Gender In The Academic Library[1]


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Gender In The Academic Library[1]

  1. 1. Gender in the Academic Library By Wilma L. Jones May 2004
  2. 2. Research Question: In what ways has gender played a role in the evolution of the profession of librarians in American Higher Education?
  3. 3. History of Academic Libraries <ul><li>First Colonial academic libraries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harvard (1638) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>William and Mary (1693) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yale (1701) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College of New Jersey (1746, now Princeton) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U. of Pennsylvania (1749) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>King’s College (1754, now Columbia University) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College of Rhode Island (1764, now Brown University) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dartmouth (1769) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collections mostly on Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Gifts and bequests from influential scholars and Alumni </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Harvard in 1638 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purchases made by professors on tour in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pres. Harper, U. of Chicago </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. First Librarians . . . Men <ul><li>Librarians during Colonial times were often, experts in the field: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solomon Stoddard, former tutor, first appointed librarian of the Harvard Library in 1667 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Impact of Morrill Act of 1862 <ul><li>Use of public lands to support higher education in practical areas such as agriculture and engineering – break away from “classical colleges” </li></ul><ul><li>State Higher Education Institutions mushroomed </li></ul><ul><li>Library collections expanded to support diversified curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>School of Library Economy established at Columbia in 1887 to train librarians </li></ul>
  6. 6. The field of Librarianship <ul><li>Visible signs of changes in the profession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of the American Library Assn (1876) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardization of library practices (1886) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to facilitate use of the materials in the collection, starting with the Dewey Decimal Classification System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opening of School of Library Economy (1887) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To train male and female librarians </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishment of the Association of Research Libraries (1932) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Census figures of U.S Librarians 1870 - 1990
  8. 8. Characteristics of Male Librarians, 1890 – 1920 <ul><li>Well educated men (72.6% with bachelor’s degree) </li></ul><ul><li>Sons of clergy, physicians, as well as farmers & machinists </li></ul><ul><li>Had worked in a library (23.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Veterans with disability </li></ul><ul><li>Retired clergy or teacher </li></ul><ul><li>One disillusioned with/failed in other line of work </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reason for men choosing the field <ul><li>Encouraged by library professors to enter academic library or Library of Congress, not public or school libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Assured fast move up to high-level position </li></ul><ul><li>2-yr library program expedited entrance into workforce for males; 1-year secured a lucrative position </li></ul>
  10. 10. Feminization of Professions <ul><li>Rapid change from male- to female-intensive fields between 1870 and 1920, influenced by the industrial revolution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching – 68% women in 1880 to 84% in 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clerical – 95.6% male in 1880 to 54.3% in 1920 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library -- 80% male in 1870 to 80% women in 1900 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Passet, 1993) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Feminization of the Library field <ul><li>By 1910, more women entering librarianship than men </li></ul><ul><li>Of 22 land-grant institutions west of the Mississippi, 15 had at least one woman responsible for the library prior to 1930 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reason for men exiting the field <ul><li>Perceived low status as more women entered the field; some for pay, others as volunteers </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate salaries paid to both men and women, minimal remuneration </li></ul><ul><li>Often got stuck in an assistant position for years; desired upward mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Low status of library work; aspired to be in leadership positions </li></ul>
  13. 13. First Women in the field <ul><li>Grace Raymond Hebard, librarian at the University of Wyoming, 1894 – 1919 (Ph.D in Political Science, no formal training in librarianship) </li></ul><ul><li>Julia Pearce, first librarian to have no teaching responsibilities, Kansas State Agricultural College, 1863 – 1894. </li></ul><ul><li>Dorothy Porter Wesley, first African American curator & scholar of the Moorland-Springarn Research Center, Howard U. in 1930-1973 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Others as Volunteers <ul><li>Club women participation in public sphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TX Federation of Club Women led the founding of community libraries (1898) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1904 Women’s Club in 34 states ran 4600 traveling libraries and established 500 public libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approached Carnegie for funding of public libraries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volunteered time to prepare materials </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Evolving field of librarianship <ul><li>Once the keeper of books … </li></ul><ul><li>now recognized for ability to provide access to local and global resources in libraries with and without walls. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Librarians in Academia since 1971 <ul><li>Masters degree from an ALA accredited program required for employment; </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd grad degree for tenure track </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty positions gave women better salaries, but lower than teaching faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Unionized institutions gave women higher salaries; equal to males </li></ul>
  17. 17. Librarians in Academia … <ul><li>Requirement to publish in institutions with faculty status for librarians </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty status gained librarian more respect than non- faculty status </li></ul><ul><li>Improved work environment re: faculty benefits available to librarians (sabbaticals, research funds, tenure, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased participation in college governance </li></ul>
  18. 18. Impact of Internet technology, 1995 - <ul><li>“ net technology” yielding new roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual reference librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in males entering the field </li></ul><ul><li>Library programs emphasizing technology </li></ul><ul><li>Library schools discussing omission of the “l” word </li></ul><ul><li>Library instruction expanding—teaching scholars to evaluate, retrieve, & use materials ethically </li></ul>
  19. 19. Anomolies persist <ul><li>In a female-intensive field, 90 respondents surveyed identified themselves as directors, of which 34 were women (Jenkins, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>2002 survey showed men had higher salaries in school, academic, and special libraries by 7.9% (Terrell, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>High-tech positions filled by more men; however, women in these positions had showed increase of 6.8% in 2001 (Lynch & Smith, 2001). </li></ul>
  20. 20. References <ul><li>American Library Association. (2002). ALA presidents, treasurers, secretaries, and executive directors. Handbook of organization . Chicago: American Library Association </li></ul><ul><li>American Library Association. (1999). Office for research and statistics . Chicago: American Library Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Association of College and Research Libraries. (2001). Guidelines for academic status of college and university libraries. College and Research Libraries News , 62, 920 – 921. </li></ul><ul><li>Bargellini, M.L. & Bordoni, L. (2001). The role of the library in a new learning scenario. The Electronic Library . 19, 153-157. </li></ul><ul><li>Carmichael, J. (1992). The male librarian and the feminine image: a survey of stereotypes, status, and gender perceptions. Library & Information Science Research , 14, 411-446. </li></ul><ul><li>Carpenter. (1994). Harvard University libraries. In Encyclopedia of library history. Edited by W.A. Wiegand & D.G. Davis, Jr. New York; London: Garland Publishing, Inc , (pp. 255-257). </li></ul><ul><li>Committee on Academic Status of the Association of College and Research Libraries. (1975). Faculty status for academic librarians: a history and policy statements . Chicago: American Library Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Conaway, C. (2002). Virtual university. Regional Review , 12, 6-13. </li></ul><ul><li>Cramer, E. & Boyd, J. (1995). The tenure-track and parent track: a road guide. Wilson Library Bulletin , 69 41-42. </li></ul>
  21. 21. References, continued. <ul><li>Daniel, J.S. (1999). Mega-universities and knowledge media: Technology strategies for higher education . London: Kogan Page Limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Digest of education statistics . (2003). National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement: U.S. Department of Education, Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>----- . (2002). National Center for Education Statistics, Office of Educational Research and Improvement: U.S. Department of Education, Washington D.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Dowell, D.R. (1998). Leadership: In the eye of the beholder? In Leadership and Academic Librarians . Edited by T. F. Mech & G.B. Mcabe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp. 159-170. </li></ul><ul><li>Flagg, G. (2001). Educators consider their future at ALISE Conference. American Libraries, 32, 26-7. </li></ul><ul><li>Galloway, D. (1979). Status or stasis: Academic librarians 10 years later. American Libraries , 79, 349-352. </li></ul><ul><li>Guri-Rosenbilt, S. (2001). Virtual universities: Current models and future trends. Higher Education in Europe , 26, 487-499. </li></ul><ul><li>Harris, R.M. (1999). Gender and technology relations in librarianship. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science , 40, 232-246. </li></ul>
  22. 22. References, continued. <ul><li>Higley, G. (1996). College, Community and librarianship: Women librarians at the Western land grant colleges. In Reclaiming the American library past: Writing the women in. Edited by Suzanne Hildenbrand. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub Corp. , pp. 53-98. </li></ul><ul><li>Hildenbrand, S. (1999). The Information Age vs. gender equity. Library Journal. 124, 44-47. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenkins, C. (1996). “Since so many of today’s librarians are women. . .;” Women and Intellectual Freedom in U.S. librarianship . In Reclaiming the American library past: Writing the women in. Edited by Suzanne Hildenbrand. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub Corp. , pp. 221-250. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkland, J.J. (1997). The missing women in library directors: Deprivation versus mentoring. College and Research Libraries , 58, 376-384 </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch, B. (1998). The development of the academic library in American higher education and the role of the academic librarian. In Leadership and Academic Librarians , edited by T.F. Mech and G.B. McCabe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, pp.1-21 </li></ul><ul><li>Lynch, B. P., & Smith, K. R. (2001). The changing nature of work in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 62, 407-419 </li></ul>
  23. 23. References, continued. <ul><li>Passet, J.E. (1996). You don’t have to pay librarians. In Reclaiming the American library past: Writing the women in, edited by Suzanne Hildenbrand. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub Corp. , pp. 207-220. </li></ul><ul><li>-----. (1994). United States of America. In Encyclopedia of library history, edited by W.A. Wiegand & D.G. Davis, Jr. New York; London: Garland Publishing, Inc , pp. 644-650. </li></ul><ul><li>-----. (1993). Men in a feminized profession: the male librarian, 1887-1921. Libraries & Culture , 28, 385-402. </li></ul><ul><li>Radford, N. (1984). The Carnegie Corporation and the development of American college libraries, 1928 – 1941 . Chicago: American Library Association. </li></ul><ul><li>Schuyler, M. (1999). The view from the top left corner . Computers in libraries. v19, Retrieved March 13, 2004, from the Library Literature WilsonWeb database. </li></ul><ul><li>Shiflett, O. L. (1994). Academic libraries. In Encyclopedia of library history. Edited by W.A. Wiegand & D.G. Davis, Jr. New York; London: Garland Publishing, Inc , pp. 5-14. </li></ul><ul><li>St. Lifer, E., & Oder, N. (1996). Net work: New roles, same mission. Library Journal , 121, 26-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Terrell, T. (2002). Salaries rebound, women break out. Library Journal , 30-36. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Abstracts of the United States (2003) . Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. </li></ul>