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construction equipment   1
Introduction

 In the case of huge construction projects;
 Proper use of the appropriate equipment contributes to
  economy, quality, safety, speed and timely completion of a
  project.
 Equipment are use for highway projects, irrigation,
  buildings, power projects etc.
 15-30% of total project cost has been accounted towards
  equipment and machinery.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                     2
Classification of Construction Equipment


1. Earth-moving equipment
2. Hauling equipment
3. Hoisting equipment
4. Conveying equipment
5. Aggregate and concrete production equipment
6. Pile-driving equipment
7. Tunneling and rock drilling equipment
8. Pumping and dewatering equipment


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                           3
Operations involved in construction
of any project
 Excavation
 Digging of large quantities of earth
 Moving them to distances which are sometimes fairly long
 Placement
 Compacting
 Leveling
 Dozing
 Grading
 Hauling



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                       4
EXCAVATING AND EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT

 Power shovel
 Back hoe
 Drag line
 Clam shell
 Scrapers
 Bull dozer




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                  5
POWER SHOVEL


 To excavate the earth and to load the trucks
 capable of excavating all types of earth except
  hard rock
 size varies from 0.375m3 to 5m3 .
 Basics parts of power shovel including the track
  system, cabin, cables, rack, stick, boom foot-pin,
  saddle block, boom, boom point sheaves and
  bucket.


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                             6
APPLICATIONS


• Suitable for close range of work
• Capable of digging very hard materials,
• can remove big sized boulders.
• It is used in various types of jobs such as digging
  in gravel banks, clay pits, digging cuts in road
  works, road-side berms, etc.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                              7
Factors affecting output of power shovel


• Class of material
• Depth of cutting
• Angle of swing
• Job condition
• Management condition
• Size of hauling units
• Skill of the operator
• Physical condition of the shovel


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                     8
OLD  NEW




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT               9
BACK HOE

• Also known as hoe, back shovel and pull shovel
• It is used to excavate below the natural surface on which it
  rests.
• Generally used to excavate trenches, pits for basements
  and also for grading works, which requires precise control
  of depths.
• The basic parts are boom, Jack boom, Boom foot drum,
  Boom sheave, Stick sheave, Stick, Bucket and Bucket
  sheave



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                       10
Back hoe




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT              11
Application

• It is the most suitable machine for digging below the
  machine level, such as, trenches, footings, basements etc.
• It can be efficiently used to dress or trim the surface
  avoiding the use of manual effort for dressing the
  excavated the surface.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                     12
Drag line

• The drag line is so name because of its prominent operation of
  dragging the bucket against the material to be dug.
• Unlike the shovel, it has a long light crane boom and the bucket is
  loosely attached to the boom through cables.
• Because of this construction, a dragline can dig and dump over larger
  distances than a shovel can do.
• Drag lines are useful for digging below its track level and handling
  softer materials.
• The basic parts of a drag line including the boom, hoist cable, drag
  cable, hoist chain, drag chain and bucket.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                               13
Application

• It is the most suitable machine for dragging softer material
  and below its track level
• It is very useful for excavating trenches when the sides are
  permitted to establish their angle of repose without
  shoring.
• It has long reaches.
• It is mostly used in the excavation for canals and
  depositing on the embankment without hauling units.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                       14
DRAG LINE




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   15
Clam shell

• This is so named due to resemblance of its bucket to a
  clam which is like a shell-fish with hinged double shell.
• The front end is essentially a crane boom with a specially
  designed bucket loosely attached at the end through cables
  as in a drag line.
• The capacity of a clam shell bucket is usually given in
  cubic meters.
• The basic parts of clam shell bucket are the closing line,
  hoist line, sheaves, brackets, tagline, shell and hinge.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                     16
Application

• Used for handling loose material such as crushed stone,
  sand, gravel, coal etc.


• Main feature is vertical lifting of material from one
  location to another.


• Mainly used for removing material from coffer dam,
  sewer main holes, well foundations etc.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                  17
CLAM SHELL




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   18
Comparison between different types of equipment

s.no.     Items of comparison          Power shovel    Back hoe        Drag line          Clam shell

1         Excavation in hard soil or   Good            Good            Not good           Poor
          rock

2         Excavation in wet soil or    Poor            Poor            Moderately good    Moderately good
          mud
3         Distance between footing     Small           Small           Long               Long
          and digging
4         Loading efficiency           Very good       Good            Moderately good    Precise but slow


5         Footing required             Close to work   Close to pit    Fairly away from   Fairly away from
                                                                       pit                pit
6         Digging level                Digs at or      Digs below      Digs below         Digs at or below
                                       above footing   footing level   footing level      footing level
                                       level
7         Cycle time                   Short           Shortly more    More than power    More than the
                                                       than power      shovel             other equipment
                                                       shovel
 CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                                                      19
Trenching machine

 Used for excavating
  trenches for laying
  pipelines,   sewer,
  cables etc.
 Operation is quick
  giving the required
  depth or width.
 Two     types   of
  trenching machine
  wheel type, ladder
  type

CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   20
Scrapers

• Unique machine for digging and long-distance hauling of
  plough able materials.
• self-operating machine
• It is not dependent on other equipment.
• Wheels of machine cause some compaction.
• The basic parts of scrapers are the bowl, apron and tail
  gate or ejector.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                   21
SCRAPER




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   22
Bull dozer
• The heavy blade attached to the tractor pushes the material
  from one place to another.
• The tractor can be of the crawler or the wheeled type.
• Classification of bull dozer
1. Position of blades
a) Bull dozers in which the blade perpendicular to the
   direction of movement
b) Angle dozers in which the blade is set at an angle with the
   direction of movement.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                       23
2. Based on mountings
       a) Wheel mounted
       b)Crawler mounted
 3. Based on the control
       a) Cable controlled
       b)Hydraulically controlled




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT              24
Bull dozer




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                25
Applications

Bull dozers are mainly used for the following operations
1. For spreading the earth fill
2. For opening up pilot roads through mountainous and
   rocky terrains.
3. Clearing construction sites.
4. Maintaining haul roads
5. Clearing land from the trees and stumps
6. back-filling trenches at construction sites by dragging the
   earth from one place to another


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                       26
Tractors
• Multi-purpose machines used mainly for pulling and pushing the
  other equipment.
• Tractors may be classified as
a) Crawler type tractor- Used to move bull dozers, scrapers. The
   crawler has a chain by which these tractors can be very effective even
   in the case of loose or muddy soils. The speed of this type dose not
   exceed 12 kmph normally.
b) Wheel type tractor- The engine is mounted on four wheels. The
   main advantage is higher speed, sometimes exceeding 50 kmph it is
   used for long-distance hauling and good roads.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                 27
TRACTOR




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   28
Comparison between crawler and
wheeled tractors
Crawler type                                   Wheeled type
1. Slow speed                                  1. Greater speed
2. More compact and powerful and can           2. Con handle only lighter jobs
handle heavier jobs
3. costly                                      3. cheaper
4. Cost of operation and maintenance is high   4. Operational and maintenance cost is less
5. Stick control for steering                  5. Wheel steering control
6. Moves on rough roads only                   6. Moves on rough as well as good roads
7. Used for short distances                    7.Used for longer distances
8. Requires skillful operation, maintenance    8. Lesser skills required for operations,
and repairs                                    maintenance and repairs


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                                       29
Earth compaction equipment

• Smooth-wheel rollers.
• Sheep-foot rollers
                  a)Ordinary sheep-foot roller
                  b)Convertible roller
                  c)Turn foot roller
• Pneumatic-tyred rollers




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                           30
Smooth-wheel rollers
• Plain steel rollers
• Self-propelled type
• Weighing from 5 to 15 tonnes
• Used for ordinary rolling work where deep compaction is
  not required
• These rollers may have one front and two rear wheels
• The rear wheels being usually larger in diameter and the
  front one being winder.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                   31
• Weight of rollers may be increased by filling water or sand
  ballast in hollow cylinder.
• These rollers are effective in compacting granular soils,
  such as sand, gravel and crushed stone.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                      32
SMOOTH WHEEL ROLLER




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   33
Sheep-foot rollers

• For compacting earth work in embankments and canals (where
  compaction deep into the layer of the earth is required)
• These gives best result in compaction when the soil is clay or
  predominantly cohesive and impervious.
• The sheep foot rollers may weigh upto 15 tonnes or more
• Travel at a speed of 25 kmph
• As roller moves over the surface, the feet penetrate the soil to produce
  a kneading action and a pressure to mix and compact the soil from
  bottom to top layer.
• With repeated passages of the roller, the penetration of feet decreases.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                   34
SHEEP FOOT ROLLER




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   35
Pneumatic-tyred rollers

• It consists a base or a platform mounted between two
  axles.
• The rear of which has one more wheel than the front.
• Most suitable for compacting fine-grained soil and well
  graded sands.
• Ballasting is done using either water, sand or pig iron in
  order to increase the self weight.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                     36
• Major advantages are the ability to control the ground
  contact pressure by:
a) Altering the weights of machines,
b) Increasing the number of wheels,
c) Increasing the tyre width
d) Changing the contact area of the tyre by altering the
   contact pressure.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                 37
PNEUMATIC TYRED ROLLER




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   38
Hauling equipment

• The equipment used for transportation of material are known as
  hauling equipment or simply haulers.
• Haulers may operate on the roadways or railways
• It involve
       transportation of building materials,
       carriage and disposal of excavated earth
       haulage of heavy construction equipment.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                        39
• These are classified on the basis of method of dumping the
  load
       1. Dump trucks
                  a) Side or rear dump trucks
                  b) Bottom dump trucks
       2. Dumpers




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                     40
Dump trucks
• These are used for earth moving purpose.
• The selection of the type of dump trucks for a specific job depend on
  the soil condition.
(a) Side or rear dump trucks-
       These are heavy duty trucks with strongly built body which is
        hinged on the truck chassis at the rear end and one side
        respectively, and can be fitted to the rear in the case of rear dump
        and to the hinged side in case of the side dump, through the action
        of hydraulic jacks.
       These trucks are suitable for use in hauling wet clay, sand, gravel,
        quarry rocks etc.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                    41
Side dump truck




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                     42
Rear dump truck




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                     43
Bottom dump trucks

• These are similar to semi-trailers in which their front is supported on
  the rear of the hauling tractor and their rear is resting on their own
  wheels.
• The body of the truck remains in the same position and the discharge
  of the material takes place through its bottom after opening of two
  longitudinal gates.
• The gates are hinged to the side of the body.
• These trucks are suitable for use in hauling free flowing material,
  such as, sand, gravel, dry earth, hard clay etc.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                 44
BOTTOM DUMP TRUCK




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   45
Dumpers

• High speed pneumatic wheeled trucks
• Short chasis
• Strong bodies
• Loading, hauling and dumping is done very fast as compared to other
  equipment
• Suitable for short hauls on rough roads
• Specially where a shuttle movement is required.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                             46
Dumper




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   47
Hoisting equipment

• Hoisting is the lifting a weight from one location and moving it
  to another location which is at a reasonable distance.
• Big projects such as, construction of dams, industrial buildings
  etc. require hoisting equipment.
• Hoisting equipment includes jacks, winches, chain hoists and
  cranes.
• Crane is the only single machine which, as a single piece, is
  capable of providing three-dimensional movement of a weight.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                          48
• Cranes are broadly classified as :


     i. Stationary or derrick cranes
     ii. Mobile cranes
     iii. Overhead or gantry cranes
     iv. Traveller cranes
     v. Tower cranes




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                 49
Derrick cranes-
• Derrick cranes consist of a mast, a boom and a bull wheel on which
  the boom rotates about a vertical axis and guys or supporting
  members.
• Electrically operated, diesel operated or diesel-electrically operated.
• The boom can revolve through 360º.
• This crane is used for heavy loads upto 200 tons.
Mobile cranes-
• These cranes are mounted on mobile units which is either crawler
  type or wheel type
• Truck cranes have high mobility while the crawler mounted cranes
  move slowly.
• Crawler mounted cranes are capable of moving on rough terrain.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                      50
MOBILE CRANES




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   51
Overhead or gantry cranes-
• large service area,
• freedom from floor obstructions
• and three-way mobility,
• Widely used in erection, foundry, steel plants, storage yards and
  different types of industrial works.
• These type of cranes consist of two main parts i.e., the bridge and the
  crab.
• The bridge consists of two main girders fixed at their end to end and
  capable of moving on gantry rails.
• The crab consists of the hoisting gear mounted on a frame.
• The frame itself is mounted on another set of wheels and capable of
  travelling across the main girder.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                 52
OVERHEAD CRANE




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   53
TRAVELLER CRANES
• Travelling or bridge cranes have their crabs moving on girders
  which are supported on legs instead of on overhead gantry track
  as used in overhead cranes.
• The legs are capable of moving on tracks laid on the floor.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                          54
Tower cranes
• Tower cranes are actually a derrick crane mounted on a steel
  tower.
• Tower cranes are usually used for industrial and residential
  high-rise buildings.
• These are commonly used for assembly of industrial plants with
  steel structures.
• The main parts of tower crane are under carriage, slewing
  platform, tower with operator’s cabin and jibs.
• The tower has a truss structure welded from steel bars and
  channels.


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                        55
TOWER CRANE




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   56
Conveying equipment

• Transporting material from one place to another over a stationary
  structure.
• Caries material in continuous stream with its distinct feature such as
  endless chain or belt.
• Can be done horizontally, vertically or inclined.
• When the equipment does horizontal conveying, it is known as
  conveyor and when it does vertical, it is known as elevator.
• Conveying are mainly used in mining, construction and in some of
  the industries.
• In construction industry, conveyors are mainly used for concreting
  purpose.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                57
Utility

The Advantage of using conveyors are as follows:-
1. It increases the output.
2. It facilitates continuity in operation.
3. It results in time saving.
4. There are no waiting periods.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                              58
Some of the popular conveyors are as
follows:-

1.    Belt conveyor
2.    Screw conveyor
3.    Bucket conveyor
4.    Aerial transport




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT             59
Belt conveyor

• Used when large quantities of materials have to be conveyed over
  long distances at fast speed.
• It consists of a belt running over a pair of end drums or pulleys and
  supported at regular intervals by a series of rollers called idlers.
• These idlers are supported on a conveyor frame.
• The middle sag provided in the belt prevent the spilling of material.
• Generally, rubber is most commonly used as conveyor belt.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                    60
BELT CONVEYOR




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   61
The advantages of using belt
              conveyor are as follows:-

1.    It can handle light as well as heavy materials, dry or wet, fine or
      coarse etc.
2.    It can and for distances to convey several thousand tons of material
      per hour and for distances of distances of several kilometers.
3.    It can carry material horizontally or inclined.
4.    It is lighter in weight then other conveyors.
5.    It gives controlled discharge of material and discharge can be
      controlled by the speed of the belt.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                  62
SCREW CONVEYOR

• Widely used for handling granular or pulverized material.
• The quantity of material conveyed is less compared to the conveyor,
  but at the same time the cost is also less.
• A screw conveyor consists of a helix mounted on a bearing at the
  ends and at intermediate points and is driven by a motor from one
  end.
• The material enters the through at one end is carried to the other end
  by screwing action of helix.
• The length of the conveyor is about 65m. with an inclination up to a
  maximum of 350.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                63
SCREW CONVEYOR




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   64
Bucket conveyor
• It has buckets in the shape of ‘V’ which are open at the top.
• They may be feeder loaded or may drag in a vertical movement or
  along an incline.
• The length of these type of conveyors are generally limited to 25 m.
  (due to weight of the conveyor and strength of the chains.)
• This type of conveyer is mainly used in coal handling where bucket
  elevators carry the material vertically.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                              65
BUCKET CONVEYOR




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   66
Aerial transport
• Aerial transportation through cableways, rope-ways and tram ways
• Often used with advantage for transportation of material in hilly
  regions.
• Reducing the distance of transportation as well as cost of
  transportation
• The load being passed over intermediate towers or stations for long
  distances.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                               67
Aerial transport




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   68
Aggregate and concrete production
               equipment
•   Aggregate has to be produced at the site, if the quantity needed is
    very large.
• Therefore, in any project where concrete requirement is very high, an
  aggregate preparation and processing plant is essential to complete
  the concreting operations.
•   Aggregate production consists of two stages is recovery and
    processing.
• Basic material, such as stone, is recovered from a rock quarry or from
  the river bed and processing is done which consists of crushing,
  grading, washing and stock piling of aggregate.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                69
Aggregate production equipment
•    Crushers are used mainly to reduce the size of large stone or rock to
    smaller uniform sized aggregates required for concrete mix.
• Crushing consists of
             Pressure,
             Impact,
             Attrition
             A combination of these operations.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                       70
Jaw crushers
• It is one of the primary crushers.
• It operates by allowing stone to flow into the space between two jaws,
  one of which is stationary and other is movable, which together
  constitute the crushing surfaces.
• The distance between the two jaws decreases as the stone travels
  downward under the effect of gravity and ultimately passes through
  the lower opening.
• The moveable jaw is capable of exerting a pressure sufficiently high
  to crush the hardest rock.
• The movable jaw is suspended from a shaft mounted on bearings on
  the crusher frame.
• The jaw plates are made of manganese steel which can be removed,
  replaced or reversed.


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                71
Jaw crushers




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   72
Gyratory crusher
• This is another type of primary crusher.
• This type of crusher comprises a hardened steel head has a long
  conical shape, with a trough shaft suspended in a bearing at the top,
  and an eccentric base connection connected to gears.
• Thus, as the cone is rotated, the gap between itself and the walling
  changes from a maximum to minimum for each cycle.
• The rock is feed into the chamber at the top and as it moves
  downward, crushing is done and finally emerges through the bottom
  gap.
• The size of this type of crusher is the width of the receiving opening
  measured between the concaves and the crushers head.
• It is available in sizes varying from 20cm to 200cm.



CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                73
Gyratory crusher




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   74
Cone crusher
• Cone crusher are used as a secondary or tertiary crusher.
• These crusher are capable of producing large quantities of uniformly
  fine crushed stone.
• It has a shorter cone with smaller inlet and outlet openings as
  compared to the gyratory crusher.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                              75
Cone crusher




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   76
Roll crusher
• Roll crushers are also one of the secondary or tertiary crushers.
• This crusher consists of a heavy cast iron frame equipped with two
  counter rotating rollers mounted on a separate horizontal shaft.
• The crushed rock from the primary crusher is feed through the gap
  between the two rollers for crushing further.
• Usually one roller has a fixed axis while the other can be adjusted to
  give the required setting.
• The crusher is compact, light weight and low in cost.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                77
Roll crusher




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   78
Hammer mill
• Hammer mill is one of the impact crushers mostly used as primary or
  secondary crusher.
• It consists of a housing frame, a horizontal shaft extending through
  the frame, number of frames and hammers attached to the frame and
  one more hard steel breaker plates.
• As the stone is feed to the mill, the hammers, which are driven by a
  motor, move at the high speed and brake the stone into pieces and
  driving them against the hard plate, further reduce their size.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                              79
Hammer mill




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   80
Rod mill and ball mill

• This are the tertiary crushers.
• A rod mill consist of a circular steel shell.
• The interior of the shell is lined on the inside with a hard material
  wearing surface.
• The shell contains a number of steel rods.
• The length of these rod is slightly less then the length of the shell.
• Crushed stone is feed through the inlet and fine aggregate of the size
  of sand is discharged at the other end.
• If the rods are replaced by steel balls to provide the impact required
  the grind the stones, the crusher is known as the ball mill crusher.
• The size of the balls generally used is 50 mm dia. Size.


CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                                     81
Rod mill and ball mill




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                            82
Concrete production plants

• For mixing different ingredients in required proportion.
• It consists of storage bins for storing materials like cement
  and admixtures.
• Aggregate is mix in it with the help of a hopper which is
  fixed in plant.




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                       83
Concrete production plants




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT       84
Pile driving equipment
• The process of pile driving involves lifting the piles into position,
  holding it to refusal or to a specified depth.
• Driving is accomplished through hammering the pile top with a
  hammer.
• Equipment are so designed for driven effectively at an economical
  cost.
• Major pile driving equipment are:
             Pile driving rigs
             Pile driving hammers




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                               85
PILE DRIVING EQUIPMENT




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT   86
REFERENCES

• Construction engineering and management – by S. Seetharaman
•    wikipedia.com
• Goggle images




CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT                                          87
construction equipment   88

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Construction equipments

  • 2. Introduction  In the case of huge construction projects;  Proper use of the appropriate equipment contributes to economy, quality, safety, speed and timely completion of a project.  Equipment are use for highway projects, irrigation, buildings, power projects etc.  15-30% of total project cost has been accounted towards equipment and machinery. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 2
  • 3. Classification of Construction Equipment 1. Earth-moving equipment 2. Hauling equipment 3. Hoisting equipment 4. Conveying equipment 5. Aggregate and concrete production equipment 6. Pile-driving equipment 7. Tunneling and rock drilling equipment 8. Pumping and dewatering equipment CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 3
  • 4. Operations involved in construction of any project  Excavation  Digging of large quantities of earth  Moving them to distances which are sometimes fairly long  Placement  Compacting  Leveling  Dozing  Grading  Hauling CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 4
  • 5. EXCAVATING AND EARTH MOVING EQUIPMENT  Power shovel  Back hoe  Drag line  Clam shell  Scrapers  Bull dozer CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 5
  • 6. POWER SHOVEL  To excavate the earth and to load the trucks  capable of excavating all types of earth except hard rock  size varies from 0.375m3 to 5m3 .  Basics parts of power shovel including the track system, cabin, cables, rack, stick, boom foot-pin, saddle block, boom, boom point sheaves and bucket. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 6
  • 7. APPLICATIONS • Suitable for close range of work • Capable of digging very hard materials, • can remove big sized boulders. • It is used in various types of jobs such as digging in gravel banks, clay pits, digging cuts in road works, road-side berms, etc. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 7
  • 8. Factors affecting output of power shovel • Class of material • Depth of cutting • Angle of swing • Job condition • Management condition • Size of hauling units • Skill of the operator • Physical condition of the shovel CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 8
  • 10. BACK HOE • Also known as hoe, back shovel and pull shovel • It is used to excavate below the natural surface on which it rests. • Generally used to excavate trenches, pits for basements and also for grading works, which requires precise control of depths. • The basic parts are boom, Jack boom, Boom foot drum, Boom sheave, Stick sheave, Stick, Bucket and Bucket sheave CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 10
  • 12. Application • It is the most suitable machine for digging below the machine level, such as, trenches, footings, basements etc. • It can be efficiently used to dress or trim the surface avoiding the use of manual effort for dressing the excavated the surface. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 12
  • 13. Drag line • The drag line is so name because of its prominent operation of dragging the bucket against the material to be dug. • Unlike the shovel, it has a long light crane boom and the bucket is loosely attached to the boom through cables. • Because of this construction, a dragline can dig and dump over larger distances than a shovel can do. • Drag lines are useful for digging below its track level and handling softer materials. • The basic parts of a drag line including the boom, hoist cable, drag cable, hoist chain, drag chain and bucket. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 13
  • 14. Application • It is the most suitable machine for dragging softer material and below its track level • It is very useful for excavating trenches when the sides are permitted to establish their angle of repose without shoring. • It has long reaches. • It is mostly used in the excavation for canals and depositing on the embankment without hauling units. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 14
  • 16. Clam shell • This is so named due to resemblance of its bucket to a clam which is like a shell-fish with hinged double shell. • The front end is essentially a crane boom with a specially designed bucket loosely attached at the end through cables as in a drag line. • The capacity of a clam shell bucket is usually given in cubic meters. • The basic parts of clam shell bucket are the closing line, hoist line, sheaves, brackets, tagline, shell and hinge. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 16
  • 17. Application • Used for handling loose material such as crushed stone, sand, gravel, coal etc. • Main feature is vertical lifting of material from one location to another. • Mainly used for removing material from coffer dam, sewer main holes, well foundations etc. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 17
  • 19. Comparison between different types of equipment s.no. Items of comparison Power shovel Back hoe Drag line Clam shell 1 Excavation in hard soil or Good Good Not good Poor rock 2 Excavation in wet soil or Poor Poor Moderately good Moderately good mud 3 Distance between footing Small Small Long Long and digging 4 Loading efficiency Very good Good Moderately good Precise but slow 5 Footing required Close to work Close to pit Fairly away from Fairly away from pit pit 6 Digging level Digs at or Digs below Digs below Digs at or below above footing footing level footing level footing level level 7 Cycle time Short Shortly more More than power More than the than power shovel other equipment shovel CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 19
  • 20. Trenching machine  Used for excavating trenches for laying pipelines, sewer, cables etc.  Operation is quick giving the required depth or width.  Two types of trenching machine wheel type, ladder type CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 20
  • 21. Scrapers • Unique machine for digging and long-distance hauling of plough able materials. • self-operating machine • It is not dependent on other equipment. • Wheels of machine cause some compaction. • The basic parts of scrapers are the bowl, apron and tail gate or ejector. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 21
  • 23. Bull dozer • The heavy blade attached to the tractor pushes the material from one place to another. • The tractor can be of the crawler or the wheeled type. • Classification of bull dozer 1. Position of blades a) Bull dozers in which the blade perpendicular to the direction of movement b) Angle dozers in which the blade is set at an angle with the direction of movement. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 23
  • 24. 2. Based on mountings a) Wheel mounted b)Crawler mounted 3. Based on the control a) Cable controlled b)Hydraulically controlled CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 24
  • 26. Applications Bull dozers are mainly used for the following operations 1. For spreading the earth fill 2. For opening up pilot roads through mountainous and rocky terrains. 3. Clearing construction sites. 4. Maintaining haul roads 5. Clearing land from the trees and stumps 6. back-filling trenches at construction sites by dragging the earth from one place to another CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 26
  • 27. Tractors • Multi-purpose machines used mainly for pulling and pushing the other equipment. • Tractors may be classified as a) Crawler type tractor- Used to move bull dozers, scrapers. The crawler has a chain by which these tractors can be very effective even in the case of loose or muddy soils. The speed of this type dose not exceed 12 kmph normally. b) Wheel type tractor- The engine is mounted on four wheels. The main advantage is higher speed, sometimes exceeding 50 kmph it is used for long-distance hauling and good roads. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 27
  • 29. Comparison between crawler and wheeled tractors Crawler type Wheeled type 1. Slow speed 1. Greater speed 2. More compact and powerful and can 2. Con handle only lighter jobs handle heavier jobs 3. costly 3. cheaper 4. Cost of operation and maintenance is high 4. Operational and maintenance cost is less 5. Stick control for steering 5. Wheel steering control 6. Moves on rough roads only 6. Moves on rough as well as good roads 7. Used for short distances 7.Used for longer distances 8. Requires skillful operation, maintenance 8. Lesser skills required for operations, and repairs maintenance and repairs CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 29
  • 30. Earth compaction equipment • Smooth-wheel rollers. • Sheep-foot rollers a)Ordinary sheep-foot roller b)Convertible roller c)Turn foot roller • Pneumatic-tyred rollers CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 30
  • 31. Smooth-wheel rollers • Plain steel rollers • Self-propelled type • Weighing from 5 to 15 tonnes • Used for ordinary rolling work where deep compaction is not required • These rollers may have one front and two rear wheels • The rear wheels being usually larger in diameter and the front one being winder. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 31
  • 32. • Weight of rollers may be increased by filling water or sand ballast in hollow cylinder. • These rollers are effective in compacting granular soils, such as sand, gravel and crushed stone. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 32
  • 34. Sheep-foot rollers • For compacting earth work in embankments and canals (where compaction deep into the layer of the earth is required) • These gives best result in compaction when the soil is clay or predominantly cohesive and impervious. • The sheep foot rollers may weigh upto 15 tonnes or more • Travel at a speed of 25 kmph • As roller moves over the surface, the feet penetrate the soil to produce a kneading action and a pressure to mix and compact the soil from bottom to top layer. • With repeated passages of the roller, the penetration of feet decreases. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 34
  • 36. Pneumatic-tyred rollers • It consists a base or a platform mounted between two axles. • The rear of which has one more wheel than the front. • Most suitable for compacting fine-grained soil and well graded sands. • Ballasting is done using either water, sand or pig iron in order to increase the self weight. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 36
  • 37. • Major advantages are the ability to control the ground contact pressure by: a) Altering the weights of machines, b) Increasing the number of wheels, c) Increasing the tyre width d) Changing the contact area of the tyre by altering the contact pressure. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 37
  • 39. Hauling equipment • The equipment used for transportation of material are known as hauling equipment or simply haulers. • Haulers may operate on the roadways or railways • It involve  transportation of building materials,  carriage and disposal of excavated earth  haulage of heavy construction equipment. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 39
  • 40. • These are classified on the basis of method of dumping the load 1. Dump trucks a) Side or rear dump trucks b) Bottom dump trucks 2. Dumpers CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 40
  • 41. Dump trucks • These are used for earth moving purpose. • The selection of the type of dump trucks for a specific job depend on the soil condition. (a) Side or rear dump trucks-  These are heavy duty trucks with strongly built body which is hinged on the truck chassis at the rear end and one side respectively, and can be fitted to the rear in the case of rear dump and to the hinged side in case of the side dump, through the action of hydraulic jacks.  These trucks are suitable for use in hauling wet clay, sand, gravel, quarry rocks etc. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 41
  • 44. Bottom dump trucks • These are similar to semi-trailers in which their front is supported on the rear of the hauling tractor and their rear is resting on their own wheels. • The body of the truck remains in the same position and the discharge of the material takes place through its bottom after opening of two longitudinal gates. • The gates are hinged to the side of the body. • These trucks are suitable for use in hauling free flowing material, such as, sand, gravel, dry earth, hard clay etc. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 44
  • 46. Dumpers • High speed pneumatic wheeled trucks • Short chasis • Strong bodies • Loading, hauling and dumping is done very fast as compared to other equipment • Suitable for short hauls on rough roads • Specially where a shuttle movement is required. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 46
  • 48. Hoisting equipment • Hoisting is the lifting a weight from one location and moving it to another location which is at a reasonable distance. • Big projects such as, construction of dams, industrial buildings etc. require hoisting equipment. • Hoisting equipment includes jacks, winches, chain hoists and cranes. • Crane is the only single machine which, as a single piece, is capable of providing three-dimensional movement of a weight. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 48
  • 49. • Cranes are broadly classified as : i. Stationary or derrick cranes ii. Mobile cranes iii. Overhead or gantry cranes iv. Traveller cranes v. Tower cranes CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 49
  • 50. Derrick cranes- • Derrick cranes consist of a mast, a boom and a bull wheel on which the boom rotates about a vertical axis and guys or supporting members. • Electrically operated, diesel operated or diesel-electrically operated. • The boom can revolve through 360º. • This crane is used for heavy loads upto 200 tons. Mobile cranes- • These cranes are mounted on mobile units which is either crawler type or wheel type • Truck cranes have high mobility while the crawler mounted cranes move slowly. • Crawler mounted cranes are capable of moving on rough terrain. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 50
  • 52. Overhead or gantry cranes- • large service area, • freedom from floor obstructions • and three-way mobility, • Widely used in erection, foundry, steel plants, storage yards and different types of industrial works. • These type of cranes consist of two main parts i.e., the bridge and the crab. • The bridge consists of two main girders fixed at their end to end and capable of moving on gantry rails. • The crab consists of the hoisting gear mounted on a frame. • The frame itself is mounted on another set of wheels and capable of travelling across the main girder. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 52
  • 54. TRAVELLER CRANES • Travelling or bridge cranes have their crabs moving on girders which are supported on legs instead of on overhead gantry track as used in overhead cranes. • The legs are capable of moving on tracks laid on the floor. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 54
  • 55. Tower cranes • Tower cranes are actually a derrick crane mounted on a steel tower. • Tower cranes are usually used for industrial and residential high-rise buildings. • These are commonly used for assembly of industrial plants with steel structures. • The main parts of tower crane are under carriage, slewing platform, tower with operator’s cabin and jibs. • The tower has a truss structure welded from steel bars and channels. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 55
  • 57. Conveying equipment • Transporting material from one place to another over a stationary structure. • Caries material in continuous stream with its distinct feature such as endless chain or belt. • Can be done horizontally, vertically or inclined. • When the equipment does horizontal conveying, it is known as conveyor and when it does vertical, it is known as elevator. • Conveying are mainly used in mining, construction and in some of the industries. • In construction industry, conveyors are mainly used for concreting purpose. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 57
  • 58. Utility The Advantage of using conveyors are as follows:- 1. It increases the output. 2. It facilitates continuity in operation. 3. It results in time saving. 4. There are no waiting periods. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 58
  • 59. Some of the popular conveyors are as follows:- 1. Belt conveyor 2. Screw conveyor 3. Bucket conveyor 4. Aerial transport CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 59
  • 60. Belt conveyor • Used when large quantities of materials have to be conveyed over long distances at fast speed. • It consists of a belt running over a pair of end drums or pulleys and supported at regular intervals by a series of rollers called idlers. • These idlers are supported on a conveyor frame. • The middle sag provided in the belt prevent the spilling of material. • Generally, rubber is most commonly used as conveyor belt. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 60
  • 62. The advantages of using belt conveyor are as follows:- 1. It can handle light as well as heavy materials, dry or wet, fine or coarse etc. 2. It can and for distances to convey several thousand tons of material per hour and for distances of distances of several kilometers. 3. It can carry material horizontally or inclined. 4. It is lighter in weight then other conveyors. 5. It gives controlled discharge of material and discharge can be controlled by the speed of the belt. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 62
  • 63. SCREW CONVEYOR • Widely used for handling granular or pulverized material. • The quantity of material conveyed is less compared to the conveyor, but at the same time the cost is also less. • A screw conveyor consists of a helix mounted on a bearing at the ends and at intermediate points and is driven by a motor from one end. • The material enters the through at one end is carried to the other end by screwing action of helix. • The length of the conveyor is about 65m. with an inclination up to a maximum of 350. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 63
  • 65. Bucket conveyor • It has buckets in the shape of ‘V’ which are open at the top. • They may be feeder loaded or may drag in a vertical movement or along an incline. • The length of these type of conveyors are generally limited to 25 m. (due to weight of the conveyor and strength of the chains.) • This type of conveyer is mainly used in coal handling where bucket elevators carry the material vertically. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 65
  • 67. Aerial transport • Aerial transportation through cableways, rope-ways and tram ways • Often used with advantage for transportation of material in hilly regions. • Reducing the distance of transportation as well as cost of transportation • The load being passed over intermediate towers or stations for long distances. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 67
  • 69. Aggregate and concrete production equipment • Aggregate has to be produced at the site, if the quantity needed is very large. • Therefore, in any project where concrete requirement is very high, an aggregate preparation and processing plant is essential to complete the concreting operations. • Aggregate production consists of two stages is recovery and processing. • Basic material, such as stone, is recovered from a rock quarry or from the river bed and processing is done which consists of crushing, grading, washing and stock piling of aggregate. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 69
  • 70. Aggregate production equipment • Crushers are used mainly to reduce the size of large stone or rock to smaller uniform sized aggregates required for concrete mix. • Crushing consists of  Pressure,  Impact,  Attrition  A combination of these operations. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 70
  • 71. Jaw crushers • It is one of the primary crushers. • It operates by allowing stone to flow into the space between two jaws, one of which is stationary and other is movable, which together constitute the crushing surfaces. • The distance between the two jaws decreases as the stone travels downward under the effect of gravity and ultimately passes through the lower opening. • The moveable jaw is capable of exerting a pressure sufficiently high to crush the hardest rock. • The movable jaw is suspended from a shaft mounted on bearings on the crusher frame. • The jaw plates are made of manganese steel which can be removed, replaced or reversed. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 71
  • 73. Gyratory crusher • This is another type of primary crusher. • This type of crusher comprises a hardened steel head has a long conical shape, with a trough shaft suspended in a bearing at the top, and an eccentric base connection connected to gears. • Thus, as the cone is rotated, the gap between itself and the walling changes from a maximum to minimum for each cycle. • The rock is feed into the chamber at the top and as it moves downward, crushing is done and finally emerges through the bottom gap. • The size of this type of crusher is the width of the receiving opening measured between the concaves and the crushers head. • It is available in sizes varying from 20cm to 200cm. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 73
  • 75. Cone crusher • Cone crusher are used as a secondary or tertiary crusher. • These crusher are capable of producing large quantities of uniformly fine crushed stone. • It has a shorter cone with smaller inlet and outlet openings as compared to the gyratory crusher. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 75
  • 77. Roll crusher • Roll crushers are also one of the secondary or tertiary crushers. • This crusher consists of a heavy cast iron frame equipped with two counter rotating rollers mounted on a separate horizontal shaft. • The crushed rock from the primary crusher is feed through the gap between the two rollers for crushing further. • Usually one roller has a fixed axis while the other can be adjusted to give the required setting. • The crusher is compact, light weight and low in cost. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 77
  • 79. Hammer mill • Hammer mill is one of the impact crushers mostly used as primary or secondary crusher. • It consists of a housing frame, a horizontal shaft extending through the frame, number of frames and hammers attached to the frame and one more hard steel breaker plates. • As the stone is feed to the mill, the hammers, which are driven by a motor, move at the high speed and brake the stone into pieces and driving them against the hard plate, further reduce their size. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 79
  • 81. Rod mill and ball mill • This are the tertiary crushers. • A rod mill consist of a circular steel shell. • The interior of the shell is lined on the inside with a hard material wearing surface. • The shell contains a number of steel rods. • The length of these rod is slightly less then the length of the shell. • Crushed stone is feed through the inlet and fine aggregate of the size of sand is discharged at the other end. • If the rods are replaced by steel balls to provide the impact required the grind the stones, the crusher is known as the ball mill crusher. • The size of the balls generally used is 50 mm dia. Size. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 81
  • 82. Rod mill and ball mill CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 82
  • 83. Concrete production plants • For mixing different ingredients in required proportion. • It consists of storage bins for storing materials like cement and admixtures. • Aggregate is mix in it with the help of a hopper which is fixed in plant. CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 83
  • 85. Pile driving equipment • The process of pile driving involves lifting the piles into position, holding it to refusal or to a specified depth. • Driving is accomplished through hammering the pile top with a hammer. • Equipment are so designed for driven effectively at an economical cost. • Major pile driving equipment are:  Pile driving rigs  Pile driving hammers CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 85
  • 87. REFERENCES • Construction engineering and management – by S. Seetharaman • wikipedia.com • Goggle images CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT 87