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Nuclear Weapons Research Paper
Nuclear Weapons
A Nuclear weapon is any weapon that gets its destructive power from the transformation of matter in
atoms into energy. They include missiles, bombs, artillery shells, mines and torpedoes. Another
name for nuclear weapons are
Atomic bombs or Hydrogen bombs. The United States was the first country to ever use a Nuclear
weapon in battle against Japan.
The major arguments for a test ban was first proposed in the 1950Г•s.
Today, however, the stopping of radioactive fallout and the superpower arms race are still in
negotiation. Nations have sought to limit the testing of nuclear weapons to protect people and the
environment from nuclear radiation and to slow...show more content...
They find their reason as a lame excuse to start setting off explosions again. The treaty plays a
very important role in creating a barrier to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. The two biggest
problems are with nuclear weapons nowadays is that testing isnГ•t necessary to develop a workable,
Hiroshima–type fission bomb in this age of computers and wide spread access to nuclear data, and
India nor Pakistan, the two most worrisome nuclear powers is likely to sign any deal at all.
The United States, Great Britain, Russia, and France have joined a moratorium on all testing. Only
China continues to develop lightweight, multiple warheads that could be deployed on submarine
based missiles. Claiming discrimination, India insists it will not accede to a test ban unless the
declared nuclear states agree to give up their nuclear arsenals by a certain date. Pakistan also says if
India does not sign, they wonГ•t either. One frequently mentioned scenario is for India to conduct a
quick series of tests to develop a thermonuclear weapon and only then give in to international
pressure to sign the treaty.
The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty if eventually agreed to, might not be so comprehensive after all.
Meeting in Geneva the 61 nation conference on
Disarmament again failed to produce an agreed treaty before breaking up.
Negotiators will return again to produce another final effort for a test ban
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Nuclear Power Essay
Nuclear power is a technology that has enormous benefits for humankind. As the demand for energy
is only continuing to grow, it has become important to develop energy technology that has good
yield and minimal negative side effects. After the harnessing of the atom for use in nuclear weapons,
the knowledge of how to exploit the atom became incorporated in nuclear power plants (Corradini 1).
These use uranium fuel in a process that releases tremendous amounts of energy to be captured, but
also that creates minimal waste and other byproducts. Despite these, the benefits of nuclear energy
outweigh any disadvantages, as seen by its high energy output, reliability, and minimal
environmental impact when compared to energy sources such as...show more content...
In addition to this, the usage of nuclear power is expected to expand in the future. In order to keep
up with the aforementioned rising global energy demand, electricity generated via nuclear power is,
by 2030, projected to increase by 29% from the 2.7 trillion kilowatt–hours of energy generated in
2006 (Adamantiades). This increase will be footed by the creation of new nuclear power plants all
around the world. For example, the United Nations has been approached by "more than 40
developing countries, ranging from the Gulf to Latin America," about beginning nuclear energy
programs. As well, 21 new reactors are under construction and 150 are being planned in Asia.
Further plans exist or are being discussed to increase the nuclear energy output of countries such as
Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico (Adamantiades). Overall, the high output of nuclear energy is
providing and will continue to provide a practical energy source which can fill the global energy
demand. Another primary component of nuclear power's appeal is its high energy density; that is,
the fuel used for nuclear power can generally produce more electricity than can be produced by an
equivalent amount of fuel in a different power plant technology. For example,coal–fired plants,
which meet the most of the global energy demand, are capable of generating 0.35 megawatt–days of
electricity for every metric ton of coal burned. By
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Nuclear Medicine Essay
Nuclear Medicine is the use of radioisotopes for diagnosis, treatment, and research. Radioactive
chemical tracers emit gamma rays which provides diagnostic information about a person's anatomy
and the functioning of specific organs. Radioisotopes are also utilizes in treatments of diseases such
as cancer. It is estimated that approximately one in two people in Western countries are likely to
experience the benefits of nuclear medicine in their lifetime.
To understand what a radioactive isotope is a basic understanding of the atom is necessary. Atoms
are comprised of three subatomic particles : protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons
bind together to form the nucleus of the atom, while the electrons surround and orbit the...show more
content...
It is interesting to note that Carbon–14 is radioactive while Carbon–12 and Carbon–13 are stable.
In nuclear medicine diagnosing techniques, a very small amount of radioactive material is
introduced into the body. Because medical isotopes are attracted to specific organs, bones or tissues,
the emissions they produce can provide crucial information about a particular type of cancer or
disease. Information gathered during a nuclear medicine technique is more comprehensive than
other imaging procedures because it describes organ function, not just structure. The result is that
many diseases and cancers can be diagnosed much earlier.
Nuclear medicine procedures utilize very small doses of short–lived isotopes (ones that only stay
radioactive for a few hours or days), the amount of radiation received is generally less than or equal
to that of an x–ray. Whole body and healthy tissue doses can be minimized while the radioisotope is
targeted toward the affected tissue or organ. The isotope is then eliminated by the body through the
urine or fecal matter.
During the last decade, major progress has been made in the treatment of disease with
radioisotopes. Treatments involving the use of medical isotopes are gaining momentum in the race
against many types of cancer. FDA approved and highly promising therapies are doubling every 3
to 4 years. Some researchers predict that over 80% of cancer types should be treatable with
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Essay on Nuclear Energy
Nuclear energy
Nuclear Power and its uses is a growing discussion in today's era of technology. Australia is one of
the developed countries where the demands of energy resources are increasing rapidly. Nuclear
energy is coming up as a great alternative, but various factors support as well as oppose its growth.
Some countries oppose the usage of nuclear energy because of the problems associated with its
usage. Production and Maintenance of nuclear power is very expensive. Nuclear power is viewed as
too dangerous, uneconomical, and not required. Although, nuclear energy has a potential hazard, but
it is reliable in terms of efficiency, environmental impact and cost when compared with other sources
of energy. Therefore, the increase in the...show more content...
Though renewable sources of energy are reliable but their output greatly depends on the
environment. For example, cloudy days have no solar gain, hence no solar energy production. Quiet
days mean no wind blows to drive wind turbines. Dams are primarily for flood control, so
hydroelectricity production varies as dam water levels fluctuate.
Considering the case of Aswan Dam in Egypt not only caused thousands to loose their homes and
lives but also ceased the fertile surrounding because of the yearly inundation of the Nile. Moreover,
the subsequent silting up for the river destroyed much wildlife.
Due to Thermal Power Generation, 2500 million tons of coal each year is consumed to produce
38% of the electricity, While 61,000 tons of Natural Uranium will be used to generate the same
amount of energy (World Nuclear Association, 2005) .
Secondly, nuclear energy source has a weak impact on environment than the Non–renewable
resources. There is no doubt that use of fossil fuels leads to global warming. While, the amount of
carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was only 0.028% five decades ago, now, as per American
Petroleum Institute (1998) estimates it reached 0.036%. Additionally, burning of fossil fuels,
especially coal, oil, and natural gases are the main causes for increase in pollution; especially air
pollution. Several hazardous pollutants are produced by fossil fuels combustion: Carbon Monoxide,
Nitrogen Oxides, Sulphur Oxides and
Get more content on HelpWriting.net
Nuclear Essay
The UK civil nuclear power industry initially started in 1946 followed by the establishment of one
of the world's first nuclear power plant in 1956 [23–24]. This commercial scale reactor was built in
southwest Scotland and given a name "MAGNOX" due to the fuel cladding (magnesium
non–oxidising alloy) used to contain the fuels. The MAGNOX reactor uses natural uranium metal
fuel to generate thermal energy while using graphite bricks to moderate the fast moving neutrons
within the core. Two types of graphite bricks are used in MAGNOX design; these are Pile Grade
A (PGA) and Pile Grade B (PGB). The former is used as a neutron moderator due to its high density
and lower neutron absorption, whereas the latter is mostly used as a reflector [23]....show more
content...
Currently, there are fifteen operating reactors in the UK with a combined total output around 8883
MWe, and one under construction [27]. Fourteen of the fifteen operating reactors are AGRs and
located at seven different power stations, making the AGRs the most dominant nuclear reactors in
the UK. The remaining two reactors (including the one under construction) are based on PWR design.
AGRs are the second generation of the UK nuclear power plants, and initially designed to improve
the steam cycle efficiency of the early reactor design (MAGNOX). This type of reactors exists only
in the UK and operated by EDF–Energy (formerly British–Energy). Since the AGRs first operation
in 1976 they have become the UK's most dominant reactor after showing an increased economic
benefits and steam cycle efficiency approximately 42% compared with MAGNOX reactor, which
has approximately 31% efficiency [25]. AGRs are capable of producing peak fuel temperature
approximately 800 В°C and the coolant gas temperature approximately 650 В°C at 40 bars. The
steam generated by the AGRs can reach up to 540 В°C at 165 bar, which is capable of driving the
standard 660 MW turbines.
Some of the main differences between the early MAGNOX reactors and AGRs that have a key
impact on the reactor
Get more content on HelpWriting.net

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Nuclear Technology Essay

  • 1. Nuclear Weapons Research Paper Nuclear Weapons A Nuclear weapon is any weapon that gets its destructive power from the transformation of matter in atoms into energy. They include missiles, bombs, artillery shells, mines and torpedoes. Another name for nuclear weapons are Atomic bombs or Hydrogen bombs. The United States was the first country to ever use a Nuclear weapon in battle against Japan. The major arguments for a test ban was first proposed in the 1950Г•s. Today, however, the stopping of radioactive fallout and the superpower arms race are still in negotiation. Nations have sought to limit the testing of nuclear weapons to protect people and the environment from nuclear radiation and to slow...show more content... They find their reason as a lame excuse to start setting off explosions again. The treaty plays a very important role in creating a barrier to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. The two biggest problems are with nuclear weapons nowadays is that testing isnГ•t necessary to develop a workable, Hiroshima–type fission bomb in this age of computers and wide spread access to nuclear data, and India nor Pakistan, the two most worrisome nuclear powers is likely to sign any deal at all. The United States, Great Britain, Russia, and France have joined a moratorium on all testing. Only China continues to develop lightweight, multiple warheads that could be deployed on submarine based missiles. Claiming discrimination, India insists it will not accede to a test ban unless the declared nuclear states agree to give up their nuclear arsenals by a certain date. Pakistan also says if India does not sign, they wonГ•t either. One frequently mentioned scenario is for India to conduct a quick series of tests to develop a thermonuclear weapon and only then give in to international pressure to sign the treaty. The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty if eventually agreed to, might not be so comprehensive after all. Meeting in Geneva the 61 nation conference on Disarmament again failed to produce an agreed treaty before breaking up. Negotiators will return again to produce another final effort for a test ban Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 2. Nuclear Power Essay Nuclear power is a technology that has enormous benefits for humankind. As the demand for energy is only continuing to grow, it has become important to develop energy technology that has good yield and minimal negative side effects. After the harnessing of the atom for use in nuclear weapons, the knowledge of how to exploit the atom became incorporated in nuclear power plants (Corradini 1). These use uranium fuel in a process that releases tremendous amounts of energy to be captured, but also that creates minimal waste and other byproducts. Despite these, the benefits of nuclear energy outweigh any disadvantages, as seen by its high energy output, reliability, and minimal environmental impact when compared to energy sources such as...show more content... In addition to this, the usage of nuclear power is expected to expand in the future. In order to keep up with the aforementioned rising global energy demand, electricity generated via nuclear power is, by 2030, projected to increase by 29% from the 2.7 trillion kilowatt–hours of energy generated in 2006 (Adamantiades). This increase will be footed by the creation of new nuclear power plants all around the world. For example, the United Nations has been approached by "more than 40 developing countries, ranging from the Gulf to Latin America," about beginning nuclear energy programs. As well, 21 new reactors are under construction and 150 are being planned in Asia. Further plans exist or are being discussed to increase the nuclear energy output of countries such as Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico (Adamantiades). Overall, the high output of nuclear energy is providing and will continue to provide a practical energy source which can fill the global energy demand. Another primary component of nuclear power's appeal is its high energy density; that is, the fuel used for nuclear power can generally produce more electricity than can be produced by an equivalent amount of fuel in a different power plant technology. For example,coal–fired plants, which meet the most of the global energy demand, are capable of generating 0.35 megawatt–days of electricity for every metric ton of coal burned. By Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 3. Nuclear Medicine Essay Nuclear Medicine is the use of radioisotopes for diagnosis, treatment, and research. Radioactive chemical tracers emit gamma rays which provides diagnostic information about a person's anatomy and the functioning of specific organs. Radioisotopes are also utilizes in treatments of diseases such as cancer. It is estimated that approximately one in two people in Western countries are likely to experience the benefits of nuclear medicine in their lifetime. To understand what a radioactive isotope is a basic understanding of the atom is necessary. Atoms are comprised of three subatomic particles : protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons and neutrons bind together to form the nucleus of the atom, while the electrons surround and orbit the...show more content... It is interesting to note that Carbon–14 is radioactive while Carbon–12 and Carbon–13 are stable. In nuclear medicine diagnosing techniques, a very small amount of radioactive material is introduced into the body. Because medical isotopes are attracted to specific organs, bones or tissues, the emissions they produce can provide crucial information about a particular type of cancer or disease. Information gathered during a nuclear medicine technique is more comprehensive than other imaging procedures because it describes organ function, not just structure. The result is that many diseases and cancers can be diagnosed much earlier. Nuclear medicine procedures utilize very small doses of short–lived isotopes (ones that only stay radioactive for a few hours or days), the amount of radiation received is generally less than or equal to that of an x–ray. Whole body and healthy tissue doses can be minimized while the radioisotope is targeted toward the affected tissue or organ. The isotope is then eliminated by the body through the urine or fecal matter. During the last decade, major progress has been made in the treatment of disease with radioisotopes. Treatments involving the use of medical isotopes are gaining momentum in the race against many types of cancer. FDA approved and highly promising therapies are doubling every 3 to 4 years. Some researchers predict that over 80% of cancer types should be treatable with Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 4. Essay on Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy Nuclear Power and its uses is a growing discussion in today's era of technology. Australia is one of the developed countries where the demands of energy resources are increasing rapidly. Nuclear energy is coming up as a great alternative, but various factors support as well as oppose its growth. Some countries oppose the usage of nuclear energy because of the problems associated with its usage. Production and Maintenance of nuclear power is very expensive. Nuclear power is viewed as too dangerous, uneconomical, and not required. Although, nuclear energy has a potential hazard, but it is reliable in terms of efficiency, environmental impact and cost when compared with other sources of energy. Therefore, the increase in the...show more content... Though renewable sources of energy are reliable but their output greatly depends on the environment. For example, cloudy days have no solar gain, hence no solar energy production. Quiet days mean no wind blows to drive wind turbines. Dams are primarily for flood control, so hydroelectricity production varies as dam water levels fluctuate. Considering the case of Aswan Dam in Egypt not only caused thousands to loose their homes and lives but also ceased the fertile surrounding because of the yearly inundation of the Nile. Moreover, the subsequent silting up for the river destroyed much wildlife. Due to Thermal Power Generation, 2500 million tons of coal each year is consumed to produce 38% of the electricity, While 61,000 tons of Natural Uranium will be used to generate the same amount of energy (World Nuclear Association, 2005) . Secondly, nuclear energy source has a weak impact on environment than the Non–renewable resources. There is no doubt that use of fossil fuels leads to global warming. While, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was only 0.028% five decades ago, now, as per American Petroleum Institute (1998) estimates it reached 0.036%. Additionally, burning of fossil fuels, especially coal, oil, and natural gases are the main causes for increase in pollution; especially air pollution. Several hazardous pollutants are produced by fossil fuels combustion: Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Sulphur Oxides and Get more content on HelpWriting.net
  • 5. Nuclear Essay The UK civil nuclear power industry initially started in 1946 followed by the establishment of one of the world's first nuclear power plant in 1956 [23–24]. This commercial scale reactor was built in southwest Scotland and given a name "MAGNOX" due to the fuel cladding (magnesium non–oxidising alloy) used to contain the fuels. The MAGNOX reactor uses natural uranium metal fuel to generate thermal energy while using graphite bricks to moderate the fast moving neutrons within the core. Two types of graphite bricks are used in MAGNOX design; these are Pile Grade A (PGA) and Pile Grade B (PGB). The former is used as a neutron moderator due to its high density and lower neutron absorption, whereas the latter is mostly used as a reflector [23]....show more content... Currently, there are fifteen operating reactors in the UK with a combined total output around 8883 MWe, and one under construction [27]. Fourteen of the fifteen operating reactors are AGRs and located at seven different power stations, making the AGRs the most dominant nuclear reactors in the UK. The remaining two reactors (including the one under construction) are based on PWR design. AGRs are the second generation of the UK nuclear power plants, and initially designed to improve the steam cycle efficiency of the early reactor design (MAGNOX). This type of reactors exists only in the UK and operated by EDF–Energy (formerly British–Energy). Since the AGRs first operation in 1976 they have become the UK's most dominant reactor after showing an increased economic benefits and steam cycle efficiency approximately 42% compared with MAGNOX reactor, which has approximately 31% efficiency [25]. AGRs are capable of producing peak fuel temperature approximately 800 В°C and the coolant gas temperature approximately 650 В°C at 40 bars. The steam generated by the AGRs can reach up to 540 В°C at 165 bar, which is capable of driving the standard 660 MW turbines. Some of the main differences between the early MAGNOX reactors and AGRs that have a key impact on the reactor Get more content on HelpWriting.net