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Nuclear Engineering ANS Outreach


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Principles of Nuclear Energy, Radiation Safety, Fission Power Generation, Fusion, Nuclear Medicine, Jobs, etc.

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Nuclear Engineering ANS Outreach

  1. 1. What is Nuclear Engineering?<br />American Nuclear Society<br />Purdue Student Chapter<br />1<br />
  2. 2. This is it, right?<br />2<br />What is <br />Nuclear <br />Engineering?<br />
  3. 3. Nuclear engineering is harnessing the power of the atom to do work<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Early History<br />450 BC: Democritus termed atomos as the “smallest indivisible particle of matter”<br />Early models of the atom:<br />John Dalton, 1803: ‘Cannonball’ like atoms<br />JJ Thomson, 1904: Plum pudding model<br />After his 1897 discovery of the electron<br />
  5. 5. Discovering the Nucleus <br />Bad news for Thomson<br />Plum pudding was disproved by Rutherford with his classic backscattering experiment<br />This proved the existence of the nucleus in 1911<br />
  6. 6. Discovering Electrons<br />Enter Niels Bohr<br />Electrons must have energy levels<br />Proposes planetary model of the atom based on Rutherford’s<br />Math checks out for light elements<br />
  7. 7. Discovering Radiation<br />1896: Henri Becquerel discovers that uranium emits gamma rays<br />In the following years, Marie Curie finds more radioactive elements, like radium<br />
  8. 8. Discovering Fission<br />Hahn and Meitner discover fission in 1938<br />Fermi conducts first successful chain reaction at the University of Chicago in December, 1942<br />
  9. 9. First Nuclear Weapons<br />Manhattan Project (1945) <br />“Little Boy” – uranium device dropped on Hiroshima<br />“Fat Man” – plutonium device dropped on Nagasaki<br />
  10. 10. First Nuclear Power<br />1951: EBR-1 in Idaho is first reactor to generate electricity<br />1957: Shippingport Reactor in Pennsylvania is the first commercial nuclear power plant in U.S.<br />
  11. 11. Radiation<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />11<br />
  12. 12. The Atom<br />12<br />electrons<br />neutrons<br />protons<br />nucleus<br />
  13. 13. Gamma Radiation<br />13<br />γ<br />
  14. 14. Alpha Radiation<br />14<br />α<br />
  15. 15. Beta Radiation<br />15<br />β<br />
  16. 16. Neutron Radiation<br />16<br />n<br />
  17. 17. Radiation Damage<br />
  18. 18. How does radiation damage happen?<br />4 kinds of radiation:<br />Alpha, Beta, Neutron<br />Gamma<br />¾ are PARTICLES<br />Primary mode of damage:<br />COLLISIONAL<br />~ Billiard Balls<br />Damage is a function of:<br />KINETIC ENERGY TRANSFER<br />[1]<br />
  19. 19. Biological Radiation Damage<br />The damage process<br />Incident particles interact with the material<br />Cause ionizations<br />Change/Destroy Molecules<br />Biological materials do not have a crystal lattice to add strength<br />Much more readily damaged<br />[3]<br />
  20. 20. Biological effects, continued [4]<br />With incident radiation cells can be:<br />Unchanged<br />Damaged<br />Damage can be repaired, can return to normal functioning<br />Damage can be repaired, cell functions are off-normal<br />Can damage other cells, can reproduce unhealthy cells, can be unable to reproduce<br />Killed <br />The number and type of cells damaged or killed determines the impact of a radiation does to biological materials <br />
  21. 21. How do you protect yourself from radiation?<br />21<br />Shielding<br />Distance<br />Time<br />Amount<br />
  22. 22. Radiation Shielding<br />22<br />α<br />β<br />γ<br />n<br />lead<br />atom<br />paper<br />aluminum<br />
  23. 23. How do you detect radiation?<br />23<br />
  24. 24. Answer: Detectors<br />There are many types of detectors<br />Today we will use a Geiger-Müller Counter<br />Basic concept:<br />Radiation enters chamber<br />Ionizes the gas<br />Creates ions that are attracted to the wire <br />
  25. 25. Geiger Counter<br />25<br />click!<br />
  26. 26. Radiation is everywhere<br />26<br />cosmic<br />rays<br />concrete<br />x-rays<br />earth<br />food<br />
  27. 27. Quantum mechanics<br />
  28. 28. Want to split an atom? Look at your Television!<br />CRT (giant TV’s) take electrons and speeds them up.<br />They’re smashed into phosphor molecules on the screen<br />Collision releases energy and lights the TV screen<br /><br />
  29. 29. How a high- energy accelerator works<br />Differences from the TV?<br />Particles are bigger<br />Particles move faster (near speed of light!)<br />Move in a circular track<br />Collision results in more subatomic particles<br />How it works?<br />Particles are accelerated using EM waves like a surfer riding a swell<br />The more energetic the particle, the easier it is to see the structures.<br />Example? If you hit a cue ball in pool and make it go faster the rack of balls will scatter faster and further.<br /><br />
  30. 30. What is detected?<br />There are many types of detectors<br />Things that can be detected:<br />Number of particles <br />Energy<br />Mass<br /><br />
  31. 31. Nuclear energy<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />31<br />
  32. 32. I-135<br />neutrons<br />U-235<br />U-236<br />Tc-99<br />Fission<br />32<br />
  33. 33. Fission Chain Reaction<br />33<br />
  34. 34. 34<br />H-2<br />n<br />α<br />H-3<br />Fusion<br />
  35. 35. BWR: Boiling Water Reactor<br />
  36. 36. Nuclear Power Plants in the U.S.<br />
  37. 37. Nuclear Power Facts<br />Even though no new plants have been built, the percentage of US electricity generated has increased!<br />Radiation from nuclear power has never caused a death or cancer in the United States<br />A nuclear power plant cannot undergo a nuclear explosion<br />
  38. 38. Inertial Confinement Fusion<br />
  39. 39. Magnetic Confinement Fusion<br />
  40. 40. Challenges for Nuclear Fusion Power<br />Materials challenges<br />First wall<br />High-power superconducting magnets<br />High energy neutron fluxes<br />Lithium blankets, neutron absorbers<br />Control of plasma<br />We can do this if we solve the materials challenges<br />
  41. 41. Nuclear Fuel Cycle<br />41<br />Mining & Milling – Uranium Oxide (U3O8)<br />Conversion to UF6<br />Enrichment to 3-4% U-235<br />Fabrication in to Fuel Assemblies <br />Burned in Reactor<br />Storage in Spent Fuel Pool<br />Dry Cask Storage<br />Permanent Underground Storage<br />Reprocessing to Make New Fuel<br />
  42. 42. Energy Equivalence<br />1 Uranium <br />Pellet<br />3 Barrels<br />of Oil<br />17,000 Cubic Feet<br />of Natural Gas<br />1 Ton of Coal<br />42<br />
  43. 43. Energy Equivalence<br />1000 MWe<br />Nuclear Power Plant<br />1 km2<br />1000 Windmills<br />100 km2<br />Solar Cells<br />5000 km2<br />43<br />
  44. 44. Nuclear Power vs. Nuclear Bomb<br />44<br />U-235<br />U-238<br />
  45. 45. Solving Problems<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />
  46. 46. Radioactive Waste<br />Low-level waste: items that have become contaminated or radioactive<br />Contaminated protective shoe covers and clothing<br />Wiping rags, mops, filters, tools<br />Luminous dials<br />Medical tubes, swabs, injection needles, syringes, and laboratory animal carcasses and tissues<br />Low-level waste is disposed underground<br />46<br />
  47. 47. Spent Nuclear Fuel<br />About 1/3 of the core is removed every 12-18 months<br />Spent fuel is extremely radioactive!<br />Stored in spent fuel pool at plant for 5 years to cool<br />Moved to dry storage once pool is full<br />Currently have 60,000 metric tons of spent fuel (covers a football field, 7 yards deep)<br />What are we going to do with it?<br />
  48. 48. Nuclear Non-Proliferation<br />Nuclear material from the nuclear fuel cycle could be diverted to a weapons program<br />Atomic Bomb<br />Need to chemically separate or enrich material<br />Takes a lot of time, money, and technology<br />Dirty Bomb: disperse radioactive materials<br />International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)<br /> Facilitates peaceful use of nuclear technology<br />Protects nuclear material around the world and verifies that it is not diverted<br />
  49. 49. Homeland Security<br />CIA works with IAEA to detect nuclear weapons<br />Seismic monitoring can detect nuclear weapons testing (like in North Korea)<br />Portal radiation monitors <br /> scan incoming cargo<br />49<br />
  50. 50. Nuclear Medicine<br />
  51. 51. What is Nuclear Medicine?<br />Nuclear Medicine is a branch of medicine that uses radioisotopes to: diagnose, treat, and track diseases in the human body.<br />Basic Principle:<br />Certain organs and tissue uptake specific isotopes or chemical compounds<br />Radioisotopes are combined with pharmaceuticals that will be absorbed in the tissue or organ in question<br />
  52. 52. Diagnose<br />Imaging based on function and physiology, not solely on anatomy.<br />Scan types:<br />Planar<br />SPECT: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography<br />PET: Positron Emission Tomography<br />CAT and MRI scans do not use radioactivity<br />
  53. 53. Normal PET/CT<br />
  54. 54. Abnormal PET/CT <br />
  55. 55. Treatment<br />Radiopharmaceuticals emit ionizing radiation that travels a short distance in the body<br />Minimizes unwanted side effects and damage to noninvolved organs and tissues <br />Some Examples: <br />Iodine-131 : hyperthyroidism<br />Yttrium-90: Lymphoma<br />Strontium-89: bone pain treatment<br />
  56. 56. How it Works<br />Imaging<br />Administration<br />IV<br />Inhaled as a gas<br />Swallowed<br />The tracer accumulates, and then is imaged with gamma cameras<br />Treatment<br />Administration<br />IV<br />Inhaled as a gas<br />Swallowed<br />The tracer accumulates, and then decays, delivering localized dose<br />
  57. 57. What happens after invivo treatment? <br />Treatments are generally outpatient treatments<br />The treatment will continue to decay while in your body <br />Isotopes are choose with have short half lives, so they decay quickly<br />Your body also has a natural “filtration system” that removes the tracers from your system, known as a biological half-life. <br />
  58. 58. Applications of Nuclear Technology<br />58<br />
  59. 59. Space Application: Power<br />Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RGT)<br />Long life power source (months-100yr)<br />Alpha decay heats thermocouples for electricity<br />New Horizons<br />Mission to Pluto<br />RTG<br />Apollo 14<br />
  60. 60. Space Application: Power<br />Fission Surface Power Source<br />Fission Reactor to be used on the surface of the moon or mars<br />Would be used to power a permanent outpost<br />Liquid metal coolant used instead of water<br />
  61. 61. Space Applications: Propulsion<br />Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engines<br />Propellant gas (hydrogen) is heated in a reactor and is pushed through a nozzle<br />Ion Propulsion<br />Ionized hydrogen gas (protons) are accelerated by a strong electric field powered by a nuclear reactor or RTG<br />NERVA rocket<br />Ion Engine<br />
  62. 62. Consumer Products: Smoke Detectors<br />Smoke Detectors<br />An alpha emitter (Am-241) is used in smoke detection circuit<br />Alphas ionize an electric plate<br />Smoke stops ionization of the plate which sets off alarm <br />NOTE: To properly dispose of a smoke detector, just send it back to the manufacturer.<br />
  63. 63. Consumer Products: Self-Powered Lighting<br />Beta emitters (such as Tritium) are combined with a phosphorescent material to produce light<br />Can make lights that run continuously for 20 years<br />Example products<br />Watch dials<br />Emergency signs<br />Gun scopes<br />
  64. 64. Consumer Products: Irradiated Gemstones<br />Color in gemstones is caused by small imperfections in the crystal structure <br />Most types of radiation (especially neutrons) can effectively change the color of a gemstone to something more desirable<br />
  65. 65. Manufacturing: Radiation Hardening<br />Radiation causes small defects in a material which hardens it<br />Gamma radiation is most commonly used because it can penetrate deep into materials<br />Examples:<br />Polymerization of plastics<br />Protective coatings for hard wood floors<br />
  66. 66. Food Irradiation<br />Food irradiation:<br />Does not “kill” or spoil the food (it is already dead)<br />Does not make the food radioactive<br />Does kill living things in the food (bacteria, viruses)<br />Irradiation can prevent:<br />Food borne diseases<br />Food infestation<br />Food contamination and spoilage<br />66<br />
  67. 67. Imaging<br />Neutron radiography<br />Neutron imaging can be used to find cracks in thick materials such as bridges or aircraft wings<br />Neutrons can also provide clearer images than X-rays<br /><ul><li>Ground Imaging
  68. 68. Neutrons are used in oil well logging
  69. 69. Neutrons are also used to determine the water concentration of soil before building heavy structures</li></ul>X-ray image<br />Neutron image<br />
  70. 70. Careers Opportunities<br />
  71. 71. More nuclear professionals are needed<br />The demand exceeds the supply of graduates trained in nuclear science and technology<br />Many nuclear professionals are retiring and need to transfer their knowledge to the next generation of experts.<br />Scholarships, awards, and honors exist for student education and research<br />Nuclear Engineers have the 3rd highest median income among the engineering professions at $102,000/year<br />
  72. 72. Government and National Security<br />Nuclear Regulatory Commission<br />Department of Energy<br />Research at national labs<br />Homeland security<br />Central Intelligence Agency<br />NASA<br />
  73. 73. Military<br />Navy<br />Department of Defense<br />Naval reactor research and development<br />
  74. 74. Nuclear Power Plants<br />Reactor Operator<br />Core Designer<br />Safety Analysis<br />Radiation Protection<br />
  75. 75. Power Industry<br />Reactor vendors<br />Engineering firms<br />Designer, core analysis, engineering support of nuclear power plants<br />
  76. 76. Medical<br />Hospitals or research<br />Nuclear Pharmacy (radioactive tracers)<br />Radiation Therapy (cancer)<br />Positron Emission Tomography (PET)<br />Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)<br />DNA Sequencing<br />
  77. 77. Purdue Nuclear Engineering<br />
  78. 78. Research Areas<br />Ultraintense Laser Science and Technology<br /> Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment<br />Radiation Materials and Surface Interactions<br />Nuclear Detection and Remote Sensing<br />Radiation Shielding for Space Applications<br />Thermal Hydraulics and Reactor Safety<br />Fuel Cycle and Waste Management<br />Hydrogen and Fuel Cell<br />Nuclear Systems Simulation<br />Applied Intelligent Systems<br />Reactor Fusion<br />Reactor Physics<br />
  79. 79. First Year Engineering<br />Introduction to Engineering<br />Calculus I and II<br />Chemistry I and II<br />Physics I and II<br />English<br />Communications<br />Computer Science<br />
  80. 80. Nuclear Engineering Curriculum<br />Math (4)<br />Intro to Nuclear Engr.<br />Mechanical Engr. (3)<br />Radiation Lab<br />Materials (2-3 & Lab)<br />Neutron Physics (2)<br />Thermal-Hydraulics (2)<br />Fluid Mechanics Lab<br />Linear Circuit Analysis<br />Reactor Lab<br />Nuclear Power Systems<br />Nuclear Reactor Theory<br />Colloquium Series<br />Technical Electives (6)<br />General Electives (6)<br />Senior Design (2)<br />
  81. 81. <ul><li>Only nuclear reactor in Indiana
  82. 82. Used for research and teaching
  83. 83. Get to operate it senior year!</li></ul>PUR-1<br />
  84. 84. Questions?<br />Nuclear Engineering is…<br />?<br />
  85. 85. Sources<br />American Nuclear Society<br />U.S. Department of Energy<br />U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission<br />Nuclear Energy Institute<br />International Atomic Energy Agency<br />American Wind Energy Association<br />World Nuclear Association<br />NASA<br />
  86. 86. Three Mile Island Accident – Pennsylvania 1979<br />Cooling malfunction caused part of the core to melt, destroyed reactor<br />Some radioactive gas was released a couple of days after the accident, but not above background levels to local residents<br />No injuries or adverse health effects<br /><br />
  87. 87. Chernobyl Accident – Ukraine 1986<br />Flawed reactor design, operated by inadequately trained personnel, unsafe operation<br />Steam explosion and fire released 5% of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere <br />28 people died within four months from radiation or thermal burns, 19 have subsequently died, and about 9 deaths from thyroid cancer: total 56 fatalities<br />Damaged reactor currently contained in sarcophagus<br />New sturdy steel containment to be built soon<br /><br />