Civil Rights Overview: IB History of the Americas


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Civil Rights Overview: IB History of the Americas

  1. 1. Civil Rights Overview Understandings and questions
  2. 2. Essential Questions/UnderstandingsWhat were the long term causes of the Civil Rights Movement? How did the greater global context influence the movement? How can the movement be said to be strikingly different from 1945- 65 and 1965-1989? Ministers and Militants: How do Martin Luther King and Malcolm X represent the ―two trains‖ of the civil rights movement? How do Malcolm and King represent the complexity of approaches and understandings of civil rights in the United States? Was the civil rights movement inspired, led and pushed forward by great men or by grassroots? Historiography: How have perspectives on the Civil Rights Movements changed over time from the 1960s to the 1990s?
  3. 3. Martin Luther King, Jr., waving to the crowd at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, D.C. (1963). Civil Rights—basic overview Activism, new legislation, and the Supreme Court advance equal rights for African Americans. (1945-65) But disagreements among civil rights groups lead to a violent period for the civil rights movement. (1965-89) NEXT
  4. 4. Pre-Civil Rights Movement Long Term Causes and Influences I
  5. 5. Dallas Bus Station
  6. 6. Texas sign
  7. 7. Jim Crow Laws
  8. 8. Jim Crow Laws
  9. 9. Jim Crow Laws
  10. 10. Jim Crow Laws
  11. 11. The Two Trains? W.E.B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington
  12. 12. Two African Americans, Two Diverse Backgrounds Booker T. Washington W.E.B. DuBois
  13. 13. Born a slave in southwestern Virginia, 1858 Believed in vocational education for blacks Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama Believed in gradual equality Accused of being an ―Uncle Tom‖ Received much white support Wrote Up From Slavery (1901) Booker T. Washington I think I have learned that the best way to lift one's self up is to help someone else.
  14. 14. Booker T. Washington Outlined his views on race relations in a speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta – ―Atlanta Compromise‖ Felt that black people should work to gain economic security before equal rights Believed black people will ―earn‖ equality
  15. 15. Booker T. Washington Developed programs for job training and vocational skills at Tuskegee Institute Asked whites to give job opportunities to black people Was popular with white leaders in the North and South
  16. 16. Booker T. Washington Was unpopular with many black leaders Associated with leaders of the Urban League which emphasized jobs and training for blacks
  17. 17. My experience is that people who call themselves "The Intellectuals" understand theories, but they do not understand things. I have long been convinced that, if these men could have gone into the South and taken up and become interested in some practical work which would have brought them in touch with people and things, the whole world would have looked very different to them. Bad as conditions might have seemed at first, when they saw that actual progress was being made, they would have taken a
  18. 18. Well educated-First African American to receive Ph.D. from Harvard Born in 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts Wanted immediate equality between blacks and whites Wanted classical higher education for blacks Wrote The Souls of Black Folk (1903) The Niagara Movement – led to NAACP W.E.B. DuBois The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.
  19. 19. W.E.B. DuBois Views given in The Souls of Black Folks and The Crisis Strongly opposed Booker T. Washington’s tolerance of segregation Demanded immediate equality for blacks
  20. 20. W.E.B. DuBois Felt talented black students should get a classical education Felt it was wrong to expect citizens to ―earn their rights‖ Founded the NAACP along with other black and white leaders
  21. 21. After the Egyptian and Indian, the Greek and Roman, the Teuton and Mongolian, the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second- sight in this American world, — a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. It is a peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness, — an American, a Negro; two warring souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder. The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife, — this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his
  22. 22. The ideological divide between Washington and Dubois is often seen as foreshadowing for..
  23. 23. Washington v. DuBois In your own words, summarize the strategies employed by Washington and DuBois. Specifically list the Pros and Cons of both strategies. Who would you support? Who represents your style of reform/resistance? Should African Americans, or other disenfranchised groups agitate for equality?
  24. 24. Pre-Civil Rights Movement Long Term Causes and Influences II
  25. 25. Context
  26. 26. 19th Century Abolitionists Frederick Douglas was the editor of an abolitionist newspaper.
  27. 27. Harriet Tubman Helped slaves escape via the Underground Railroad.
  28. 28. John Brown He and his sons killed 5 slave masters in Kansas. (1858) Tried to incite a slave revolt Date is key: just before the…
  29. 29. Two Centuries of Struggle Conceptions of Equality Equal opportunity: same chances Equal results: same rewards Early American Views of Equality The Constitution and Inequality Equality is not in the original Constitution. First mention of equality in the 14th Amendment: ―…equal protection of the laws‖
  30. 30. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy The Era of Slavery Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Slaves had no rights. Invalidated Missouri Compromise The Civil War The Thirteenth Amendment Ratified after Union won the Civil War Outlawed slavery
  31. 31. KEY AMENDMENTS • 13th Amendment: • Abolished Slavery (1865) • 14th Amendment: • Civil Rights Amendment, citizenship, and equal protection under the law (1868) • 15thAmendment: • African-American men given the right to vote (1870).
  32. 32. BLACK CODES * Originated in 1865 in Mississippi and South Carolina. * City ordinances prohibiting blacks from being equal. Not allowed to… * Carry weapons, testify against whites, marry whites, serve on juries, start businesses, travel w/out permits, rent or lease farmland.
  33. 33. VOTING RESTRICTIONS • 1) Literacy Test: Reading and writing test. • 2) Poll Tax: Pay $ to vote. • 3) Grandfather Clause: You could vote IF your Father or Grandfather had been eligible to vote before Jan.1, 1867 • What was the goal of these restrictions?
  34. 34. Would you have been able to vote? The Alabama Literacy Test Which body of Congress can try impeachments of the President? At what time of day on January 20th does the term of the President end? If the president does not sign a bill, how many days is he allowed in which to return it to Congress for reconsideration? If a bill is passed by Congress and the President refuses to sign it and does not send it back to Congress in session within the specified period of time, is the bill defeated or does it become law? If the United States wishes to purchase land for an arsenal and have exclusive legislative authority over it, consent is required from whom? Which officer of the United States government is designated as President of the Senate? When is the president not allowed to exercise his power to pardon? Why is the power to grant patents given to Congress? What is a tribunal?
  35. 35. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy The Era of Reconstruction and Resegregation Jim Crow or segregational laws Relegated African Americans to separate facilities Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Upheld the constitutionality of ―equal but separate accommodations‖
  36. 36. Jim Crow Jim Crow was NOT the name of an actual person. In 1832 Jim Crow became the stage name of a performance making fun of the stereotypical black person.
  37. 37. Context
  38. 38. Race, the Constitution, and Public Policy The Era of Civil Rights Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Overturned Plessy School segregation inherently unconstitutional Integrate schools ―with all deliberate speed‖ Busing of students solution for two kinds of segregation: de jure, ―by law‖ de facto, ―in reality‖
  39. 39. Thurgood Marshall
  40. 40. NAACP fought in the courts Thurgood Marshall was hired by the NAACP to argue in the Supreme Court against school segregation. He won. He was later the 1st Black Supreme Court Justice.
  41. 41. Context
  42. 42. NEXT Civil Rights SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 Taking on Segregation The Triumphs of a Crusade Challenges and Changes in the Movement
  43. 43. Section 1 Taking on Segregation Activism and a series of Supreme Court decisions advance equal rights for African Americans in the 1950s and 1960s. NEXT
  44. 44. The Segregation System Plessy v. Ferguson • Civil Rights Act of 1875 act outlawed segregation • In 1883, all-white Supreme Court declares Act unconstitutional • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson ruling: separate but equal constitutional • Many states pass Jim Crow laws separating the races • Facilities for blacks always inferior to those for whites Taking on Segregation1 SECTION NEXT Continued . . .
  45. 45. Segregation Continues into the 20th Century • After Civil War, African Americans go north to escape racism • North: housing in all-black areas, whites resent job competition 1 SECTION NEXT continued The Segregation System A Developing Civil Rights Movement • WW II creates job opportunities for African Americans • Need for fighting men makes armed forces end discriminatory policies • FDR ends government, war industries discrimination • Returning black veterans fight for civil rights at home
  46. 46. Challenging Segregation in Court The NAACP Legal Strategy • Professor Charles Hamilton Houston leads NAACP legal campaign • Focuses on most glaring inequalities of segregated public education • Places team of law students under Thurgood Marshall - win 29 out of 32 cases argued before Supreme Court 1 SECTION NEXT Brown v. Board of Education • Marshall’s greatest victory is Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka • In 1954 case, Court unanimously strikes down school segregation
  47. 47. Reaction to the Brown Decision Resistance to School Desegregation • Within 1 year, over 500 school districts desegregate • Some districts, state officials, pro-white groups actively resist • Court hands Brown II, orders desegregation at ―all deliberate speed‖ • Eisenhower refuses to enforce compliance; considers it impossible 1 SECTION NEXT Continued . . .
  48. 48. continued Reaction to the Brown Decision Crisis in Little Rock • Since 1948, Arkansas integrating state university, private groups--resisting • Gov. Orval Faubus has National Guard turn away black students • Elizabeth Eckford faces abusive crowd when she tries to enter school • Eisenhower has 101st Airborne Division supervise school attendance • African-American students harassed by whites at school all year • 1957 Civil Rights Act—federal government power over schools, voting 1 SECTION NEXT
  49. 49. The Montgomery Bus Boycott Boycotting Segregation • 1955 NAACP officer Rosa Parks arrested for not giving up seat on bus • Montgomery Improvement Association formed, organizes bus boycott • Elect 26-year-old Baptist pastor Martin Luther King, Jr. leader 1 SECTION NEXT Walking for Justice • African Americans file lawsuit, boycott buses, use carpools, walk • Get support from black community, outside groups, sympathetic whites • 1956, Supreme Court outlaws bus segregation
  50. 50. Martin Luther King and the SCLC Changing the World with Soul Force • King calls his brand of nonviolent resistance ―soul force‖ - civil disobedience, massive demonstrations • King remains nonviolent in face of violence after Brown decision 1 SECTION NEXT From the Grassroots Up • King, others found Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) • By 1960, African-American students think pace of change too slow • Join Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
  51. 51. The Movement Spreads Demonstrating for Freedom • SNCC adopts nonviolence, but calls for more confrontational strategy • Influenced by Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) to use sit-ins: - refuse to leave segregated lunch counter until served • First sit-in at Greensboro, NC Woolworth’s shown nationwide on TV • In spite of abuse, arrests, movement grows, spreads to North • Late 1960, lunch counters desegregated in 48 cities in 11 states 1 SECTION NEXT Image
  52. 52. Sit ins This was in Greensboro, North
  53. 53. Support of MLK and leaders, but organized by college students…
  54. 54. Sit-in Tactics Dress in you Sunday best. Be respectful to employees and police. Do not resist arrest. Do not fight back. Remember, journalists are everywhere!
  55. 55. Students were ready to take your place if you had a class to attend.
  56. 56. Not only were there sit-ins. . Swim ins (beaches, pools) Kneel ins (churches) Drive ins (at motels) Study-ins (universities)
  57. 57. Section 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade Civil rights activists break through racial barriers. Their activism prompts landmark legislation. NEXT
  58. 58. Riding for Freedom CORE’s Freedom Rides • 1961, CORE tests Court decision banning interstate bus segregation • Freedom riders—blacks, whites sit, use station facilities together • Riders brutally beaten by Alabama mobs; one bus firebombed The Triumphs of a Crusade2 SECTION NEXT Continued . . . New Volunteers • Bus companies refuse to continue carrying CORE freedom riders • SNCC volunteers replace CORE riders; are violently stopped • Robert Kennedy pressures bus company to continue transporting riders
  59. 59. continued Riding for Freedom Arrival of Federal Marshals • Alabama officials don’t give promised protection; mob attacks riders • Newspapers throughout nation denounce beatings • JFK sends 400 U.S. marshals to protect riders • Attorney general, Interstate Commerce Commission act: - ban segregation in all interstate travel facilities 2 SECTION NEXT
  60. 60. Standing Firm Integrating Ole Miss • 1962, federal court rules James Meredith may enroll at U of MS • Governor Ross Barnett refuses to let Meredith register • JFK orders federal marshals to escort Meredith to registrar’s office • Barnett makes radio appeal; thousands of white demonstrators riot • Federal officials accompany Meredith to classes, protect his parents 2 SECTION NEXT Continued . . .
  61. 61. continued Standing Firm Heading into Birmingham • April 1963, SCLC demonstrate to desegregate Birmingham • King arrested, writes ―Letter from Birmingham Jail‖ • TV news show police attacking child marchers— fire hoses, dogs, clubs • Continued protests, economic boycott, bad press end segregation 2 SECTION NEXT Kennedy Takes a Stand • June, JFK sends troops to force Gov. Wallace to desegregate U of AL Image
  62. 62. Marching to Washington The Dream of Equality • August 1963, over 250,000 people converge on Washington • Speakers demand immediate passage of civil rights bill • King gives ―I Have a Dream‖ speech 2 SECTION NEXT More Violence • September, 4 Birmingham girls killed when bomb thrown into church • LBJ signs Civil Rights Act of 1964 - prohibits discrimination because of race, religion, gender
  63. 63. Fighting for Voting Rights Freedom Summer • Freedom Summer—CORE, SNCC project to register blacks to vote in MS • Volunteers beaten, killed; businesses, homes, churches burned 2 SECTION NEXT A New Political Party • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party formed to get seat in MS party • Fannie Lou Hamer—voice of MFDP at National Convention—wins support • LBJ fears losing Southern white vote, pressures leaders to compromise • MFDP and SNCC supporters feel betrayed Continued . . .
  64. 64. continued Fighting for Voting Rights The Selma Campaign • 1965, voting rights demonstrator killed in Selma, AL • King leads 600 protest marchers; TV shows police violently stop them • Second march, with federal protection, swells to 25,000 people 2 SECTION NEXT Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Congress finally passes Voting Rights Act of 1965 • Stops literacy tests, allows federal officials to enroll voters • Increases black voter enrollment Chart
  65. 65. Action and civil courage, 1963-65
  66. 66. Voter Registration CORE volunteers came to Mississippi to register Blacks to vote.
  67. 67. These volunteers risked arrest, violence an death
  68. 68. The Fight This man spent 5 days in jail for ―carrying a placard.‖ Sign says ―Voter registration worker‖
  69. 69. "Your work is just beginning. If you go back home and sit down and take what these white men in Mississippi are doing to us. ...if you take it and don't do something about it.
  70. 70. Voter Registration If Blacks registered to vote, the local banks could call the loan on their farm.
  71. 71. Thousands marched to the Courthouse in Montgomery to protest rough treatment given voting rights demonstrators. The Alabama Capitol is in the background. March 18,1965
  72. 72. High Schoolers jailed for marching
  73. 73. Bloody Sunday In Selma, pro-vote marchers face Alabama cops.
  74. 74. Selma to Montgomery, Alabama
  75. 75. Tending the wounded
  76. 76. Marchers cross bridge
  77. 77. Many were arrested.
  78. 78. Police set up a rope barricade.
  79. 79. Marchers stayed there for days.
  80. 80. We're gonna stand here 'till it falls, ‘Till it falls, ‘Till it falls, We're gonna stand here 'till it falls In Selma, Alabama.
  81. 81. The Supreme Court ruled that protesters had 1st Amendment right to march.
  82. 82. Sacrifice for Suffrage
  83. 83. Crime Scene This woman was killed by the KKK while on her way to join voter activists in Mississippi
  84. 84. Selma to Montgomery Part 2
  85. 85. Part 2
  86. 86. NEXT Section 3 Challenges and Changes in the Movement Disagreements among civil rights groups and the rise of black nationalism create a violent period in the fight for civil rights.
  87. 87. NEXT African Americans Seek Greater Equality Northern Segregation • De facto segregation exists by practice, custom; problem in North • De jure segregation is segregation required by law • WW II black migration to Northern cities results in ―white flight‖ • 1960s, most urban blacks live in slums; landlords ignore ordinances • Black unemployment twice as high as white • Many blacks angry at treatment received from white police officers Challenges and Changes in the Movement 3 SECTION Continued . . .
  88. 88. NEXT continued African Americans Seek Greater Equality Urban Violence Erupts • Mid-1960s, numerous clashes between white authority, black civilians - many result in riots • Many whites baffled by African-American rage • Blacks want, need equal opportunity in jobs, housing, education • Money for War on Poverty, Great Society redirected to Vietnam War 3 SECTION
  89. 89. NEXT 3 SECTION African-American Solidarity • Nation of Islam, Black Muslims, advocate blacks separate from whites - believe whites source of black problems • Malcolm X—controversial Muslim leader, speaker; gets much publicity • Frightens whites, moderate blacks; resented by other Black Muslims New Leaders Voice Discontent Continued . . . Ballots or Bullets? • Pilgrimage to Mecca changes Malcolm X’s attitude toward whites • Splits with Black Muslims; is killed in 1965 while giving speech Image
  90. 90. NEXT continued New Leaders Voice Discontent Black Power • CORE, SNCC become more militant; SCLC pursues traditional tactics • Stokely Carmichael, head of SNCC, calls for Black Power: - African Americans control own lives, communities, without whites 3 SECTION Black Panthers • Black Panthers fight police brutality, want black self-sufficiency • Preach ideas of Mao Zedong; have violent confrontations with police • Provide social services in ghettos, win popular support
  91. 91. NEXT 1968—A Turning Point in Civil Rights King’s Death • King objects to Black Power movement, preaching of violence • Seems to sense own death in Memphis speech to striking workers • Is shot, dies the following day, April 4, 1968 3 SECTION Reactions to King’s Death • King’s death leads to worst urban rioting in U.S. history - over 100 cities affected • Robert Kennedy assassinated two months later Image
  92. 92. NEXT Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement Causes of Violence • Kerner Commission names racism as main cause of urban violence 3 SECTION Civil Rights Gains • Civil Rights Act of 1968 prohibits discrimination in housing • More black students finish high school, college; get better jobs • Greater pride in racial identity leads to Black Studies programs • More African-American participation in movies, television • Increased voter registration results in more black elected officials Continued . . . Chart
  93. 93. NEXT continued Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement Unfinished Work • Forced busing, higher taxes, militancy, riots reduce white support • White flight reverses much progress toward school integration • Unemployment, poverty higher than for whites • Affirmative action—extra effort to hire, enroll discriminated groups • 1960s, colleges, companies doing government business adopt policy • Late 1970s, some criticize policy as reverse discrimination 3 SECTION