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New Models of Purpose-Driven Exploration in Knowledge Work

William Evans
William Evans
William EvansChief Design Officer (CDO) at Semantic Foundry

The last 20 years have been a period of radical disruption and transformation in knowledge work. The "why, what, and how" of new value creation and delivery in knowledge-intensive work is shifting and the power has moved from the center to the edges. In his talk, Evans will explore the emergence of new methods of exploration, abductive ideation, and empirical validation that is changing how value creation happens. The very idea first introduced by Buckminster Fuller, when he said that everything was becoming ephemeralized—doing "more and more with less and less until eventually you can do everything with nothing"—or more recently when Marc Andreessen said, "software is eating the world," has had a direct impact on information-seeking and information-synthesizing behaviors. Evans will unpack how many of these models and methods are really the exaptation of Lean, Systems Thinking, and Design Thinking principles, transplanted from the world of manufacturing into the ephemeral world of knowledge work and knowledge management. He'll finish by showing how these models can frame the challenges posed by sense-making (experiential) change in knowledge work. Will Evans explores the convergence of practice and theory using Lean Systems, Design Thinking, Theory of Constraints, and Service Design with global enterprises from NYC to Berlin to Singapore. As Chief Design Officer, he works with a select group of clients undergoing Lean and Agile transformations across the entire organization. Will earned his Jonah® from AGI, and serves on the Board of Advisors for Rutgers CX (Customer Experience) Program. Formerly, he was Design Thinker-In-Residence at NYU Stern.

New Models of Purpose-Driven Exploration in Knowledge Work

1 of 87
WILL EVANS // NORTH AMERICA // SUMMER 2016
NEW MODELS
of purpose-driven innovation in knowledge work
Every exploration is an
appropriation.
“
– ROLAND BARTHES
”
LET’S START
WITH AN EXERCISE
LET’S START
WITH AN EXERCISE
Which is timed!
The central threat to the legal industry has
been put into motion by the power of
disruptive innovation. The theory of disruptive
innovation explains why it is so difficult for
organizations to sustain success over time.
“
- CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN
”
WHAT CHALLENGES HAVE WE FACED?

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New Models of Purpose-Driven Exploration in Knowledge Work

  • 1. WILL EVANS // NORTH AMERICA // SUMMER 2016 NEW MODELS of purpose-driven innovation in knowledge work
  • 2. Every exploration is an appropriation. “ – ROLAND BARTHES ”
  • 4. LET’S START WITH AN EXERCISE Which is timed!
  • 5. The central threat to the legal industry has been put into motion by the power of disruptive innovation. The theory of disruptive innovation explains why it is so difficult for organizations to sustain success over time. “ - CLAYTON CHRISTENSEN ”
  • 7. A = What your job description says B = What you can do AA B
  • 8. Apart from inquiry, apart from the praxis, individuals cannot be truly human. Knowledge emerges only through invention and re- invention, through the restless, impatient, continuing, hopeful inquiry human beings pursue in the world, with the world, and with each other. - Paulo Freire “ ”
  • 10. A post-positivist apologetics of a “movement”. WHAT IS LEAN STARTUP?* * Lean Startup ≠ Lean
  • 12. ASSERTIONS OF LEAN STARTUP • Entrepreneurs are everywhere • Entrepreneurship is a form of Management • Cycle: Build-Measure-Learn • Validated Learnings
  • 13. 7 KEYS TO LEAN STARTUP 1. Uncover your customers’ pain points through research 2. Invalidate your assumptions 3. Formulate hypotheses 4. Collaborative ideation 5. Experiments, NOT solutions 6. Learning isn’t failure 7. Amplify what works
  • 14. The problem with many projects is that you spend months or years doing research, writing requirements, designing and building products and services… and discover no customer cares.
  • 15. Life is too short to build something nobody wants. “ - ASH MAURYA ”
  • 16. IT STARTED WITH A QUESTION If startups fail from a lack of customers not product development failure… Then why do we have: • A process for product development? • No process for customer development?
  • 18. TRADITIONAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT DEFINE DESIGN DEVELOPMENT DEPLOYMENT Very little learning Some learning Most learning happens here
  • 19. “A Startup is a human institution designed to deliver a product or service under conditions of extreme uncertainty” – Eric Ries A startup is a human institution designed to deliver a product or service under conditions of extreme uncertainty. “ - ERIC RIES ”
  • 22. Waste is any human activity which absorbs resources, but creates no value. - James P. Womack & Daniel T. Jones * Lean Startup ≠ Lean
  • 23. If you can’t describe what you are doing as a process, you don’t know what you’re doing. “ - EDWARDS DEMING ”
  • 28. THE EARLYVANGELIST 1. Has a problem 2. Is aware of having a problem 3. Has been actively looking for a solution 4. Has put together a solution out of piece parts 5. Has or can acquire a budget
  • 29. HIGH OCCURRENCE LOW OCCURRENCE LOW PAIN HIGH PAIN High Frequency High Pain High Frequency low Pain Low Frequency High Pain Low Frequency low Pain
  • 30. HIGH OCCURRENCE LOW OCCURRENCE LOW PAIN HIGH PAIN High Frequency High Pain High Frequency low Pain Low Frequency High Pain Low Frequency low Pain
  • 32. 1. Clearly articulate & test your assumptions about the customer 2. “Get out of the building” 3. Small cycles 4. Experiments 5. Iterate based on what you learned. 6. Don’t invest in anything that isn’t validated HOW TO DO IT: LEAN STARTUP META-RULES
  • 34. Minimum Viable Product A MOST MISUNDERSTOOD TERM IN SOFTWARE MINIMAL VIABLE PRODUCT A Most Misunderstood Term in Software
  • 35. WHAT IS AN MVP? The minimum amount of effort you have to do to complete exactly one turn of the Build-Measure-Learn feedback loop.
  • 36. SPEED, FOCUS, LEARNING Speed FocusLearning CHASING YOUR TAIL PREMATURE OPTIMAZATION RUNNING OUT OF RESOURCES THE OPTIMAL LEARNING LOOP
  • 37. Your team should maximize for: Focus Learnings While Minimizing: Cycle Time
  • 39. 4 KINDS OF MVP EXPLORATION An interaction with the customer that focuses on investigation of his or her problems to understand past behavior and see if it is top of mind. PITCH An interaction with the customer that attempt to sell the product to a customer in exchange for some form of currency: time, money, or work. CONCIERGE Delivering the product as a service to the customer to see if the delivery matches the customer’s expectations. PROTOTYPE (OR FEATURE FAKE) A small, testable model whose sole purpose is to get feedback from a customer.
  • 40. In order to reduce waste and speed up learning, you need to pare down your prototypes so that all you have left is the essence of your product: The MVP.
  • 41. YOUR MVP SHOULD BE LIKE A GREAT REDUCTION SAUCE concentrated, intense, and flavorful
  • 42. MVPs PRODUCTFIDELITY COVERAGE (NUMBER OF CUSTOMERS) Low many High Few (Size = effort and feedback cycle length) Interview Paper Sketch Paper Mockup Concierge MVP A/B Testing The Product Software Prototype Ad-Words Campaign Video
  • 43. STEPS TO MVP • Start with a single customer • Start with the Number One Problem • Eliminate nice-to-haves & don’t-needs • Repeat Step 3 for your Number Two & Number 3 Problems • Consider other customer requests – prioritize them as well • Charge from day one (if you can) • Focus on learning, not optimization or scaling
  • 48. THE LEANUX KATA • Who is the customer? • What is their problem? • What do you know and how do you know it? • What are your assumptions? How will you test them? • What have you learned and what should you learn next? • What is your very next experiment? • How will you measure it?
  • 49. WHAT IS UX DESIGN?
  • 50. User experience is about how you design solutions and services that solve real human needs…
  • 51. • Articulated context • Focus on people, not technology • Centered on customer’s needs, goals, desires • Clear hierarchy of information and tasks • Focus on simplicity; reduce visual complexity • Provide strong information scent • Use constraints appropriately • Make actions reversible • Provide meaningful feedback PRINCIPLES OF UX
  • 52. • Products and services must serve people • Respect all ways in which value is delivered to customers • Use technology intelligently to serve the customer experience Notice that none of these principles are anchored in a specific medium or modality of interation. VARIANT
  • 54. Designers make explicit their sense-making and framing as they attempt to make meaning out of research through modeling.
  • 55. A problem well stated is mostly solved. The problem is stating a problem well is really hard.
  • 56. WHERE IS DESIGN INNOVATION? Technology feasibility Business viability Human Values usability, desirability Design Innovation
  • 62. Our real goal, then, is not so much fulfilling manifest needs by creating a speedier printer or a more ergonomic keyboard; that’s the job of designers. It is helping people to articulate the latent needs they may not even know they have, and this is the challenge of design thinkers. - TIM BROWN “ ”
  • 64. A frame is, simplistically, a point of view; often, and particularly in technical situations, this point of view is deemed “irrelevant” or “biasing” because it implicitly references a non-objective way of considering a situation or idea. But a frame – while certainly subjective and often biasing – is of critical use to the designer, as it is something that is shaped over the long-term aggregation of thoughts and experiences. - JON KOLKO “ ”
  • 66. Whenever we propose a solution to a problem, we ought to try as hard as we can to overthrow our solution, rather than defend it. - Karl Popper
  • 68. SCHEIN’S 3 LEVELS OF CULTURE What you see and hear ARTEFACTS ESPOUSED VALUES SHARED, TACIT ASSUMPTIONS “Culture theatre” + Situational Forces Actual essence of culture GENERATES
  • 70. DOUBLE DIAMOND Exploration We have problems What is the context? Who is impacted? Where is the value? Ideation I have an opportunity for design How do I make sense of the data? What are our options? What experiments could I run? Experimentation I have an innovative solution What is the smallest experiment I could run? How will we know things are getting better? How do I scale the solution?
  • 71. DOUBLE DIAMOND ACTIVITY Phase EXPLORE Research SELECT Synthesis EXPERIMENT Ideation SELECT & SCALE Execution A Solving the right problems Solving problems the right way WE KNOW Should Be WE GUESS Could Be B
  • 72. LEANUX MANTRA Repeat after me: Iamnotthecustomer. Only by talking with customers can we uncover people’s pains, needs, and goals, in their context. 72
  • 74. MALKOVICH BIAS The tendency to believe that everyone uses technologythe same way you do.
  • 76. A RESEARCH HEURISTIC 76 The most striking point of this curve is that zero customers yields zero insights! CUSTOMERS INSIGHTS0 lots 12
  • 77. GOOBING (GET OUT OF THE BUILDING) 77 Insights about your customers, their needs, pains, and goals, was never discovered reading a powerpoint at your desk. You have to get out and talk to people. Wheretheydothework.
  • 78. BEFORE RESEARCH 78 • Articulate context, market, segment • Identify who you are interviewing • Craft a topic map for your interviews • Write down your prompts
  • 79. 9 KEYS TO CUSTOMER RESEARCH 79 1. One interview at a time 2. Always pair interview (if you can) 3. Introduce yourself 4. Record the conversation 5. Ask general, open-ended questions to get people talking 6. Then ask, “Tell me about the last time you…” 7. Listen more than you talk 8. Separate behavior from narrative (people lie) 9. Be careful of anchoring
  • 80. GUIDELINES 80 • It’s about empathizing. • Listen, even when people go off topic. • Context is king – document it, and make sure the context of research maps to the problem being explored. • Start from the assumption that everything you know is wrong.
  • 81. YOU NEED TO GATHER... 81 1. Factual information 2. Behavior 3. Pain 4. Goals You can document this on the persona board as well as …. photos, video, audio, journals…. document everything.
  • 82. • Tell me about… • How do you… • What are your thoughts on… • Could you elaborate on… • Give some examples of… • Tell me about the last time you… OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS START WITH... 82
  • 83. DO • Take notes • Smile • Ask open-ended questions • Get their story • Shut up and listen DON’T • Talk about your product • Ask about future behavior • Sell • Ask leading questions • Talk much SOME PROTIPS 83
  • 85. 7 STEPS 1. Uncover people’s needs and goals 2. Formulate hypotheses 3. Question your assumptions 4. Collaborate to generate ideas 5. Run small, tight experiments 6. Learning isn’t failure 7. Amplify what works
  • 86. My propositions serve as elucidations in the following way: anyone who understands me eventually recognizes them as nonsensical, when he has used them - as steps - to climb beyond them. He must, so to speak, throw away the ladder after he has climbed up it. “ – LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN ”