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Will Evans
@semanticwill

Yana Kuchirko
@mslogophiliac
People do not know what they want. They barely know
what they need, but they definitely do not know what they
want. They’re conditioned by the limited imagination of
what is possible. … Most of the time, focus groups are built
on the pressure of ignorance.

Massimo Vignelli
"It's really hard to design products by
                            focus groups. A lot of times, people
                            don't know what they want until you
                            show it to them.”
                                                      - Steve Jobs




01/13/13   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko                        3
Let’s dispense with this little turd
blossom right up front: Henry Ford
never said, “If I'd asked customers what
they wanted, they would have said "a
faster horse,”

It’s not even a useful lie!




    01/13/13                       Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko   4
What are focus groups?

The concept of focus groups was developed in 1930’s
by psychoanalyst Ernest Dichter as a social research
method

Focus groups are structured interviews that quickly
and inexpensively reveal a target audience’s desires,
experiences, attitudes, and priorities

Focus groups can be a useful technique when a
company needs a lot of insight from potential or
existing customers in a short amount of time


 01/13/13                 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko    5
What are focus groups?

Focus groups are good at uncovering people’s desires,
motivations, values, and first hand experiences.

In a focus group, people generally feel comfortable
revealing their thoughts and feelings, thereby sharing
their views on issues and assumptions that are at the
core of their experience of a product.

With the right question, the right group and the right
moderator, focus groups can yield useful insights.



 01/13/13                 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko     6
When to do Focus Groups?

In product design, focus groups are used early in the
design cycle when the team is generating ideas and
seeking to understand the needs of the target audience.

Early in the design cycle, focus groups can help the
company understand:
     User’s fundamental issues and perceptions of the product
     What users believe are the important features of the product
     What types of problems users experience with the product
     Where do users feel the product fails to meet their
     expectations



 01/13/13                      Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko           7
When to do Focus Groups? (cont.)

Later in the development process focus groups can
help the company identify and prioritize features to
build and release in the product
     Knowing why people value certain features can determine
     what gets developed and in what order


Focus groups also serve as a platform for generating
ideas of what users wish to see in future releases




 01/13/13                     Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko       8
Focus Groups cannot be used to
unequivocally prove or disprove a
hypothesis about the user experience
of a product.

    01/13/13                       Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko   9
When NOT to do Focus Groups?
When the objective is to acquire usability information
     A group of people can’t provide specific information regarding
     product features without structured usability testing sessions
When seeking to understand the perspectives of the bigger
population
     Quantitative data that is generalizable to the bigger population
     requires surveys or other methodological approaches that require a
     large sample of participants
     There is no guarantee that proportion of responses in the group
     matches that of larger population of users
Although focus groups are an excellent way to gather
motivations and insights from the users, it cannot be used to
unequivocally prove or disprove a hypothesis about the
user experience

 01/13/13                          Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko             10
01/13/13   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko   11
Exploratory Focus Groups
Typically conducted in the beginning of a design cycle

Uncover users’ general attitudes on a given topic, allowing
product designs to
     See how their users will understand their product
     What words users will use to speak about it
     What criteria they will use to judge it




 01/13/13                         Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko   12
Feature Prioritization Focus Groups
Generally held at the beginning of the product design cycle
when the outlines of the product are clear.

These groups focus on features of the product that are most
attractive to the users, with an emphasis on why they are
appealing.

Underlying assumption of this type of focus group is that
that the participants are interested in the product, with
discussion focusing on what kinds of things they would like
the product to do for them.



 01/13/13                   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko        13
Competitive Analysis Focus Groups
Aims to uncover what attracts and repels users with respect
to competitor’s sites
     What associations do users have with the competitor?
     What aspects of the user experience they find valuable?
     Where does the product satisfy users’s needs and where does it not
     suffice?
     What emotions does the product evoke?
     How do users identify with the product?


This type of focus group is often conducted anonymously




 01/13/13                         Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko              14
Trend Explanations Focus Group
Generally held in either a re-design part of the development
process, or in response to specific emotional or functional
issues in product development

Exploring the trends of users’ behaviors, needs, and
expectations within and across products.




 01/13/13                   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko         15
01/13/13   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko   16
How to conduct Focus Groups
Assemble your team
     Make sure you have a good cross section of product, ux, marketing
     and development.
Create a schedule
     A good schedule provides sufficient time for recruiting, testing,
     analyzing and integrating results
Define your users
     Recruit participants who are your users and thus likely to provide the
     best feedback – usually 6-8
Define the scope of your research
     What is the complexity of your questions?
     What is the depth at which you wish to explore the answers?
     This will determine the number of people and the number of groups
     that need to be conducted

 01/13/13                           Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko                17
How to run your Focus Groups
Choose a topics for discussion
     On average, 3-5 topics per 90 minute focus group


Create a discussion guide

Consider the “core” questions you and your product team
are trying to answer and prioritize them

Establish roles
     Who will moderate? Who will take notes? Who will lead the
     discussion afterwards




 01/13/13                         Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko     18
Asking Good Questions
Questions should be:
      Carefully ordered, thus positioning participants within a
       certain frame of mind, containing an intuitive flow
      Non-directed: should not imply an answer. Example:
       “How difficult do you find this feature?”
      Open-ended: general enough not to constrain answers to
       a specific responses (limit yes-no questions)
      Focused: focused on specific topics you are investigating
      Personal: people love to generalize their experience to the
       bigger public; create questions that concentrate on person’s
       current behavior and opinions without many opportunities
       to project their experiences onto the general public
      Unambiguous: clear and concise, with few shades of
       meaning.

 01/13/13                       Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko            19
Example Discussion Guide
Warm up and introduction (approx. 15 min)
     Introduction of moderation
     Ice breakers for participants
     Outline of the process


Main topic discussion
     Moderate group discussion that focuses on specific questions you
     and your company have regarding a product.


Wrap-Up
     Final thoughts and reflections




 01/13/13                             Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko        20
Warm Up & Introduction Tips
 Telling participants that they were chosen to be part of
  the group allows them to feel more comfortable with one
  another
 Informing the group of the purpose of the session focuses
  their attention to the desired end goal
 Clearly set out expectations and “ground rules” for
  discussion (no blocking, interruption, flow of discussion)
 Acknowledge any potentially anxiety provoking features
  of the environment (camera, mirrored wall) to help
  people feel more comfortable
• Inform participants of their rights to participation
     Freedom to leave at any point, confidentiality of their thoughts



 01/13/13                          Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko           21
Main Discussion Tips
Probes and follow-up questions are extremely useful
     They dig deeper into any given topic
     They clarify what people mean when they state their opinions
     My definition of “useful”, “clear”, and/or “good” may not mirror
     other people’s definitions of there terms.
     Probes help create a common definition of terms, and alleviate
     potential misunderstandings between the researcher and participant.




 01/13/13                         Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko               22
Context Is King (not content)
Comfortable environment is key to a lively discussion
Limited interruptions
     After the session begins, no new person should join the session so
     that the dynamic isn’t altered by another person’s presence
Food is encouraged
     Eating is an informal activity that often breaks tension in any group
     No noisy snacks that disturb the conversation
Seating order
     Have a 10-15 minute social time before the focus group starts so the
     moderator can identify introverts, extroverts, and alpha-jerks
Videotaping advised
     Human interaction is incredible complex. Since the moderator is
     part of the group dynamic, it is helpful to videotape the sessions in
     order to capture gestures, and other subtle interactions

 01/13/13                           Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko               23
John McLaughlin is a perfect
example of a bad moderator
and a douchebag: highly
opinionated, clearly biased,
with a tendency for
dominating the discussion




    01/13/13                   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko   24
What about the moderator?
Group moderation is a skill

Basic skills any moderator should embody are:
     Respect for the participants
     Ability to listen closely to other’s perspectives
     Ability to think fast on multiple levels simultaneously.


The moderator must be able to predict the direction of the
conversation and drive it toward a desired direction,
without the participants realizing that they are being
moderated.
     This can be accomplished via moderator’s subtle cues, tone, and/or
     body language

 01/13/13                           Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko            25
Effective Moderation
Control
     Moderator should always be in control of leading discussion towards
     answers to questions, and deterring tangents
Good time management
     The flow should be monitored so that introduction of topics is at
     appropriate times, transitions are intuitive and natural.
Participant-focused
     A moderator should mediate the discussion, rather than expressing
     opinions
Respect
     All participants should feel comfortable and have a voice, alpha-jerks
     managed
Preparation
     Moderator should have sufficient knowledge of product space

 01/13/13                          Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko                 26
Effective Moderation Tips
 Spend time with participants beforehand to get a sense of who
  is quiet and might need more attention
 Stick to the guide but be flexible enough to stray away from
  the script when necessary
 Engage ALL participants in the discussion
 Avoid introducing new terminology and concepts
 Be mindful of body language
 Clarify any comments & restate ideas and opinions to ensure
  everyone is on the same page
 Probe for alternative opinions on any given topic
 Don’t dominate the discussion, allow the group to lead
 Provide the group with time to think & give a break when
  necessary
 Use humor when appropriate and keep the energy level high
01/13/13                    Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko            27
An electronics company was testing a
                             new boombox they hoped to start
                             selling. Their research included focus
                             groups where they showed the two
                             colour options: yellow and black. The
                             participants were in agreement that
                             yellow was the best colour because it is
                             vibrant and energetic. At the end of the
                             focus group they were each allowed to
                             take a boombox home and could
                             choose yellow or black.
                             They all chose black.
                                        – Steve Mulder, “The User is Always Right”



01/13/13   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko                                     28
Common Obstacles
The moderator is not an objective observer
      Moderator affects the group dynamics and discussion
Focus groups reveal the way people think and not the way
they actually behave
Opinions from focus groups may be limited to the
participants in the sessions
      The sample may be biased for more reasons than just small size
      and therefore cannot be adequately extrapolated to represent the
      bigger population
Reticent individuals are often silenced by outspoken ones
      Data may be biased toward those who speak up
“Vividness effect”
      People often provide examples of situations that are most
      emotionally vivid to them.
01/13/13                          Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko             29
Common Obstacles
Overly talkative participants
      When people are clearly talking without a purpose, ask them kindly to wrap
      up and move on: Moderate the extroverts, probe the introverts.
Group dominance (The Alpha-Jerk Effect)
      A single dominant/bullying participant can ruin the focus group
Unqualified participants
      At times people misunderstand what the participation criteria are, or
      misrepresent their experience
Tangents
      They can be useful for discussion of values and ideas, but should be wrapped
      up quickly and redirected to main discussion point
Hostility & Offensive Ideas
      Vehement disagreement or offensive ideas can lead people in the group to
      feel uncomfortable. The moderator should redirect conversation to the
      focusing on the ideas behind any given perspective: Go Meta!

01/13/13                              Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko                     30
Researchers must continually
                            be careful to avoid the trap of
                            selective perception
                            - Richard A. Krueger

01/13/13   Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko                 31
What data to collect?
Focus groups produce a ton of potentially useful
information which can be extracted by means of:
      Transcripts
      Quotations
      Observer opinions
      Models
      Videotapes


What information should be prioritized depends upon how
what form of data answers your question, and how quickly
you need to synthesize the results.




01/13/13                  Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko       32
Analysis Steps
Capture the initial hypothesis
      During the debriefing (occurring with little time lapse from focus
      group to retain memory), discuss with other observers thoughts
      regarding the groups' opinions and feedback


Transcribe and code
      Video interaction should be transcribed and themes/trends of
      opinions should be extracted via coding
Coding is a method of extrapolating ideas from the
transcripts and categorizing the responses (thus generating
quantitative data).
      Your codes (general categories) should be short, concise,
      descriptive in nature, and accurately depicting a users’ single idea.



01/13/13                           Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko                 33
Coding Framework
Top-down
      A hypothesis of what types of themes the participants’ transcripts
      will generate already exists and is confirmed using the data
      A pre-existing model is applied to the data.


Bottom-up
      The data is explored without pre-existing framework in mind,
      generating themes based on the responses in the transcript.
      The model is generated using the data.
      This methodological approach to extracting themes from focus
      group interviews is recommended since it is less biased and more
      true to the data.




01/13/13                          Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko               34
Extracting Trends in Data
Mental models
      Mental representations of how your users understand the way the
      world or a product works
Values
      What do people like and dislike and what criteria do they use to
      establish their opinions
Stories
      Stories are a powerful way that people capture their unique,
      subjective experiences, and provide details about their
      assumptions, order of doing things and ways of solving problems
Product pitfalls
      Brainstorms during focus groups can produce a list of problems
      that users experience using the product



01/13/13                          Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko             35
Getting the most out of the data

Questions to read for
       What are reasons behind people’s opinions?
       What terminology do people use and do products
        speak their users’ language?
       Where do people contradict themselves?
       When do people change their minds and how does
        that reveal their actual values and perspectives on a
        given product?
       What do people consider to be important and is the
        product that is popular actually important to them?




01/13/13                     Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko         36
Thanks!
 Will Evans
@semanticwill

Yana Kuchirko
@mslogophiliac

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Introduction to UX Research: Conducting Focus Groups

  • 2. People do not know what they want. They barely know what they need, but they definitely do not know what they want. They’re conditioned by the limited imagination of what is possible. … Most of the time, focus groups are built on the pressure of ignorance. Massimo Vignelli
  • 3. "It's really hard to design products by focus groups. A lot of times, people don't know what they want until you show it to them.” - Steve Jobs 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 3
  • 4. Let’s dispense with this little turd blossom right up front: Henry Ford never said, “If I'd asked customers what they wanted, they would have said "a faster horse,” It’s not even a useful lie! 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 4
  • 5. What are focus groups? The concept of focus groups was developed in 1930’s by psychoanalyst Ernest Dichter as a social research method Focus groups are structured interviews that quickly and inexpensively reveal a target audience’s desires, experiences, attitudes, and priorities Focus groups can be a useful technique when a company needs a lot of insight from potential or existing customers in a short amount of time 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 5
  • 6. What are focus groups? Focus groups are good at uncovering people’s desires, motivations, values, and first hand experiences. In a focus group, people generally feel comfortable revealing their thoughts and feelings, thereby sharing their views on issues and assumptions that are at the core of their experience of a product. With the right question, the right group and the right moderator, focus groups can yield useful insights. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 6
  • 7. When to do Focus Groups? In product design, focus groups are used early in the design cycle when the team is generating ideas and seeking to understand the needs of the target audience. Early in the design cycle, focus groups can help the company understand: User’s fundamental issues and perceptions of the product What users believe are the important features of the product What types of problems users experience with the product Where do users feel the product fails to meet their expectations 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 7
  • 8. When to do Focus Groups? (cont.) Later in the development process focus groups can help the company identify and prioritize features to build and release in the product Knowing why people value certain features can determine what gets developed and in what order Focus groups also serve as a platform for generating ideas of what users wish to see in future releases 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 8
  • 9. Focus Groups cannot be used to unequivocally prove or disprove a hypothesis about the user experience of a product. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 9
  • 10. When NOT to do Focus Groups? When the objective is to acquire usability information A group of people can’t provide specific information regarding product features without structured usability testing sessions When seeking to understand the perspectives of the bigger population Quantitative data that is generalizable to the bigger population requires surveys or other methodological approaches that require a large sample of participants There is no guarantee that proportion of responses in the group matches that of larger population of users Although focus groups are an excellent way to gather motivations and insights from the users, it cannot be used to unequivocally prove or disprove a hypothesis about the user experience 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 10
  • 11. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 11
  • 12. Exploratory Focus Groups Typically conducted in the beginning of a design cycle Uncover users’ general attitudes on a given topic, allowing product designs to See how their users will understand their product What words users will use to speak about it What criteria they will use to judge it 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 12
  • 13. Feature Prioritization Focus Groups Generally held at the beginning of the product design cycle when the outlines of the product are clear. These groups focus on features of the product that are most attractive to the users, with an emphasis on why they are appealing. Underlying assumption of this type of focus group is that that the participants are interested in the product, with discussion focusing on what kinds of things they would like the product to do for them. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 13
  • 14. Competitive Analysis Focus Groups Aims to uncover what attracts and repels users with respect to competitor’s sites What associations do users have with the competitor? What aspects of the user experience they find valuable? Where does the product satisfy users’s needs and where does it not suffice? What emotions does the product evoke? How do users identify with the product? This type of focus group is often conducted anonymously 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 14
  • 15. Trend Explanations Focus Group Generally held in either a re-design part of the development process, or in response to specific emotional or functional issues in product development Exploring the trends of users’ behaviors, needs, and expectations within and across products. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 15
  • 16. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 16
  • 17. How to conduct Focus Groups Assemble your team Make sure you have a good cross section of product, ux, marketing and development. Create a schedule A good schedule provides sufficient time for recruiting, testing, analyzing and integrating results Define your users Recruit participants who are your users and thus likely to provide the best feedback – usually 6-8 Define the scope of your research What is the complexity of your questions? What is the depth at which you wish to explore the answers? This will determine the number of people and the number of groups that need to be conducted 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 17
  • 18. How to run your Focus Groups Choose a topics for discussion On average, 3-5 topics per 90 minute focus group Create a discussion guide Consider the “core” questions you and your product team are trying to answer and prioritize them Establish roles Who will moderate? Who will take notes? Who will lead the discussion afterwards 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 18
  • 19. Asking Good Questions Questions should be:  Carefully ordered, thus positioning participants within a certain frame of mind, containing an intuitive flow  Non-directed: should not imply an answer. Example: “How difficult do you find this feature?”  Open-ended: general enough not to constrain answers to a specific responses (limit yes-no questions)  Focused: focused on specific topics you are investigating  Personal: people love to generalize their experience to the bigger public; create questions that concentrate on person’s current behavior and opinions without many opportunities to project their experiences onto the general public  Unambiguous: clear and concise, with few shades of meaning. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 19
  • 20. Example Discussion Guide Warm up and introduction (approx. 15 min) Introduction of moderation Ice breakers for participants Outline of the process Main topic discussion Moderate group discussion that focuses on specific questions you and your company have regarding a product. Wrap-Up Final thoughts and reflections 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 20
  • 21. Warm Up & Introduction Tips  Telling participants that they were chosen to be part of the group allows them to feel more comfortable with one another  Informing the group of the purpose of the session focuses their attention to the desired end goal  Clearly set out expectations and “ground rules” for discussion (no blocking, interruption, flow of discussion)  Acknowledge any potentially anxiety provoking features of the environment (camera, mirrored wall) to help people feel more comfortable • Inform participants of their rights to participation Freedom to leave at any point, confidentiality of their thoughts 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 21
  • 22. Main Discussion Tips Probes and follow-up questions are extremely useful They dig deeper into any given topic They clarify what people mean when they state their opinions My definition of “useful”, “clear”, and/or “good” may not mirror other people’s definitions of there terms. Probes help create a common definition of terms, and alleviate potential misunderstandings between the researcher and participant. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 22
  • 23. Context Is King (not content) Comfortable environment is key to a lively discussion Limited interruptions After the session begins, no new person should join the session so that the dynamic isn’t altered by another person’s presence Food is encouraged Eating is an informal activity that often breaks tension in any group No noisy snacks that disturb the conversation Seating order Have a 10-15 minute social time before the focus group starts so the moderator can identify introverts, extroverts, and alpha-jerks Videotaping advised Human interaction is incredible complex. Since the moderator is part of the group dynamic, it is helpful to videotape the sessions in order to capture gestures, and other subtle interactions 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 23
  • 24. John McLaughlin is a perfect example of a bad moderator and a douchebag: highly opinionated, clearly biased, with a tendency for dominating the discussion 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 24
  • 25. What about the moderator? Group moderation is a skill Basic skills any moderator should embody are: Respect for the participants Ability to listen closely to other’s perspectives Ability to think fast on multiple levels simultaneously. The moderator must be able to predict the direction of the conversation and drive it toward a desired direction, without the participants realizing that they are being moderated. This can be accomplished via moderator’s subtle cues, tone, and/or body language 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 25
  • 26. Effective Moderation Control Moderator should always be in control of leading discussion towards answers to questions, and deterring tangents Good time management The flow should be monitored so that introduction of topics is at appropriate times, transitions are intuitive and natural. Participant-focused A moderator should mediate the discussion, rather than expressing opinions Respect All participants should feel comfortable and have a voice, alpha-jerks managed Preparation Moderator should have sufficient knowledge of product space 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 26
  • 27. Effective Moderation Tips  Spend time with participants beforehand to get a sense of who is quiet and might need more attention  Stick to the guide but be flexible enough to stray away from the script when necessary  Engage ALL participants in the discussion  Avoid introducing new terminology and concepts  Be mindful of body language  Clarify any comments & restate ideas and opinions to ensure everyone is on the same page  Probe for alternative opinions on any given topic  Don’t dominate the discussion, allow the group to lead  Provide the group with time to think & give a break when necessary  Use humor when appropriate and keep the energy level high 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 27
  • 28. An electronics company was testing a new boombox they hoped to start selling. Their research included focus groups where they showed the two colour options: yellow and black. The participants were in agreement that yellow was the best colour because it is vibrant and energetic. At the end of the focus group they were each allowed to take a boombox home and could choose yellow or black. They all chose black. – Steve Mulder, “The User is Always Right” 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 28
  • 29. Common Obstacles The moderator is not an objective observer Moderator affects the group dynamics and discussion Focus groups reveal the way people think and not the way they actually behave Opinions from focus groups may be limited to the participants in the sessions The sample may be biased for more reasons than just small size and therefore cannot be adequately extrapolated to represent the bigger population Reticent individuals are often silenced by outspoken ones Data may be biased toward those who speak up “Vividness effect” People often provide examples of situations that are most emotionally vivid to them. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 29
  • 30. Common Obstacles Overly talkative participants When people are clearly talking without a purpose, ask them kindly to wrap up and move on: Moderate the extroverts, probe the introverts. Group dominance (The Alpha-Jerk Effect) A single dominant/bullying participant can ruin the focus group Unqualified participants At times people misunderstand what the participation criteria are, or misrepresent their experience Tangents They can be useful for discussion of values and ideas, but should be wrapped up quickly and redirected to main discussion point Hostility & Offensive Ideas Vehement disagreement or offensive ideas can lead people in the group to feel uncomfortable. The moderator should redirect conversation to the focusing on the ideas behind any given perspective: Go Meta! 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 30
  • 31. Researchers must continually be careful to avoid the trap of selective perception - Richard A. Krueger 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 31
  • 32. What data to collect? Focus groups produce a ton of potentially useful information which can be extracted by means of: Transcripts Quotations Observer opinions Models Videotapes What information should be prioritized depends upon how what form of data answers your question, and how quickly you need to synthesize the results. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 32
  • 33. Analysis Steps Capture the initial hypothesis During the debriefing (occurring with little time lapse from focus group to retain memory), discuss with other observers thoughts regarding the groups' opinions and feedback Transcribe and code Video interaction should be transcribed and themes/trends of opinions should be extracted via coding Coding is a method of extrapolating ideas from the transcripts and categorizing the responses (thus generating quantitative data). Your codes (general categories) should be short, concise, descriptive in nature, and accurately depicting a users’ single idea. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 33
  • 34. Coding Framework Top-down A hypothesis of what types of themes the participants’ transcripts will generate already exists and is confirmed using the data A pre-existing model is applied to the data. Bottom-up The data is explored without pre-existing framework in mind, generating themes based on the responses in the transcript. The model is generated using the data. This methodological approach to extracting themes from focus group interviews is recommended since it is less biased and more true to the data. 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 34
  • 35. Extracting Trends in Data Mental models Mental representations of how your users understand the way the world or a product works Values What do people like and dislike and what criteria do they use to establish their opinions Stories Stories are a powerful way that people capture their unique, subjective experiences, and provide details about their assumptions, order of doing things and ways of solving problems Product pitfalls Brainstorms during focus groups can produce a list of problems that users experience using the product 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 35
  • 36. Getting the most out of the data Questions to read for  What are reasons behind people’s opinions?  What terminology do people use and do products speak their users’ language?  Where do people contradict themselves?  When do people change their minds and how does that reveal their actual values and perspectives on a given product?  What do people consider to be important and is the product that is popular actually important to them? 01/13/13 Will Evans & Yana Kuchirko 36
  • 37. Thanks! Will Evans @semanticwill Yana Kuchirko @mslogophiliac