((Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 1-4Qur’an: al-Ikhlas: 112: 1-4)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  9. 9. [1] The name, proper noun for God is “[1] The name, proper noun for God is “ALLAH “ALLAH “ He, most Exalted, is the Absolute One: indivisible, unique, theHe, most Exalted, is the Absolute One: indivisible, unique, the only Divine, without any other, before or after.only Divine, without any other, before or after. If one entertains the possibility of another like “If one entertains the possibility of another like “AllahAllah”, then his”, then his understanding of what constitute the “understanding of what constitute the “DivinityDivinity” is flawed.” is flawed. Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  10. 10. Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS ““Allah”Allah” :: Arabic proper noun; name for God, itArabic proper noun; name for God, it refers to the One and Only, the Unique Creator,refers to the One and Only, the Unique Creator, Lord Sustainer of the Universe, Who Alone is GodLord Sustainer of the Universe, Who Alone is God – there is none besides Allah.– there is none besides Allah. No equivalent translation in non-Semitic language.No equivalent translation in non-Semitic language. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  11. 11. Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS [2] “Allah” is referred to as “[2] “Allah” is referred to as “As-SomadAs-Somad” (in Arabic) which has” (in Arabic) which has a profound meaning.a profound meaning. There is no equivalent word for it in English, and requiresThere is no equivalent word for it in English, and requires explanations.explanations. **the original Arabic wordthe original Arabic word ““As-SomadAs-Somad”” meansmeans ““the Eternal,the Eternal, the Uncaused Cause of all beingthe Uncaused Cause of all being”” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  12. 12. Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS ““As-Somad”As-Somad” is therefore appliedis therefore applied to God Alone. It comprises the concept of the Primary Causeto God Alone. It comprises the concept of the Primary Cause and Eternal, independent Being; and also the idea thatand Eternal, independent Being; and also the idea that everything existing or conceivable goes back to Him as itseverything existing or conceivable goes back to Him as its source; and is therefore dependent on Him for its beginning assource; and is therefore dependent on Him for its beginning as well as for its continued existence.well as for its continued existence. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  13. 13. Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS [3] “[3] “AllahAllah” – is the only “” – is the only “DivineDivine”.”. Islam categorically refute any false notion which people ascribe to theIslam categorically refute any false notion which people ascribe to the ““DivineDivine”, especially that of God procreating (begetting another God).”, especially that of God procreating (begetting another God). A “A “DivineDivine” exists without need for any other, whereas “” exists without need for any other, whereas “sonson” requires” requires a father. These two terms together are antithetical (contradictory anda father. These two terms together are antithetical (contradictory and absurd).absurd). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  14. 14. Criterion which clarify our concept of GodCriterion which clarify our concept of God PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS [4] Since “[4] Since “AllahAllah” – is Unique and the only “” – is Unique and the only “DivineDivine”, there is”, there is nothing that can be compared to Him, absolutely there can benothing that can be compared to Him, absolutely there can be no equivalent.no equivalent. Whatever we can visualize or imagine, fall short of Allah’sWhatever we can visualize or imagine, fall short of Allah’s Exaltedness, and must be negated - Glory be to Allah (Exaltedness, and must be negated - Glory be to Allah ( SUB-SUB- HAANALLAAHHAANALLAAH ! ).! ). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  15. 15. Only Allah is the God (Only Allah is the God (al- ilaahal- ilaah), there is no other that is God except), there is no other that is God except ““AllahAllah”.”. ““LAA-ILAA-HA-IL-LALLAAH”LAA-ILAA-HA-IL-LALLAAH” PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  16. 16. IMPORTANT TO NOTEIMPORTANT TO NOTE Conceptually regarding this aspect, i.e.Conceptually regarding this aspect, i.e. to only regardto only regard AllahAllah asas the only Absolute One in His Divinitythe only Absolute One in His Divinity ((ULUHIYYAHULUHIYYAH), and), and to regardto regard AllahAllah as the only Absolute Sustaineras the only Absolute Sustainer ((RUBBUBIYYAHRUBBUBIYYAH) marks the) marks the True Criterion in the belief in the Oneness ofTrue Criterion in the belief in the Oneness of AllahAllah.. PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS Those who assert that the non-Muslims, including even theThose who assert that the non-Muslims, including even the MUSHRIKEENMUSHRIKEEN inin Makkah during the Prophet’s s.a.a.w period also adhere toMakkah during the Prophet’s s.a.a.w period also adhere to TAUTAUHHEED AR-EED AR- RUBUBIYYAHRUBUBIYYAH, are grossly mistaken. Acknowledging Allah as the exclusive, are grossly mistaken. Acknowledging Allah as the exclusive ROBB-AL-‘AA-LAMEENROBB-AL-‘AA-LAMEEN, is one of the cornerstone of, is one of the cornerstone of TAUTAUHHEEDEED - to be attested- to be attested and affirmed daily in our prayer – which the others do not truly acknowledge.and affirmed daily in our prayer – which the others do not truly acknowledge. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  17. 17. PREVIOUS TOPICS PREVIOUS TOPICS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  18. 18. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  19. 19. SAY: "O you who deny the truth (SAY: "O you who deny the truth (AL-KAAFIRUNAL-KAAFIRUN)!)! I do not worship that (I do not worship that (MA’BUDMA’BUD) which you worship,) which you worship, and neither do you worship that (and neither do you worship that (MA’BUDMA’BUD) which I) which I worship! And I will not worship that (worship! And I will not worship that (MA’BUDMA’BUD) which) which you have [ever] worshipped, and neither will youyou have [ever] worshipped, and neither will you [ever] worship that ([ever] worship that (MA’BUDMA’BUD) which I worship.) which I worship. Unto you, yourUnto you, your DEENDEEN (religion and moral law), and(religion and moral law), and unto me, mine!“unto me, mine!“ ((Qur’an: al-Kaafirun: 109: 1-6Qur’an: al-Kaafirun: 109: 1-6)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  20. 20. NOW TO CONTINUENOW TO CONTINUE All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  21. 21.  This is the continuation from my previous “IntermediateThis is the continuation from my previous “Intermediate Lesson on Islam -Lesson on Islam - TAUTAUHHEEDEED” module *. In that part one” module *. In that part one module, we have covered topics of :module, we have covered topics of : [1] Introduction to the various Approaches in Developing[1] Introduction to the various Approaches in Developing AQEEDAHAQEEDAH -- TAUTAUHHEEDEED (Attestation to Oneness of God).(Attestation to Oneness of God). [2] Causes of wrong thinking; Postulates in thinking; and[2] Causes of wrong thinking; Postulates in thinking; and Some important Cornerstone of Islamic thoughts.Some important Cornerstone of Islamic thoughts. [3][3] TAUTAUHHEED AL-EED AL-KHKHAALIQIYYAHAALIQIYYAH [4][4] TAUTAUHHEED AR-RUBUBIYYAHEED AR-RUBUBIYYAH [5][5] TAUTAUHHEED AL-ULUHIYYAH WAL- ‘UBUDIYYAHEED AL-ULUHIYYAH WAL- ‘UBUDIYYAH So now, for TauSo now, for Tauhheed part two module, I shall covereed part two module, I shall cover “TAU“TAUHHEED AS-SIFAT”EED AS-SIFAT” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  22. 22. ““LIMITLESS in His glory is thy Sustainer, theLIMITLESS in His glory is thy Sustainer, the Lord of almightiness, [exalted] above anythingLord of almightiness, [exalted] above anything that men may (attribute) devise by way ofthat men may (attribute) devise by way of definition!”definition!” ((Qur’an: Shaffat: 37: 108Qur’an: Shaffat: 37: 108)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  23. 23. ““Utterly remote is Allah, in His limitless glory,Utterly remote is Allah, in His limitless glory, from anything to which men may ascribe afrom anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!share in His divinity!!”!” ((Qur’an: Shaffat: 59: 23Qur’an: Shaffat: 59: 23)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  24. 24. MUQADDIMAH MUQADDIMAH INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 This is one of the traditional approaches in ensuring theThis is one of the traditional approaches in ensuring the understanding of attributes of Allah, amongst Muslims who areunderstanding of attributes of Allah, amongst Muslims who are exposed to other religious or philosophical views, does notexposed to other religious or philosophical views, does not deviate from that of the pious predecessors’ (Salafus-Soleheen)deviate from that of the pious predecessors’ (Salafus-Soleheen)
  25. 25. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 "(To know Allah) Think and reflect upon"(To know Allah) Think and reflect upon Allah's attributes (Allah's attributes (SifaatSifaat) and do not try) and do not try to think of (reality of) His Essence (to think of (reality of) His Essence (DzatDzat).“).“ (Hadith reported by Abu-Shaykh – al Jami’ : 134 Risalah Tauhid)
  26. 26.  When the Qur’an was revealed, it succinctly expounded andWhen the Qur’an was revealed, it succinctly expounded and clarify the message ofclarify the message of TAUTAUHHEEDEED, in the best Arabic to the, in the best Arabic to the Arabic-speakingArabic-speaking people whose mastery of Arabic was at thepeople whose mastery of Arabic was at the highest.highest.  In fact, the Arabs then, had recognized the Qur’an as a miracleIn fact, the Arabs then, had recognized the Qur’an as a miracle - Divinely revealed - not the speech of man.- Divinely revealed - not the speech of man.  And they knew very wellAnd they knew very well the metaphors, the linguisticthe metaphors, the linguistic eloquence, the profound and depth to meanings, the detaileloquence, the profound and depth to meanings, the detail and the general, etc. of the Qur’anic language - which toand the general, etc. of the Qur’anic language - which to them, are adequately self-explanatory.them, are adequately self-explanatory. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  27. 27.  Unfortunately, mastery of the Qur’anic (classical) Arabic language amongst the Muslim masses tends to diminish, or it may become weakened , except amongst Islamic scholars.  Thus the Muslims in general, have had to rely upon Islamic jurists and scholars from whichever MADZAAHIB (schools of theology and jurisprudence), to guide them regarding the teaching of Islam.  Each strove to preserve and transmit the traditional scholastic methods of understanding the primary sources (AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH) and continue teaching these wisdom to the masses. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  28. 28.  The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., whichThe ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which became the exemplary era from which Muslims of later periodbecame the exemplary era from which Muslims of later period relied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings andrelied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings and principle methodology (principle methodology (MANHAJMANHAJ), are called the period of the), are called the period of the pious predecessors (pious predecessors (SALAFUS-SOLISALAFUS-SOLIHHEENEEN).). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  29. 29.  The ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., whichThe ‘golden era’ according to the Prophet s.a.a.w., which became the exemplary era from which Muslims of later periodbecame the exemplary era from which Muslims of later period relied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings andrelied upon as source of the pure Islamic teachings and principle methodology (principle methodology (MANHAJMANHAJ), are called the period of the), are called the period of the pious predecessors (pious predecessors (SALAFUS-SOLISALAFUS-SOLIHHEENEEN).). ““The best of mankind – (believers) – are in myThe best of mankind – (believers) – are in my generation, then (a generation) after it, and thengeneration, then (a generation) after it, and then (another generation) after that.”(another generation) after that.” ((Hadith reported by Bukhary and MuslimHadith reported by Bukhary and Muslim)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  30. 30.  During the first three generations (Qurn’ Salafus-Soliheen), religious or theological disagreements or dissensions amongst Islamic scholars were very rare.  But inevitably schism did arose much later as prophesised : All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  31. 31.  During the first three generations (Qurn’ Salafus-Soliheen), religious or theological disagreements or dissensions amongst Islamic scholars were very rare.  But inevitably schism did arose much later as prophesised : “And whoever amongst you live after me will see many conflicts (disagreements), let him then adhere to whatever they know of my Sunnah and the Sunnah of my Rightly guided Successors (Khalifah).” (Hadith reported by Ahmad) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  32. 32.  Beginning with issue of succession, it was compounded later by the people being exposed to other cultural-thoughts, philosophy and methods (especially from the ancient Greek-Persian-Indo civilizations) .  Thus the method and approach to teaching the Qur’anic creed of TAUHEED of the pious generation (Salafus-Solih), had to be revised to respond as needed, to preserve the true understanding of AQEEDAH*, lest misinterpretations due to man’s own weakness may occur.  Please note, it is the approach, method of teaching that was revised, not the Creed (AQEEDAH). This is in conformity with the Prophet’s Sunnah s.a.a.w.: “Speak to people in accordance with their intellectual capacity.” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  33. 33.  In the first three generations (SHAHABI, TABI’ and TABIT-TABI’IN – period ), the AQEEDAH of the Muslims regarding MA’RIFATULLAAH (Knowledge in Knowing Allah) was never a problem.  Although differences of opinion regarding politics and other secondary issues did occur, yet in deriving understanding of theological and creedal matters (AQEEDAH) , reliance upon revealed knowledge (QUR’AN & AHADITH) overrides any human speculations. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  34. 34.  It was in later era (known as ‘KHALAF ’ era), when many non-Arabs came into Islam; when adherence to primary sources by the general Muslims decreased, whereas the learning and translation of all available sciences from other civilizations especially the Greek philosophy - and speculative theology and rational discourses became popular - that problems arose.  The dominance of the rationalists (MU’TAZILITE) scholars threatened to undermine the traditional reliance upon Revelation. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  35. 35.  When theWhen the Mu’tazilitesMu’tazilites (rationalists - influenced by Greek(rationalists - influenced by Greek philosophy) introduced innovations (philosophy) introduced innovations (BID’AHBID’AH) that threatened to) that threatened to undermine and replace the true creed (undermine and replace the true creed (AQEEDAHAQEEDAH) which must) which must remain consistent with that of the Prophetic generation, thatremain consistent with that of the Prophetic generation, that Islamic scholars – notablyIslamic scholars – notably Imam Abul Hassan al-Ash-’arieImam Abul Hassan al-Ash-’arie andand Abu Mansur al-MaturidiAbu Mansur al-Maturidi et. al.et. al. ; - came up with the relevant; - came up with the relevant response to safeguard its theological belief – (termed as theresponse to safeguard its theological belief – (termed as the creed of “creed of “the People of Tradition and the Communitthe People of Tradition and the Community” or “y” or “AHLUS-AHLUS- SUNNAH WAL- JAMA-’AHSUNNAH WAL- JAMA-’AH ”).”). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  36. 36.  At that time there was tension between several extreme views : [1] The Literalists – who follow textual basis (AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH) as it is, and refusing the use of reasoning (TA’WIL ) in understanding those verses which are allegorical (MUTASHA-BIHA), since most from SALAF generation refrained from interpreting these. Yet the difference with them from the SALAF generation was that many amongst them tend to insist on the literal meaning of these verses (or allow such erroneous literal understanding in the mind of the masses to persist), and thus created controversy (FITNAH). LITERALISTS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  37. 37.  At that time there was tension between several extreme views: [1] The Literalists – There were some amongst them who were even accused of being ‘anthropomorphic’ (MUJASIMAH ) or ‘those who rely on allegorical verses’ (MUTASHA-BIHA) - for asserting (or subtly insinuating) that these verses are to be accepted literally - highlighting them (without explaining its correct meaning) and were adamant in chastising as deviant, whoever are providing the necessary explanation thereof through TA’WIL. Yet these are clearly metaphors which are ambiguous. LITERALISTS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  38. 38.  At that time there was tension between several extreme views: [1] The Literalists – They ruled that doing TA’WIL to be a heretical innovation (BID’AH DOLAA-LAH), although we know that there were many of Prophet’s companions who interpreted and did TA’WIL. Not only this, they even went on to condemn logic and philosophy, and many other ‘new’ ideas and improvements developed due to changing needs in teaching the Muslims. LITERALISTS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  39. 39.  Then another group with yet another extreme view appear : [2] The Rationalists – They were those who regarded reasoning as being higher than that of Revelation - that in their interpretations of the Revealed texts (AL-QUR’AN & AHADITH), they advocated drastic changes even to the Scriptural text itself ( tampering -TAHRIF). RATIONALISTS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  40. 40.  Then another group with yet another extreme view appear : [2] The Rationalists – Their radicalism in using reason, perhaps were the very cause why the ‘literalist’ reacted (albeit, they the literalists were equally guilty of being radical too, in the other extreme.) Some of these Rationalists were accused of being religious ‘innovators’ (MUB-TADI’ ) because of these attempts, seen as people of HAWA (followers of desire) rather than of revelation – changing the DEEN to suit their thinkiing. RATIONALISTS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  41. 41.  The third group with another extreme view were the : [3] The Pseudo-Sufis – These were groups claiming to be Sufis yet display ignorance of the SHARI’AH in their belief and practices of Islam.  Because of them, the ‘literalists’ and ‘rationalists’ gained credibility for attacking ‘Traditional Islamic scholars’ mistaking them to be similar in their views, whereas these (Traditional) scholars had condemned all ‘pseudo Sufis‘ and regarded them also as religious ‘innovators’ (MUB-TADI’ ) of that time. PSEUDO-SUFISPSEUDO-SUFIS All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  42. 42.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). ““Thus have We made of you an Ummah justly balancedThus have We made of you an Ummah justly balanced that ye might be witnesses over the nations and thethat ye might be witnesses over the nations and the Messenger a witness over yourselves”Messenger a witness over yourselves” ((Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143Qur’an: Baqarah: 2: 143)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  43. 43.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). ““Those who listen to the Word, andThose who listen to the Word, and follow the bestfollow the best (meaning) in it(meaning) in it: those are the ones whom Allah has guided,: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.”and those are the ones endued with understanding.” ((Qur’an: Baqarah: 39: 18Qur’an: Baqarah: 39: 18)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  44. 44.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). ““Be not like those who are divided amongst themselves and fall into disputations after receiving Clear signs; for them is a dreadful penalty.― “ ((Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 105Qur’an: Aali ‘Imran: 3: 105)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  45. 45.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  46. 46.  We Muslims are to follow the middle, or balanced way (UMMATAN WASOTAN). ““Allah most Exalted will never allow the affairs of myAllah most Exalted will never allow the affairs of my ummah to be with what deviates (from Truth) forever; soummah to be with what deviates (from Truth) forever; so follow the majority (of my ummah –follow the majority (of my ummah – SAWAA-DUL-A’-ZOMSAWAA-DUL-A’-ZOM).). Allah’s hand is upon the Jama’ah (united community),Allah’s hand is upon the Jama’ah (united community), whoever defers away from it , defers toward Hell-fire.”whoever defers away from it , defers toward Hell-fire.” ((Hadith reported by al-Hakim from Ibn JarirHadith reported by al-Hakim from Ibn Jarir)) PROPHET MUHAMMAD S.A.A.W. SAID: All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  47. 47.  (874 – 936CE)874 – 936CE) Imam Abul Hassan Ash-’arie in fact, begun as a MU’TAZILI (rationalists) but returned to the fold of pure creed (AQEEDAH of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH), and thus was most competent to refute the MU’TAZILI, by upholding the Revealed basis of the creed of the SALAF generation (NAQLIYAH), and supported it with logic and reasoning approaches (‘AQLIYAH) in argument and explanation, relevant to refute those rationalists of his time because they were familiar with it and favour such approaches in their argument and discourses. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  48. 48.  His method, sometimes termed as the school (MADZHAB) of Imam Ash-’arie (ASH-’ARITE), reconciled these two extreme views of the time (Literalist-Rationalist), but most importantly, it preserved and provide guidance in how should the Muslims’ understanding the creed of the AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH should be, based upon Revealed text (NAQLIYAH), yet putting the use of reason (‘AQLIYAH) and rational arguments as important and necessary, but not higher than the proof of revelation. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  49. 49.  As one’s belief in God is conceptual, the use of reason must not be left unguided without God’s Revealed proof – because man, instinctively, has the tendency towards ‘anthropomorphism’ (to imagine God as in human form) if left to his own device. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  50. 50.  His method was further developed by Imam Abu Mansur Maturidi (853- 944CE)(853- 944CE) and Imam Muhammad bin Yusuf As- Sanusi (895CE) and since then has been taught – as a legacy of and represent the creed of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL-JAMA’AH *, which serves to circumvent the likelihood of the ‘rationalists’ and ‘literalists’, resurfacing again with their extreme views. * This was the creed which has been unanimously understood to conform with and represent the creed (AQEEDAH) of the SALAF generation – in the subsequent generations which follow them, known as KHALAF generations. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  51. 51.  It must be appreciated, that this methodology was developed (as were the “MADZAAHIB” in FIQH and other Islamic sciences e.g. Musthalah-al-Hadith , Tafsir, Nahwu, Qira’at, etc.) after the time of the SALAF era – precisely because it was needed to provide relevant response to the challenges of the time, in guiding and educating the subsequent generation of the Ummah in later times, upon the Right Path. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  52. 52.  It’s objective in fact was to uphold and defend the pristine Creed of the SALAFUS-SOLIH against the challenges of the subsequent generations prone to attacks by the rationalists, the anthropomorphist and innovators of the DEEN (MUBTADI’ ) – albeit, using the approaches relevant to address and refute their erroneous assertions accordingly. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  53. 53.  Arguing that the method cannot be accepted because it (the method) was never used by the SALAF generation and by the earlier Muslim Scholars e.g. Imam Malik  (711 – 795CE)(711 – 795CE),, ImamImam Shafi’ie (745-820CE), etc. - this is tenuous, childish and only exposed the persons’ lack of understanding of the fuller history of Islam and of the Muslim intellectuals and Islamic scholarship; the development of creedal and Islam’s legal history (TARIKH TASH-RI’) . All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  54. 54.  It is foolish to argue that this methodological approach (of the ASH-’ARIYAH) is categorised as “BID’AH” (innovation) and not part of Islamic heritage and scholarship – just as they had erroneously dismissed every other “MADZAAHIB” that developed after the era of the SALAFUS-SOLIH – categorized by them as “BID’AH” too, simply because they themselves have not understood its relevance and are clearly unappreciative of how it has saved the Ummah from misguidance.  Their dismissive attitude may be regarded perhaps as naïve by some, and this strict rigidity reveal sheer arrogance - a sign of ungratefulness towards the intellectual legacy of most of our earlier Islamic scholars. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  55. 55.  Similarly, it is indeed foolish to ‘ritualistically’ teach the ASH’ARIE – MATURUDIYY method, (merely repeating them mechanically from traditional text) without linking (highlighting) it’s relevance in the present context of ideological thoughts, explaining how it is to be applied in correcting the errors of current intellectual discourse in AQEEDAH.  Remember, AQEEDAH is not to be taught merely as a subject, but the inculcating understanding or rather instilling a believe (Creed) in such a way to convince people of the Truth. To believe is to be convinced with ‘certainty’, rather than simply to ‘know’ or be informed of various subjects or information. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  56. 56.  In today’s context, this methodology is much needed as safeguard for the Muslim’s understanding of the Islamic creed against the onslaught of “secularist-atheistic-rationalists” ideas being propagated .  It must be noted that even now, there are Muslim intellectuals who have been influenced by their Orientalist mentors, and are seeking to glamorize and revive the MU’TAZILITE discourses.  These are the “Liberal Muslims” or we would rather refer to them as NEO-MU’TAZILITES. * NEO – means “new” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  57. 57. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  58. 58. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  The original MU’TAZILITES were followers of Wasil bin Atha’ (700–748CE)(700–748CE) who begun learning the Greek philosophy and logic.  In discussing religion and theology, because they adamantly regard “reason” (‘AQL) as foremost even to be above revelation (WAHYU) , they broke away from AHL-SUNNAH WAL JAMA’AH. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  59. 59. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  In spite of this misguidance, they had contributed much towards eradicating ‘blind and literal ’ adherence to text, and gross lack in using logical arguments (logic and reason) in matters of proving the Islamic creed (AQEEDAH).  In engaging these original MU’TAZILITES, the AHLUS-SUNNAH scholars had triumphed over them and was able to refute all of their false assertions - even using their mode of philosophy and rational arguments. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  60. 60. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  In can be said that this MADZHAB had long ceased to exist , extinct – although their ideas are still studied for comparison and as part of Islamic intellectual history by Muslim scholars in USUL- UDDEEN.  It was the Orientalists who were fascinated by them and had sought to revive their ‘rationalism’ . But this had long been confined mostly in intellectual discourses and academic writings (much of it in non-Arabic languages). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  61. 61. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  When in recent years, Muslims who had began studying Islam from these Orientalists and in Western-based learning institutions, MU’TAZILI ideas now is being promoted by these Muslims. Even to the extent of starting movements , reading groups etc., mostly supported by secular institutions seeking to undermine the traditional MADZAAHIB and the traditionalists.  In fact they are not “MU’TAZILITE” , but a pretender of one, trying to gain acceptance from unsuspecting Muslims. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  62. 62. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  These NEO-MU’TAZILITE are made to look ‘progressive’ and with logical thoughts whereas these were ‘rehashed’ ideas (rather poor imitations which) have already been refuted by past scholars of AHLUS-SUNNAH WAL JAMA’AH – the knowledge of these refutations are still available amongst traditional Islamic scholars.  Other names they may claim for themselves e.g.: “Liberal Islam”, “Islamic Reformers”, “Modernist Muslim”, “Progressive Islam” , “Radical Muslim thinkers” etc. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  63. 63. Who are the NEO-MU’TAZILITES ?  It is most unfortunate that the general Muslims are ’lazy’ to learn Islam – the traditionally transmitted teachings - and are contented to be ‘simplistic’ in their grasp on knowledge of their AQEEDAH.  Or they are being misled by those who mock the traditional ASH’ARITE school of AHLUS-SUNNAH , even accusing it to be a ‘deviant’ sect while favouring another extreme group, the literalist view of the “NEO-SALAFIS”. waAllaahu a’lamwaAllaahu a’lam * NEO – means “new” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  64. 64. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  65. 65. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  As explained, the original term SALAF (‘predecessor’) refers to the Muslims in the first three generations closest to our Prophet Muhammad’s period (s.a.a.w.).  After that era, all Muslims are regarded as KHALAF (‘successor’).  The purity of the SALAFI ’s adherence to basic source of Islamic knowledge (AL-QUR’AN and AHADITH), had ensured that no changes were made to these early text. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  66. 66. Who are the “Who are the “NEO-SALAFISNEO-SALAFIS” ?” ?  Yet, the reality is that certain verses (statements) in theYet, the reality is that certain verses (statements) in the QUR’ANQUR’AN andand AHADITHAHADITH areare metaphoricalmetaphorical, and, and must notmust not be understoodbe understood literallyliterally..  The people ofThe people of SALAFSALAF generation,generation, because of their excellentbecause of their excellent graspgrasp of Islam and mastery of Qur’an classical Arabic, it had ascertainedof Islam and mastery of Qur’an classical Arabic, it had ascertained that no confusion nor misinterpretation occurred regarding theirthat no confusion nor misinterpretation occurred regarding their common understanding of these allegorical (metaphorical) versescommon understanding of these allegorical (metaphorical) verses in the text.in the text. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  67. 67. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  When asked about these allegorical verses (AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT), they would accept the words as they are (to ensure no tampering of the original text) and “leave its meaning to Allah” (TAFWIDW) without takyif (by asking how) nor ta’thil (denying the words as it is used) nor tamthil (making similitude for them), but most importantly they all forbade and warned against these verses AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT , to be taken and understood literally. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  68. 68. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  In the KHALAF period, to prevent the general Muslims from the mistake of taking these allegorical verses AAYAT MUTASHABIHAT literally, Islamic scholars apply TA’WIL (interpretation) to them, ever since. This has been adhered to by subsequent scholars of AHLUS-SUNNAH.  It is obvious, why TA’WIL generally was not done previously was because there was no such danger of misinterpretation by the people during that SALAF period (unlike in later KHALAF era). All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  69. 69. Who are the “NEO-SALAFIS” ?  During KHALAF period, leaving these verses without the right TA’WIL, will definitely invite ‘misinterpretation’ from the general masses, and have even led to the rise of deviant MUJASSIMAH (anthropomorphist) groups.  Those who may not be aware, please note that TA’WIL on the Qur’an itself was approved by the Prophet s.a.aw. when he prayed for Allah to grant Ibnu Abbas r.a. this knowledge. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  70. 70.  When later, the controversially known scholar from Harrancontroversially known scholar from Harran Imam Taqiyuddin Ibn Taymiyyah (1263 -1328CE)(1263 -1328CE) , raised the objection again regarding TA’WIL, it rekindled once more the controversy (FITNAH) , the opportunity for the MUJASSIMAH (anthropomorphist) and the literalists since then, to justify and promote their misguided agenda.  Imam Ibn Taymiyyah may have valid concern then, at the period when his views could be scrutinized by his peers or more competent Islamic scholars of his time. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  71. 71.  And indeed some of his views were accommodated but all his other controversial views have been well refuted.  But in today's context, bringing up his controversial views had again caused much confusion to the common Muslims whose knowledge of Islam, generally, is very much deficient.  This was compounded when many of these new ‘SALAFIS’ even condemned other Muslims studying the Islamic traditional sciences of Theology (‘ILMU KALAM), logic (MANTIQ), philosophy (FALASIFAH), Sufism (TASAWWUF) etc. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  72. 72.  A revived interest of promoting his opinions, especially in the early 20th century Arabia, led to the ‘literalist’ group using it to re- introduce many controversial discourses – worldwide.  In the absence of right TA’WIL, the general Muslims thus would be easily misled to think in anthropomorphic terms.  Although aware of this danger, yet many from this group adamantly promoted this kind of discourse and some even went on to condemn all those doing TA’WIL (or even the following of a MADZHAB) as wrong, nay as “deviancy” . All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  73. 73.  To gain credence from public, they even styled themselves as the SALAFIYYIN – (or SALAFIS), as though implying, that the rest of the Muslims have not adhered to the true methodology of the “early pious predecessors”, but only their group “are upon the true path.”  We need to qualify and acknowledge that we do not here refer to those who are true and legitimate followers of any MADZAAHIB . We respect those amongst them who honestly identify themselves with the HANABALI and AHLIL-HADITH rather than using the term SALAFI label and claim exclusivity for themselves. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  74. 74.  It is the misappropriation of the label “SALAFI ” which is misleading, and therefore needs to be highlighted and corrected.  This ‘movement’ which was formed rather late (truncated) in history, still belongs to the KHALAF period, and cannot be the “SALAF “ as referred to by the Prophet s.a.a.w.  Thus we would rightfully termed them as NEO-SALAFIS. waAllaahu a’lamwaAllaahu a’lam * NEO – means “new” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  75. 75. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  76. 76. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Islam has to be implemented in three aspects, viz. Belief, Practice and Perfection – (IIMAN-ISLAM-IHSAN).  It is from IHSAN , that later on, the Sciences of the “Self” (‘ILMUN-NAFS) or “Human Disposition” (AKHLAQ), or “Purification of the Self” (TAZKIYA-AN-NAFS), or Detachment (ZUHUD), or “Knowledge of the Divine“ (IRFAN), or Sufism (TASAWWUF )” etc. were developed. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  77. 77. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially term ‘TASAWWWUF’ ) should first understand that the general definition of these, are in fact all referring to a common objective of: “the practice of Islam at the level of IHSAN.” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  78. 78. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Those who take exception to these terminologies (especially term ‘TASAWWWUF’ ) should first understand that the general definition of these, are in fact all referring to a common objective of: “the practice of Islam at the level of IHSAN.” ““Al-IAl-Ihhsansan (righteousness or best conduct) is that you(righteousness or best conduct) is that you worship (serve) Allah as though you are seeing Him;worship (serve) Allah as though you are seeing Him; while you see Him not, yet truly He sees you”while you see Him not, yet truly He sees you” ((Hadith reported by MuslimHadith reported by Muslim)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  79. 79. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  As in all things Islam, there are ADAB to be strictly obeyed. This aspect IHSAN in fact, are regarded as the aspect of perfecting a Muslim’s state of “Submission or worship or servitude to Allah.”  Therefore, this comes after development of their correct belief (IIMAN) and proper understanding of the Shari’ah (FIQH), without which, those indulging in this may be led astray – NA-UUDZU- BILLAAH. (we seek Allah’s protection) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  80. 80. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  We should heed the warning and advice of Imam Malik r.a. who said: ““He whoHe who TASAWWAFATASAWWAFA (practices Sufism) without learning(practices Sufism) without learning FIQHFIQH (Sacred Law) corrupts his Faith (becomes a(Sacred Law) corrupts his Faith (becomes a ZINDIQZINDIQ),), while he who learnswhile he who learns FIQHFIQH (Sacred Law) without(Sacred Law) without TASAWWUFTASAWWUF (practicing Sufism) corrupts himself (becomes a(practicing Sufism) corrupts himself (becomes a FASIQFASIQ).). Only he who combines the two proves True (Only he who combines the two proves True (TAHAQQUQTAHAQQUQ).”).” ((Iqaz al-himam fee sharh al-HikamIqaz al-himam fee sharh al-Hikam)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  81. 81. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  As we have learnt, that the primary cause for SHIRK is ignorance. Especially when acts of worship and matters pertaining to the religion are “blindly imitated ” , as when rituals or ‘belief’ are followed without possessing true knowledge.  It is from this group (pseudo-Sufis ) that many religious terminologies ( regarding special terms pertaining to AQEEDAH as it is used by the true MUTASAWWIF ) may also be “carelessly parroted” to the general public by them, which may cause FITNAH. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  82. 82. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  Yet it is doubtful that most of them (and the general Muslim public) truly understand their true profound and exclusive meanings. Thus the ignorance and confusion of knowledge is compounded.  This is further exacerbated by many of them neglecting the pursuit in serious learning of the DEEN, but instead they promote highly their “Dzikr” sessions to people who may actually have little or inadequate basic Islamic knowledge. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  83. 83. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  And just like the NEO-SALAFIS, these NEO-SUFIS also in a way, are claiming exclusivity for themselves, as though implying (and some don’t even hide their arrogance by asserting that) other Muslims who do not identify themselves with their group (TARIQAH), are not really “practicing Islam at the level of IHSAN” or perhaps “not as good as us the SUFIS”. They even styled themselves as “AHLIL-HAQIQAT (Esoteric)” while condemning others derogatively as “AHLI-SHARI’AT (Exoteric)”. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  84. 84. Who are the “PSEUDO-SUFIS” ?  And just like the NEO-SALAFIS, these PSEUDO-SUFIS also in a way, are claiming exclusivity for themselves, as though implying (and some don’t even hide their arrogance by asserting that) other Muslims who do not identify themselves with their group (TARIQAH), are not really “practicing Islam at the level of IHSAN” or perhaps “not as good as us the SUFIS”. They even styled themselves as “AHLIL-HAQIQAT (Esoteric)” while condemning others derogatively as “AHLI-SHARI’AT (Exoteric)”. WaAllaahu a’lamWaAllaahu a’lam All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  85. 85. All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  86. 86. ““And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - those willAnd whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger - those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favour ofbe with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favour of the prophets (the prophets (NABIYYINNABIYYIN), the steadfast affirmers of truth), the steadfast affirmers of truth ((SwSwIDDIQEENIDDIQEEN), the martyrs (), the martyrs (SHUHADAASHUHADAA) and the) and the righteous (righteous (SwSwOLIHEENOLIHEEN). And excellent are those as). And excellent are those as companions. That is the bounty from Allah, and sufficientcompanions. That is the bounty from Allah, and sufficient is Allah as Knower.”is Allah as Knower.” ((Qur’an: an-Nisa’: 4: 69-70Qur’an: an-Nisa’: 4: 69-70)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  87. 87. ““ThoseThose who listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in itwho listen to the Word, and follow the best (meaning) in it:: those are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the onesthose are the ones whom Allah has guided, and those are the ones endued with understanding.”endued with understanding.” ((Qur’an: Az-Zumar:39:18Qur’an: Az-Zumar:39:18)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  88. 88. ““Exalted is your Lord (Exalted is your Lord (ROBBROBB), the Lord of might, above), the Lord of might, above what they describe. And peace upon the messengers.what they describe. And peace upon the messengers. And praise to Allah, Lord (And praise to Allah, Lord (ROBBROBB) of the worlds.”) of the worlds.” ((Qur’an: Saffat: 37: 180-182Qur’an: Saffat: 37: 180-182)) All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  89. 89. IMPORTANT DU’AIMPORTANT DU’A ““O Allah! Make us see the Truth to be trueO Allah! Make us see the Truth to be true and grant us ability to follow it.and grant us ability to follow it. And make us see Falsehood to be false andAnd make us see Falsehood to be false and grant us the ability to reject it.”grant us the ability to reject it.” All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014 ALLAA-HUM-MA – ARI-NAL-HAQ-QA - HAQ-QAN WAR- ZUQ-NAT - TI-BAA- ’A WA-ARI-NAL – BAA-TWILA – BAA-TWI-LAAN WAR-ZUQ-NAJ – TI –NAA - BAH
  90. 90. TO BE CONTINUEDTO BE CONTINUED -- All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014
  91. 91. http://an-naseehah.blogspot.com/ http://introductiontotauhid.blogspot.com/ http://oyoubelievers.blogspot.com/ http://al-amthaal.blogspot.com/ http://zhulkeflee-archive.blogspot.com/ http://criteriaforaholybook-quran.blogspot.com/ http://with-the-truthful.blogspot.com/ http ://muqaddam-nurul.blogspot.com/ All welcome to visit my web-blog:All welcome to visit my web-blog: 91 All Rights Reserved ©Zhulkeflee Hj Ismail.2014

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