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Introduction Nuclear energy originates from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called fission. At the power plant, the fission process is used to generate heat for producing steam, which is used by a turbine to generate electricity.
Introduction We have learned a great deal about how to release nuclear energy; how to control it, and how to make use of it. We have even learned to take it for granted. But we have not yet learned to live with it. Nuclear energy, in all its aspects is already shaping the world.
History Discovery of uranium : (Martin Klaproth 1789) Discovery of x-rays : (Wilhelm Rontgen in 1895) Polonium and radium: ( Pierre and Marie Curie discovery 1896) Henri Becquerel : (alpha and beta particles 1896)
History Ernest Rutherford (1902) Frederick Soddy (1911 ) James Chadwick (1932) Otta Hahn and Fritz Strass man (1938) Niels Bohr (1940s)
Fission reaction Although they are tiny, atoms have a large amount of energy holding their nuclei together. Certain isotopes of some elements can be split and will release part of their energy as heat. This splitting is called fission. The heat released in fission can be used to help generate electricity in power plants. Uranium-235 (U-235) is one of the isotopes that fissions easily.
Fission reaction During fission, U-235 atoms absorb loose neutrons. This causes U-235 to become unstable and split into two light atoms called fission products. Fig .1
Fission reaction Two or three neutrons are released along with the heat. These neutrons may hit other atoms, causing more fission
chain reaction A series of fissions is called a chain reaction A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place
Self-Sustaining chain reaction. If enough uranium is brought together under the right conditions, a continuous chain reaction occurs. This is called a self-sustaining chain reaction. A self-sustaining chain reaction creates a great deal of heat, which can be used to help generate electricity.
Types of nuclear energy Constructive nuclear energy Destructive nuclear energy
constructive nuclear energy Constructive nuclear measurement methods are commonly used to control and characterize radioactive waste packages. The cleaning up of nuclear facilities should be entirely integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle.
Constructive nuclear energy Three non-destructive assay methods which are used. X-ray radiography Passive neutron measurement Gamma-ray spectrometry
X-ray radiography Due to the high number of drums to be controlled, the X-ray radiography setup must be able to produce a result in a short X-rays are emitted by an industrial generator and are collimated. While the drum slowly scrolls in front of the generator, detectors acquire the attenuated X-rays, leading to a 2D picture of the internal content of the drum.
X-ray radiography The scrolling speed must be compatible with the measured data transfer speed between the detectors and their memory card.
Passive neutron measurement The second measurement step used along the drum conveyor consists in passive neutron coincidence counting. Usually, passive neutron assays involve the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons emitted by even nuclides (238Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu, 242Cm )and neutrons resulting from (α,n) reactions with light nuclides (O, F, B). The presence of high α-activity radio nuclides (234U, 238Pu, 240Pu) .
Applications: 1 :Food and Agriculture: Leading organizations have been working on the technology to increase agricultural production, improve food availability and quality, reduce production costs and minimize pollution of food crops. 2 :Tracing Pollutants: Radioisotopes can be actively used for tracing the pollutants present in air. The dangerous residues of the radioisotope present even in small amounts in air can be very harmful to humans.
Destructive nuclear energy Many researches are going on under the nuclear atomic field. The nuclear energy cannot be replaced by any other means of energy, since the cost will be more to set up wind mills to generate same amount of energy. Nuclear power is used in many fields including medical applications.
Destructive nuclear energy The fact is that the atomic power is produced along with the radioactive emissions. The emission is very harmful to the human beings. When an atom is bombarded, it can create more damage to human life and property. Since it is continuous process, the effect will last for long time. The nuclear reactors should be provided with primary safety measures.
Applications: 3: Human Health: One very common application is in the treatment of cancer, i.e., through the use of radiotherapy. Also, small amounts of radioisotope tracers are used for diagnostic and research purposes. The radioisotopes aid in measuring the concentration of various enzymes, some drugs, hormones and many other substances that are present in the human blood.
Applications: 4: Power Sources: This energy also provides power to the satellites used for navigation. 5: Determination of Age: The most interesting use of the nuclear energy is that it can be used by the archaeologists, geologists and anthropologists in determining the age of rocks, insects, etc.
Applications: 6: Its Use in Space: Both fission and fusion of nuclear power is actively used in providing power for the missions in space. It generates higher velocities that increases the speed of rockets. 7: Sterilization: Gamma emissions can be used for the sterilization of medical supplies like cotton, bandages, gloves used for surgery, syringes, burn dressings, etc.
References: www.ne.doe.gov/pdfFiles/History.pdf. http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf117_gnep.html. Energy Research Institute, 2010. http://www.chinanews.com/ny/2011/02-28/2873748.shtml. http://www.india-uschambersfl.com/2011/08/nuclear- power-constructive-or.html. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1994. Chinese Academy of Engineering, 2011. http://www.chinanews.com/ny/2011/02-28/2873748.shtml. Energy Research Institute, 2010. Get EntertaineRead more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/uses-of- nuclear-energy.html