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表現学習時代の生成語彙論ことはじめ

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生成語彙論の入門と、単語の表現学習、compositionalityの学習に関する入門です

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表現学習時代の生成語彙論ことはじめ

  1. 1. 2014/10/16 PFIVZX^ ¿Ó½Ǝ»: —ÐŇǖĦ!5;D ĉPreferred Infrastructure Ù¦Ʋǁ (@unnonouno)
  2. 2. ƝLJŘ Ù¦Ʋǁ (@unnonouno) ! ŪåŇĭ¸GdVfuSh€XGÁnj½Ǝ ! ĘƬĭ¸E/H05GKA' ! “‚ú߸ýŵġIBMôLjŎPFI 8
  3. 3. mrep5c}P1KA%- ! řĹƑƚ8›%3ÖĨåŇ4íƾ4A' ! pip install mrep 4S€f} 9
  4. 4. Ÿ§:Ú ! word2vecP†ù8ƄŇ:¿Ó½ƎŹK:;7%P%A %- :
  5. 5. ¿Ó½Ǝ:ÚPň3Ĉ0-!5 ƣƵ.5ăJM3LƄ Ň:+)PrWf} Į :†8ƅ%ñDJM L:4;7 ;
  6. 6. —ÐŇǖĦ Generative Lexicon (GL)
  7. 7. ®:£Ć ! —ÐŇǖĦ813:ƴƄ7šʼn ! ¿Ó½Ǝ5Êů:Ð5:¨Ē 18EA%3Œ:Ú OJ7, =
  8. 8. The Generative Lexicon [Pustejovsky95] ! James PustejovskyĀdž ! ÄƸA4;ƟDA)Q4% - ! TimeML:ĀdžŽ4EĐL ! „Å; ¿Ó813:ÚP %Iƙ03-:40K %- ÊÌ5¥% http://www.cs.brandeis.edu/~jamesp/
  9. 9. „Ň:„7J·¦é—:„ [·¦05] ! ·¦ǍƆ—ÐŇǖÊů Ħ ! ®ƟQ4LǕƥ† ; _ ; ?
  10. 10. Æ8ħă8%-´ē ! ·¦ǍƆ—ÐŇǖÊůĦ[·¦05]:Û12 ƽ ! James Pustejovsky, Introduction to Generative Lexicon. [Pustejovsky05] ! ě„ƲëGenerative Lexicon:NjÇ [ě„ 06] 76
  11. 11. ɋ:Êů813ă3BI ƛŸ:8‹0- ŒP8ƍ- ¥ƺ48‹0- ! ‰č8ɋ5å03EĬî5%3:ɋ5æŲ 5%3:ɋL 77
  12. 12. gR:Êů813ă3BI Ps€V4Ǒ0- Jš03«# ! wj5%3:gR5‹Ò'L”Ï5%3:gR:Ê ůL ! é:ɋ:ŗ5™I7!5ĸ!037
  13. 13. 78
  14. 14. ! ă3BL5ƄŇ;1:ƌ7LĎćP â03L!58Ñ2 ! ċOMœ8I03ÊůģO03L ! !:Êů:ģµ8;ęª:ĨƏÎ:I7E: ĐL ! %Eƌ7LåŇ4Eǃ-ÓłL 79
  15. 15. —ÐŇǖĦ:㜠! 1:Ňǖ8ęª:ļŋPâ03L ! đǓ8Ī3+:ļŋJƦ§ƌ7L Êů—Ð#M3L5ăL 7: ɋ Ĭî:ɋ æŲ:ɋ $_
  16. 16. ŅʙŸƌĺŇ5êĺŇ;ĔĖ#ML ! êĺŇ;Êů¢8ŒJ:¨ĒPâ03LÔ çÇ ! -A-A™Ÿ870-Ň;™ŸƌĺŇ5% 3ĔĖ#ML 7;
  17. 17. Ù¦;7*!ÚÝ8ŰůPâ03L Ī¹‡ƄŇGƣŇ~r}:ÊůPA Ʊ7Ë݉ŏê5ă3L %(¿þņ6™Êů %(¿þ™.6ņÊů 7
  18. 18. Ňǖ:ĝŃļŋWU|Rļŋ5E:P ăL ŇPń­'LƠÎGł:ğ 1. ļÐWU|RConstitutive ! ƋēG£Ć76Œ4ˆÒ3LPā' 2. řĚWU|RFormal ! +MŒ7:‡ì:NjōPā' 3. ²¢WU|RTelic ! ÁĊG²¢Pā' 4. ƱWU|RAgentive ! +MP—Bˆ'¾ÿGÄƉPā' 7=
  19. 19. Œ‚ģ+. 7
  20. 20. ŗò:WU|Rļŋ 7? 1. ļÐ`Syǀ k€g} 2. řĚŀKîÁ nj 3. ²¢ŀLĄĩ 'L 4. ƱæB©3L ÿL @1AKN`KBC0 L4GM*!JDIBQS[^T
  21. 21. Œ4!%-úßĠÇ7:
  22. 22. ŔŌ:ò;ş ŔŌ:ò;ngş ! ò;Ŋ¾'L5ƿǏ:Ƥø!!4; ²¢WU|RĐL ! +:-D…;«:đ:Êů.5øDŽ4 L 86
  23. 23. ƇőƿǏ:ƤøPįŁ'L5Y€f87L
  24. 24. ƭǎä4Dž3-Q.I Ɯö4 lhtS
  25. 25. 60/
  26. 26. ä4
  27. 27. Ɯö4
  28. 28. ƭǎ.Jä:†8LƜö:†.I ! Ɯö;ä8LE:5ƿǏ:ƤøPįŁ%3L ! ƶ8ärbg8703-Jƭǎ:^| o;­J8ÀŪ 1Ƨ:åŇĭ¸5:PGK-9 87 ^[]U5@CLASSICAOP
  29. 29. 7Q4WU|RļŋPăL:
  30. 30. ! ê:ƄŇ:Êů8¨%3é8•-I7ƿǏ:• øūĢ'L ! +:-D-Eáơ#M-:I7¿Ó4Êů ª0-K+0K7đĖ:Êů87L!5ĐL ! !:ƿǏ:•øJ³ï:đ†4:Êů—Ð# ML:4;7 88
  31. 31. begin8;į×:Êů—Ð#ML begin the meeting begin a dance begin the book begin the movie ! +E+Ebegin:58;‹ƒGł4;
  32. 32. ! beginį×:ÊůPâ03L5ĈIKđǓ8Ī 3Êů—Ð#ML5ăL?Ū 89
  33. 33. ęÐco-composition begin
  34. 34. the book 1. begin:žN8;łÒL;(.book;ł4 ;7 , 2. bookPł5%3øDŽ%I`SqÍÈ 3. WU|RJúßPÂ03L ‰¶:—Ðq^P 5Ž= 8:
  35. 35. cf. ƿǏ:ŝģŶ double x =
  36. 36. 10 1. double:žN8;double:ŞÒL;(.10; double4;7 , 2. 10Pdouble:Ş5%3øDŽ%I 3. Vxf:œ¯:úßPÂ03L ‰¶:—Ðq^P13*,5Ž= 8;
  37. 37. ħă³;—ÐŇǖĦ8;ĴK31:ļŋL ĝŃļŋ;—ÐŇǖĦ:41ļŋ:†:11 ! Ƴļŋ ! łļŋ ! ĝŃļŋ ! Ňǖżƕļŋ ®;ėŷ%A'I 8
  38. 38. !!A4:A5D ! ĥŇǖ8;+:ċOMœ8¨'LúßPâ0 3LWU|Rļŋ ! ŹŴ:ƄŇ5śćªK:øDŽ478 !:WU|R:úßPċ03¥%ÊůP—Ð 'LęÐ 8=
  39. 39. ŪåŇĭ¸:†4—ÐŇǖĦ;6MJċOM 3-
  40. 40. ! åŇĭ¸½ƒ:«430÷ ! ACL:«4300÷ 8 ÊÌ5Ĥ7
  41. 41. /H05!M;‚ģ ! 11:Ňǖ4!MJ:úß 5 . $./LHE, @A M5BAM
  42. 42. +3 8? 45. $.#/R%BFSY]W2M( $
  43. 43. WU|Rļŋ;‚ĨũdVfJ¾Ʈõ%- ! Web:íƾóČJ…’4ÿÐ%-m`€ Pܹ%3ǐˆ'Lœ¯ [Cimiano+07] ! ęĸǔ°5ðǒG¾ǒ:ƠÎPĝƯ8%3{ €V€X½ƎPƂ¹'Lœ¯ [ĻŖ+12] 5;ċ:EƴƄ4;7#+ 96
  44. 44. Ĥ%ƖJ•7%3BL ! ƄŇ6:I7ƃ:ƄŇ5‰Ƽ8ċOML 5!58›'LüŭP±ųµ%3L ! 6:I7ƄŇ5ċOML8I03ƄŇ: ÊůEģOL 97
  45. 45. !:Ú6!4 Ÿ§: Statistical Semantics:Ú8ǃ3L 98
  46. 46. !!4‰°—ÐŇǖĦJŮM3 Êů:Ð:ÚP%A' 99
  47. 47. Statistical Semantics:#J Statistical Semantics is the study of how the statistical patterns of human word usage can be used to figure out what people mean, at least to a level sufficient for information access”(ACL wiki) ! ŹŴƄŇ:ˆÓǔ°76:IJè¢7ÎŃJ+:Ň: ÊůPăL ! ‹ƚ‘øGhz{}ibf76:’¯¹JML 9:
  48. 48. ƄŇ:rWf}¿Ó ! Ÿ§:Ú;ƄŚ:ƄŇ:ÊůP¿Ó%- ! ®§;ŹŴƄŇ5:¨Ē4ÊůģOLÚ7: 4/(J7Lo~]:Êů67 L:
  49. 49. 9;
  50. 50. —ÐŇǖĦ5Statistical Semantics:¨Ē ! —ÐŇǖĦ ! ĝ¡:đǓ8LƄŇ:ˆÓ:ÊůPă3L ! 5+:I7ģµPĸ!'-D:Ňǖ:ļ ŋPă3L ! Statistical Semantics ! ŹŴƄŇ:‘Ɯ8I03‰Ɣ¢7+:ƄŇ:Êů Pă3L ! ƀ±¢7ƄŇ:ˆÓ8›'LÊů8åſ%37 ®J'LI 9
  51. 51. Principle of compositionality (Frege1892] … the meaning of a complex expression is determined by the meanings of its constituent expressions and the rules used to combine them (wikipedia
  52. 52. )
  53. 53. 9=
  54. 54. ·Š#Q:{SgA5A03L https://speakerdeck.com/mamoruk/a-tensor-based-factorization-model-of-semantic-compositionality 9
  55. 55. ¿ÓrWf}:Ð;ĵ%ĕIKƻĕķ [Mitchell+08] ! ĵ%ĕGƻĕ76rWf}:Ðœ¯Pılj ! ÇƑ5:ƻĕMultiplicative¬0/F0- 9?
  56. 56. Statistical Semantics5:¨Ē ! Statistical SemanticsŸ§:£Ć;6/J 5å5#-(:rWf}PƮõ'LŎŠ ! Compositionality:ŎŠ;+:rWf}: :ŎŠ ĞœP™8øœØEL%¿Ó½Ǝ:ˆÓ 4ƁK‡KP•)3L :6
  57. 57. Êů:ÐP‹ƚ4¿Ó'L (MV-RNN) [Socher +12] ! ĥƄŇ8;rWf}5‹ƚ›Ī'L ! ŵƹ#ML5ƪ:‹ƚP¼’:rWf}8ƻ3 #J8žĶř7ģŶ f PŦż¢8‹ ! RootA4ƗKľ'5đ:¿ÓrWf}õJML :7
  58. 58. GGd€_}. [Cruys+13] ! ÆŇ¾ǒ²¢Ň:31Pd€_}Pċ03æ) 3L:.5ăL :8
  59. 59. Dynamic Convolutional Neural Network [Kalchbrenner+14] ! CNNPċ03ƄŇ:A5AKPæB‡ 3 ! ļđÞ4;7Żǃ:ŜČõJML
  60. 60. :9
  61. 61. ƇőCNN5compositionality ! Ŀ~Sy4;ŧD3ijÏ¢ƄƷ7úß ! ˜Ă:~Sy87L8¶M3+MJæBO#K IKƣƵ7Êů:LúßPûŭ%3L :: Layer1 Layer3 Layer5 [Zelier+14]OP'
  62. 62. åŇĭ¸;ĸÔņ 4 nW^}Tb[¤‘ǂ źřŸƑƄŇ–Ú ¿Ó
  63. 63. ƄŇo~]đ ‘ø'LæB‡ L M- :; M-
  64. 64. !:œŐ8—ÐŇǖĦ:ü•Pď)7 ! —ÐŇǖĦ;CompositionalityP…’4űƘ% 3±ų2L-D8Ľ¸#M-¸Ħ5•M7
  65. 65. ! šƕ½Ǝ76:m{aSvZofĸ+7 ®!+ĜŨ:ü•GŹŴ‘¦P•ą' :
  66. 66. Ãà:Ú ƣƵ.5ăJM3LƄ Ň:+)PrWf} Į :†8ƅ%ñDJM L:4;7 :=
  67. 67. ęÐP¿ÓrWf}85K!C [Tsubaki+13] companyM JMrun run companyM) run LOQ ! ƪƪ8ŕŢPſ@%3¥%rWf}PÿL ! 4-rWf}JÊů:Ð‹OML : run companyM Mrun company LOQ runM JMcompany Mcompany '48
  68. 68. ƄŇ:Ð8›'L1:ŁÔ ! —ÐŇǖĦ ! åŇÓłPűƘ%3Awe}µ%I5'L īB ! Ť:׸we} ! űƘ#M-åŇe`P‡’ń­'LI7we }:ŬƘ ! ¿Ó½Ǝųšƕ½Ǝų ! ļÐ5¿Ó:½ƎP™8‹5%3L !MJ:RSeR;ƞţ8¨Ē%3L :?
  69. 69. A5D ! —ÐŇǖĦ5;
  70. 70. ! Ňǖ;8›'LÀƊº7üŭJđǓ8Ī3Ê ů—Ð#ML5ăL ! Ň:Êů:Ð8¨'LŎŠ ! ƄŇ:¿ÓrWf}PÐ%3ƣ¿Ó:ÊůP ÿL ! ¿Ó½Ǝpv8ŀ03®İ‹03L åŇ½:ü•5åŇĭ¸:¥%’¯:㏠E05ÕC
  71. 71. ;6
  72. 72. ƓƢK5$A%- ;7
  73. 73. ħăđƫ (1/3) ! [Pustejovsky95] James Pustejovsky. The Generative Lexicon. MIT Press. ! [·¦05] ·¦ǍƆ. (4+$. N%ˆư ! [Pustejovsky05] James Pustejovsky. Introduction to Generative Lexicon. Foundations of SemanticsƩĺ´ē. http://www.cs.brandeis.edu/~jamesp/classes/LING130/ ! [ě„06] ě„Ʋë. Generative Lexicon2. Ɛ:ğ†NJ̓:ŏÌƈ ;8
  74. 74. ħăđƫ(2/3) ! [Cimiano+07] Philipp Cimiano, Johanna Wenderoth. Automatic Acquisition of Ranked Qualia Structures from the Web. ACL2007 ! [ĻŖ+12] ĻŖ˜ƨ, ·Šť, ě„Ʋë. (4$ (!')
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