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# Six Sigma

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A brief introduction to Six Sigma

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### Six Sigma

1. 1. A brief introduction to Six Sigma - Data driven problem solvingJune 27, 2012Villads Haar Jakobsen, WTG Platform and Diagnostics 1
2. 2. Agenda • What is it actually • Purpose of Six Sigma • Example of a Six Sigma project organisation • What about all these belts? • Different Six Sigma methodologies • DMAIC • DFSS • Where could Six Sigma be used at DONG Renewables 2
3. 3. What is it actually? Six Sigma: A Metric  The "six Sigma level" of a process can be used to express its capability  How well it performs with respect to customer requirements  Defects per million opprotunities Six Sigma: A method  A well defined process and tool kit used for:  Product & service improvements  Design of products and services Six Sigma: Symbol, value, benchmark or goal  Greek letter which defines standard deviation in statistics  Standard deviation is a measure for spread/variation  The average distance of the data points to the mean 3
4. 4. Purpose of Six Sigma  To reduce variation  To work with continous improvements  To reduce cost of poor quality / reliability  To make decisions based on statistical basis Release the full potential 4
5. 5. Example of a Six Sigma project organization 5
6. 6. What about all these belts?? White belt  For managers  What can we gain from six sigma projcts  How do we understand the language of six sigma Yellow belt  Know the stages in DMAIC  Understanding of the 7 basic tools and some statistics Green belt  Know about the basic statistical tools used in six sigma  Six Sigma project manager Black belt  High level of statistical tools used in six sigma  Six sigma project manager  Coaching green belts Master black belt  Extensive experience from many six sigma projects 6
7. 7. Different Six Sigma methodologies Six Sigma DMAIC DFSS Improvement methodology Design Methodology DMADV 7
8. 8. DMAIC Process flow and objectives 8
9. 9. DMAIC Examples of tools • Problem statement • Pareto • FMEA • FMEA • Audit plan • Process map • Histogram • Histograms, • Pugh matrix • SPC • Fishone diagram • Fishbone Boxplots, Multi- • Project • Hypothesis testing • Voice of the customer • SIPOC vari charts, main inplementation • CTQs • C&E matrix effects plots, • DoE • Data collection interaction plots, • EVolutionary plan etc. Operations (EVOP) • Data quality (MSA) • Hypothesis tests • Process mapping • Capability analysis • T-tests • Capability analysis • Process stability • ANOVA (control charts) • Regression analysis 9
10. 10. What is the project D Define  Problem statement  Define the goals  What is the cost of the problem  Who are the stakeholders  What are the customer requirements  Ojective statement How does the existing process work?  How is the process and the flow Project charter 10
11. 11. Baseline and capability M Measure What is the current performance?  Understand the process behaviour  Which factors influence the output  Verify the mesurement system  Data collection  Look for patterns  Calculate the capability 11
12. 12. Potential root causes A Analyze What are the key root causes?  Identify sources of variation  Determine the critical process parameters  Develop and confirm theories using data y = f (x1, x2, x3 . . . xn) Critical Xs What possible solutions have been identified?  Models with the highest explanatory power 12
13. 13. Developement of solutions and implement I Improve Evaluate the solutions and optimize choosen solution  Which solution provides the best output for the customer  Cost benefit analysis  Perhaps it is necessary with additional experiments Quality/reliability  Optmize chosen solution Implement the solution Time Cost  Risk management  Contingency plan  Make a pilot project and compare with initial data  Implement the solution  Calculate performance (capability) 13
14. 14. Sustainable solution C Control How do we keep the benefits of the new solution  Optimize and refine solution  Make a follow up plan for the implemented solution  Monitor and control 14
15. 15. DFSS Concept and Detailed product Charter CTQs Prototype design selection design • Kano/survey • Brainstorming • FMEA • Robust design • Reliability test • Project management • FMEA screening • Reliability • Taguchi • FMEA tools • DoE • Robustness • DoE • Simulation • Project selection • QFD • Risk analysis • Specification design • SPC • Benchmarking • Benchmarking • Pareto analysis • Work design • Control plan • SIPOC • Process map • Gap analysis • Machine design • C&E matrix • Engineering design • CTQ matrix 15
16. 16. Examples of areas where Six Sigma could be used at DONG Developement/implementation Within warranty phase Out of warranty phase phase• Choose optimum supplier / • Concerns about the life of • Optimize settings component components • RCA• Evaluation of reliability • Compare performance • Improve processes• Quality inspection • When working with experiments (DoE)• RCA • Life tests – Robustness and Reliability• Improve processes• RCA• Improve processes 16
17. 17. Questions? 17
18. 18. Back up – Bathtub curve and the Weibull distribution λ Infant mortality Normal life phase Wear out phase Decreasing failure rate Constant failure rate Increasing failure rate β>5 β<1 β=1 β>3 Time Up to "5" yrs ≈ 20 ? 18
19. 19. RCA – Analysis of life data 19