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Results from a participatory action research
fish feed trial using Oreochromis macrochir
and Oreochromis tanganicae in Nor...
• Fish consumption is of key importance
for food and nutrition security and
human health in Africa
• Expanding aquaculture...
Fingerling production
• With stagnating capture fisheries
production, a fish supply deficit of about
80,000 metric tons ha...
Introduction
Reasons for the increase (Kaminski et al. under review):
• Rapid adoption of cage fish farming on Lake Kariba...
Introduction
Aquaculture activities in rural Zambia
• The notable increase in aquaculture
production is mainly from medium...
Low rural aquaculture productivity
• High costs associated with buying complete fish feeds
o Feeds are also poorly distrib...
• A comparative study was conducted to assess the impact of using a
formulated fish feed from locally-available ingredient...
• How can rural aquaculture productivity be enhanced through research?
• How can aquaculture research be more inclusive (w...
Mbala
Luwingu
• Luwingu and Mbala Districts of
Northern Province, Zambia
• Located in agro-ecological region
3, which rece...
Formation of PAR groups
• Development of a feed trial protocol and
presentation at a stakeholder meeting
• Identification ...
Completed trial pondsRenovation of demonstration ponds Farmer constructing her trial ponds
• 6 demonstration ponds were se...
Stocking of fingerlingsFeed formulation Monitoring of fish growth and water quality in ponds
• Formulation of a nutritiona...
Variable Luwingu Mbala
Sex of farmer 40% female 57% female
Age of farmer (years) 42 (range: 22-58); 40% youth 41.4 (range:...
PAR fish feed trials
•Average growth rates (grams), by month
Solid overall growth, P1 treatment performing better.
Men obt...
PAR fish feed trials
•Average secchi disk readings
•Average water temperatures
Ideal water temperatures to grow tilapia:
2...
PAR fish feed trials
•Average growth rates (grams), by month
Similar erratic growth and large disparities
between the two ...
PAR fish feed trials
•Average secchi disk readings
•Average water temperatures
Ideal water temperatures to grow tilapia:
2...
Participatory feed adjustments
Enhanced capacities (via “learning by doing”) and extension support
•Formulation of a nutri...
Collaboration (at multiple scales) during the trials led to successful implementation;
farmers shared knowledge and experi...
Participatory action research can:
•Lead to successful implementation of on-farm research with rural
small-scale fish farm...
• Misamfu Aquaculture Research Station and Mpende Fisheries for
supplying the fingerlings
• Department of Fisheries staff ...
Thank You
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Results from a participatory action research fish feed trial using oreochromis macrochir and oreochromis tanganicae in northern zambia

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World Aquaculture Society Conference
Cape Town, South Africa, June 26-30, 2017

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Results from a participatory action research fish feed trial using oreochromis macrochir and oreochromis tanganicae in northern zambia

  1. 1. Results from a participatory action research fish feed trial using Oreochromis macrochir and Oreochromis tanganicae in Northern Zambia World Aquaculture Society Conference Cape Town, South Africa, June 26-30, 2017 Mary Lundeba, Steven Cole, Mary Nyirenda and Noah Muyuni
  2. 2. • Fish consumption is of key importance for food and nutrition security and human health in Africa • Expanding aquaculture and supporting small-scale fisheries are sustainable ways of improving nutritional status and food security (Kawarazuka and Béné 2010) • Fish contributes 53.4% of animal protein in the diets of Zambians (FAO 2012) Introduction
  3. 3. Fingerling production • With stagnating capture fisheries production, a fish supply deficit of about 80,000 metric tons has been estimated in Zambia (DoF 2017) • Aquaculture is seen as part of the solution to overcome fish supply deficit • Zambia’s aquaculture production has increased from 5,000 metric tons in 2006 to over 30,000 metric tons in 2016 (DoF 2016) Introduction Fish hatchery in Zambia
  4. 4. Introduction Reasons for the increase (Kaminski et al. under review): • Rapid adoption of cage fish farming on Lake Kariba • Emerging private sector increasing fish seed and feed production • Increased demand for fish • Overall, there has been an enabling environment created by the government and non-governmental organizations to develop the aquaculture sector
  5. 5. Introduction Aquaculture activities in rural Zambia • The notable increase in aquaculture production is mainly from medium and large-scale producers o The rural-based small-scale farmers lag behind • Rural populations’ main animal protein source is fish, yet fish catches from capture fisheries are declining • Aquaculture can help rural people secure their food, nutrition and economic needs • Therefore, addressing constraints of aquaculture development among rural small-scale fish farmers is critical
  6. 6. Low rural aquaculture productivity • High costs associated with buying complete fish feeds o Feeds are also poorly distributed in district areas, making it inaccessible to rural small-scale farmers • Lack of high-quality fish seed and access to it • Poor pond management practices Other challenges • Gender issues (aquaculture perceived as a man’s activity, land tenure) • Lack of extension support • Lack of high-quality data on fish growth and production of small-scale fish farmers • Use of inappropriate technology-transfer approaches Challenges that limit rural aquaculture development
  7. 7. • A comparative study was conducted to assess the impact of using a formulated fish feed from locally-available ingredients on the growth of Oreochromis species • Three different feeding treatments were used: • A multi-stakeholder participatory action research (PAR) approach was used to enhance knowledge sharing and learning and technology transfer o More inclusive (women, men, youths) o Facilitated capacity building, participatory M&E o Enhanced extension support Research to address some of the aquaculture development challenges
  8. 8. • How can rural aquaculture productivity be enhanced through research? • How can aquaculture research be more inclusive (women, men, youths) and empowering? Main research questions
  9. 9. Mbala Luwingu • Luwingu and Mbala Districts of Northern Province, Zambia • Located in agro-ecological region 3, which receives over 1000 mm of rainfall annually with the presence of perennial water bodies • High potential for aquaculture development in these two sites Research sites
  10. 10. Formation of PAR groups • Development of a feed trial protocol and presentation at a stakeholder meeting • Identification of 41 research farmers (RFs) o 15 RFs (Luwingu) o 26 RFs (Mbala) • Formation of PAR groups • Detailed discussions to inform the research design • Identification of locally-available feed ingredients and animal manures Setting up the research process
  11. 11. Completed trial pondsRenovation of demonstration ponds Farmer constructing her trial ponds • 6 demonstration ponds were set up in each research site (“learning” sites) • Every RF constructed/renovated 3 trial “women-sensitive” ponds (10 m x 10 m) Implementation of the research
  12. 12. Stocking of fingerlingsFeed formulation Monitoring of fish growth and water quality in ponds • Formulation of a nutritionally-improved fish feed using locally-available ingredients • Stocking of fingerlings in trial ponds (3/m²) • Monthly monitoring of fish growth and water quality o 20,520 total fish sampled • Fish fed twice/day at 3% body weight Implementing the research
  13. 13. Variable Luwingu Mbala Sex of farmer 40% female 57% female Age of farmer (years) 42 (range: 22-58); 40% youth 41.4 (range: 24-61); 26% youth Marital status 100% married 87% married Level of education - Primary: 60% - Secondary: 40% - None: 17.3% - Primary: 74% - Secondary: 8.7% Main occupation 100% crop farmers 100% crop farmers Years fish farming 3.7 years (range: 1-22) 3.7 years (range: 1-17) Land ownership 26.7% self-owned 69.6% self-owned Labor for pond construction - Family: 60% - Own: 33.3% - Group: 6.7% - Family: 74% - Own: 17.4% - Group: 4.4% - Hired: 4.4% Main challenges fish farming - Water shortages: 35.7% - Lack animal manure: 28.6% - Pond construction: 21.4% - Predation: 55.6% - Water shortages: 16.7% - Lack of time: 11.1% Feed trial farmer demographics
  14. 14. PAR fish feed trials •Average growth rates (grams), by month Solid overall growth, P1 treatment performing better. Men obtained +10.46 g more growth (P1) on average than women. Erratic and less significant growth throughout the trial period, which suggests demo ponds are not being managed as well as individual ponds. m+f = manure + feed; m = manure only; f = feed only Results (Luwingu District)
  15. 15. PAR fish feed trials •Average secchi disk readings •Average water temperatures Ideal water temperatures to grow tilapia: 25°to 30°Celsius m+f = manure + feed; m = manure only; f = feed only Results (Luwingu District)
  16. 16. PAR fish feed trials •Average growth rates (grams), by month Similar erratic growth and large disparities between the two sets of ponds. Poor growth on the whole, regardless of the treatment. Suggests: 1.Poor management/water quality 2.Low water temperatures impacting growth 3.Poor seed quality? Men obtained +0.78 g more growth (P1) on average than women. m+f = manure + feed; m = manure only; f = feed only Results (Mbala District)
  17. 17. PAR fish feed trials •Average secchi disk readings •Average water temperatures Ideal water temperatures to grow tilapia: 25°to 30°Celsius m+f = manure + feed; m = manure only; f = feed only Results (Mbala District)
  18. 18. Participatory feed adjustments Enhanced capacities (via “learning by doing”) and extension support •Formulation of a nutritionally-improved feed •Best management practices •Monitoring of fish growth and water quality parameters •Record keeping •Adjustment of feed Participatory monitoringParticipatory feed formulation Results
  19. 19. Collaboration (at multiple scales) during the trials led to successful implementation; farmers shared knowledge and experiences Farmers drew the following lessons: •Feeding fish with a nutritionally-improved feed enhances fish growth •Pond fertilization is critical for increased fish growth •Importance of record keeping •Women/youth can participate in aquaculture research when given the opportunity Challenges •Literacy levels •Poor group management of demo ponds •Fish feed used for other purposes Discussion
  20. 20. Participatory action research can: •Lead to successful implementation of on-farm research with rural small-scale fish farmers •Enable the collection of high-quality data on fish growth and pond water-quality parameters •Enhance small-scale farmers capacities to do fish farming and aquaculture research (monitoring and record keeping) •Ensure aquaculture research is inclusive and empowering •Strengthen partnerships Conclusion
  21. 21. • Misamfu Aquaculture Research Station and Mpende Fisheries for supplying the fingerlings • Department of Fisheries staff in Mbala and Luwingu Districts for helping develop protocols, setting up the fish feed trials and providing extension support • Irish Aid for their financial assistance Acknowledgments
  22. 22. Thank You

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