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OSHA Construction Safety for Vehicles, Mobile Equipment, and Machinery

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Many construction site mishaps are caused by struck-by or caught against hazards. These hazards result from using mobile machinery and equipment and vehicles onsite. The hazards can be controlled and risks minimized by taking a few simple precautions and training/remind all site workers on these hazards. Everyone needs to be visible and out of the blind spots. Perimeter protection and spotters help with reduce injury, property damage, and maintain continuity. Vehicle and equipment maintenance and inspection are also equally important.

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OSHA Construction Safety for Vehicles, Mobile Equipment, and Machinery

  1. 1. Operating Heavy Equipment in the Presence of Ground Personnel Presented by: The Windsor Consulting Group, Inc.
  2. 2. Operating Heavy Equipment in the Presence of Ground Personnel
  3. 3. FOREWORD This training session is devoted to attempt to identify, and hopefully better educate those who must work around or operate these types of equipment, since they all possess the capability to cause serous injury or death. Many types of Mobile Construction Equipment are available for use by contractors doing a wide variety of work. Many, if not all these machines, have to operate within a close proximity to persons on foot. They all however, present similar types of known hazards.
  4. 4. THESE INCLUDE BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO: Front-end loaders; Rubber-tired and tracked Crawler tractors/bulldozers, skid steer bobcats Wheel tractor-scrapers, elevating scrapers, tandem powered scrapers Rubber-tired backhoes and tracked hydraulic excavators On and off-road haulage vehicles Asphalt Pavers and associated support equipment - pavement rollers Vibratory rollers and compactors Motor graders, grade tractors, industrial tractors Concrete mixers and pump trucks Special use construction equipment: grinding, Pulverizing, milling, water trucks, etc
  5. 5. PERSONS PUT AT RISK BY WORKING AROUND, OR BEING NEAR OPERATING HEAVY EQUIPMENT DIRECT PARTICIPANTS: (Need to be on site on regular basis) Signal Persons, Observers, Flaggers, Grade Checkers, Dump Persons. Equipment Operators, Teamsters. Laborers, Iron Workers and Carpenters. Foremen, Supervisors, and other related contractor staff. Surveyors, Rodmen, Layout Crews. Mechanics and Oilers. Any Other Crafts and/or Trades working on the Project, or Passing through the work areas.
  6. 6. PARTICIPANTS WHO NEED TO BE ON SITE: (On a Periodic Basis)  Delivery Trucks, Service Providers, (of any kind) - Unescorted on the site.  Concrete Mixers, Pump Trucks.  Contracted Services; Crane Rental, Concrete Saw Cutting, Port-to-let Service Persons  Union/Labor Officials.  Roach Coach Drivers.  Trash Removal Vehicles..  Architects and Engineers, Inspectors, Client’s Staff/Owner’s Reps./Guests/VIPs.  Engineering Service Providers: Concrete Testing, Compaction Testing, Air Monitoring, etc.  City, County, State and Federal Officials: (Of all types).  Vendor Sales Personnel or Product Installation Specialist(s).  Other Utility Service Providers & Locators: Phone, Gas. Electric, Water, Sewer, Cable  Transportation Industry; Trucking, Buses, Taxicabs, Rail, Ships, Aircraft. PERSONS PUT AT RISK BY WORKING AROUND, OR BEING NEAR OPERATING HEAVY EQUIPMENT
  7. 7. NON-PARTICIPANTS, NO DIRECT NEED TO BE ON SITE:  Pedestrians, Spectators, On-lookers, Sidewalk Superintendents and the Just Plain Curious!  Children (of all ages).  Job Seekers, (all types).  Joggers, Bicycle Riders, Skate Boarders, All Terrain Vehicles, Power Walkers.  Environmentalists independently reviewing compliance with Laws/Restrictions..  Scavengers, Wood collectors, Junk Collectors, Dumpster Divers.  Lawyers, Investigators, Thieves, Burglars and Law Breakers.  The Media: (Depending on circumstances). PERSONS PUT AT RISK BY WORKING AROUND, OR BEING NEAR OPERATING HEAVY EQUIPMENT
  8. 8. CONCERNS FOR SAFETY PROBLEM: YOU HAVE A CONGESTED CONSTRUCTION SITE WITH PERSONNEL ON FOOT, AND MOBILE MACHINES WORKING IN THE SAME AREA, AT THE SAME TIME! VISION STATEMENT: TO PROVIDE A SAFE WORKPLACE, FREE FROM ALL RECOGNIZED HAZARDS...
  9. 9. GOAL AND OBJECTIVE  PREVENT WORKPLACE ACCIDENTS!  PREVENT PERSONAL INJURIES BETWEEN MOVING EQUIPMENT AND THOSE WORKERS WHO ARE ON FOOT.  YOU MUST SEE AND BE SEEN!!!
  10. 10. TODAY’S STATISTICS  PRIMARY CAUSES OF WORKER FATALITIES IN RECENT YEARS WERE: RUNOVERS OR BACKOVERS (dump trucks): 48% COLLISION BETWEEN VEHICLES OR MOBILE EQUIPMENT: 14% CAUGHT IN BETWEEN OR STRUCK BY CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT OR OBJECTS: 14%
  11. 11. HOW DID WE GET HERE?  NATION-WIDE, PAST HISTORY OF PERSONS BEING STRUCK OR CRUSHED BY OPERATING OR MOVING EQUIPMENT.  IMPRESSION THAT THE EQUIPMENT OPERATOR ALWAYS KNOWS WHERE GROUND PERSONNEL ARE LOCATED.
  12. 12. AVAILABLE SOLUTIONS  Management Commitment  Employee Involvement  Pre-construction Work-Site Analysis  Hazard Prevention and Controls  Equipment Maintenance  Employee Awareness Training  Periodically Review Procedures
  13. 13. WORKING AROUND HEAVY CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT
  14. 14. MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT  Restrict entry onto site of non-essential personnel.  Establish controlled entry points to site.  Coordinate operations of various trades working in the same areas.  Provide fundamental site rules and orientation training to all persons at risk.  Establish adequate lay-down areas.
  15. 15. EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT  All employees who are at risk must receive basic indoctrination.  Absolute need to address problem with all site personnel on a regular basis. (Toolbox Safety Meetings).  Site personnel must learn, follow, and obey established rules.  Realize they must see and be seen.
  16. 16. PRE-CONSTRUCTION WORKSITE ANALYSIS  Identify potential known hazards.  Job conditions: haul roads, access points.  Lay down/storage areas.  Office, tool, storage and change trailers.  Methods of construction, (increases risk?)  Unwanted side effects of the job schedule.  Changes in job schedule or work activity.  Multiple contractors and trades onsite.
  17. 17. HAZARD PREVENTION and CONTROLS  Perimeter fencing, enclosures, warning signs.  Spotters provided for in-the-blind, backing machines and/or equipment.  Poor planning or unscheduled change forces workers to commit unsafe acts!  Temporary barricades around hazards.  Mantra: STOP, LOOK, LISTEN - Be Alert, Stay Clear, Look Around, Hear the Warnings.
  18. 18. PROPER EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE  Daily inspection to ensure machine in proper working order.  Test - back-up alarm, horn, lights, mirrors.  Check - cab glass not cracked, missing, or broken.  Look - machine windows/mirrors kept clean.  Pre-operational inspection conducted by daily operator.  Prompt reporting and repair of deficiencies!
  19. 19. EMPLOYEE AWARENESS TRAINING  Does your job require you to approach moving machinery or vehicles?  How does the operator know where you are positioned at all times?  Do you understand all signs, markers, hand signals and flags? KNOW WHAT THEY MEAN!  You must always be alert to changing job conditions, work environments, and your particular situation.
  20. 20. EQUIPMENT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES GENERAL GUIDELINES: Know safety features on equipment, how to operate, and use them properly. Systematic maintenance and repair. Trained operators. Trained repair personnel. Pre-operational inspection of equipment. Review manufacturer’s operating manual.
  21. 21. EQUIPMENT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES SPECIFIC GUIDELINES: Most dangerous movement is backing up! Know where your blind spots are located. Look for people on foot around you. STOP! When signaled, when ground personnel wave to get attention or if you are in doubt…. Maintain a safe and consistent operating speed.
  22. 22. EQUIPMENT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES  Keep machine under control at all times.  Take machine “Out of Service”, if it is unsafe to operate.  Be familiar with the operating characteristics of your machine.  Look-out for other trades working in the same area.
  23. 23. EQUIPMENT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES  Be aware of other machines operating nearby.  Frequently check for the location of other machines.  Keep lights and backup alarm in working condition.  Allow NO ONE to ride outside the cab for any reason!  Clean windows and adjust mirrors.
  24. 24. EQUIPMENT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILIES  Always inform Supervisors or other authorized personnel of:  Any abnormal conditions,  Defects, or  Changes made in machine and/or job work procedure or working conditions.  Report unsafe acts or working conditions to your Supervisor.  Talk about safety with those who work with you and during meetings.  Maintain “Constant Awareness” of your work area and surroundings.
  25. 25. EQUIPMENT OPERATOR RESPONSIBILITIES  DO NOT attempt to make repairs/maintenance that are not qualified or you don’t understand.  Always check the mirror on the blind side, making sure of your clearance.  Backing on the blind side should be avoided if at all Possible.  Use radio communication and signal persons when backing up.  Learn and follow safe work practices! EVERYONE’S LIFE DEPENDS ON IT!
  26. 26. DANGER OF COMPACTOR ROLLOVER
  27. 27. MANUFACTURER’S RECOMENDATIONS  Clear all ground personnel from the machine and nearby work area.  Operator must be satisfied that nobody will be endangered before moving the machine.  Look behind machine before backing up.  Consider all grades before moving machine.  Evaluate weather conditions which make operating machine unsafe.
  28. 28. MANUFACTURER’S RECOMENDATIONS  Have signalman present when moving in/out of a building (or structure).  Stop machine frequently at night, walk around and inspect machine.  Stay alert. If you are tired, sick, or otherwise unable to operate machine safely – STOP!  Clear all obstacles from machine path.  Be aware of hazards such as wires, ditches, road shoulders, falling rocks, etc..
  29. 29. OBSERVATIONS  Small machines have small blind spots, where larger machines have bigger blind spots, both can cause serious injury or death!  The taller and wider the machine, the bigger the blind spot area.  Everyone working in and around machinery must be attentive to what they are doing and where they are going!
  30. 30. VIEW FROM OPERATOR’S SEAT 30
  31. 31. THE DANGER OF BEING STRUCK-BY ITEMS TO CONSIDER: Revolving machines: cranes and backhoes. Struck-by attachments to machines. Drawbar and rigging related accidents – hooking and unhooking. articulated machines - pinch points. Attaching homemade devices to a machine, not approved by manufacture (hooks).
  32. 32. THE DANGER OF BEING STRUCK-BY
  33. 33. STANDING ON OPERATOR’S BLIND SIDE
  34. 34. THE DANGER OF BEING STRUCK-BY  Hazard of a water cooler mounted on machine or a piece of equipment.  Storing crew lunch boxes on equipment.  Hand tools placed or stored on mobile equipment platforms or decks.  Design of machine or external use of devices – inability to hear inside/outside of the cab.
  35. 35. IN DEFENSE OF THE EQUIPMENT OPERATOR  Where do all these people come from/work?  Human factors in machine design; not much thought to ground personnel in the work area.  Faster and bigger machines; not as forgiving as older, slower, and powerful machines.  Can’t see everything that goes on around the machine.  Do site personnel on-foot realize the danger?
  36. 36. IN DEFENSE OF THE EQUIPMENT OPERATOR  Operation of the Machine Requires Constant Vigilance.  Who is responsible for whom? Premise – everyone is responsible for their own safety.  What about working in close proximity to obstructions and ground personnel.  Persons or vehicles that approach the machine in the blind spots.  Do ground personnel look out for operating machines?
  37. 37. RUBBER-TIRED BACKHOES - KNOWN HAZARDS  Ground personnel caught in “pinch points” of machine or struck-by moving machine attachments; buckets, backhoe boom, outriggers.  Loose or missing pins, keepers in loader linkages, cracks in lift arms, bucket attachments and condition of the bucket itself.
  38. 38.  Traveling at excessive speeds, loss of control.  Loose, sliding or bad ground conditions.  Using machine as a crane or the bucket as an aerial work platform.  Seatbelt not worn by operator  Transporting personnel in bucket or outside platform. RUBBER-TIRED BACKHOES - KNOWN HAZARDS
  39. 39.  Overloading the capacity of the machine.  Poorly-trained operator, [or] anyone on the crew is allowed to operate the machine.  Abuse or misuse of the equipment.  Poor or non-existing maintenance - [Wait ‘till it breaks before problems are fixed - mentality]. RUBBER-TIRED BACKHOES - KNOWN HAZARDS
  40. 40. OPERATING MACHINERY SAFELY

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