Politics of the 20s


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Politics of the 20s

  1. 1. The Politics of the Roaring Twenties “ This great nation will endure as it has endured, will revive ad will prosper.” Franklin D. Roosevelt <ul><li>Before the Bell: YOU NEED SOMETHING TO WRITE ON AND A PEN OR PENCIL> </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss postwar conditions </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the fear of communism and its affect on civil liberties. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Section 1 – Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues <ul><li>Revolution Abroad and Reaction at Home </li></ul><ul><li>The desire for normalcy after the war was caused by three things and resulted in three things. </li></ul><ul><li>Desire came from: </li></ul><ul><li>1. So many Americans were wounded or killed at war. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The debate over the League of Nations had deeply divided the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The Progressive Era had caused many changes in society. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of the desire: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Renewed isolationism </li></ul><ul><li>2. Resurgence of Nativism (suspicion of foreign-born people) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Trend toward political conservatism (because of Progressivism) </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Russian Revolution: </li></ul><ul><li>Czar Nicholas II abdicates his throne </li></ul><ul><li>There was a provisional government that was overthrown by Vladimir Lenin who lead the Bolsheviks (“the majority”) Nov. 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Established communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proletariat – the “have-nots” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie – the “haves” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed in the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believed the capitalist (owned the means of production) and the workers who owned their labor where in a struggle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urged the workers to seize political power and the means of production, overthrow capitalism through a violent revolution </li></ul></ul>Section 1 – Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Red Scare in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In response to Communist Party call for revolution 70,000 Americans joined (some from the IWW) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/10 of population but talk of getting rid of private property and having govt take over factories, RR and other business frightened people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rash of bombs mailed to govt and business leaders including John Rockefeller </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer took action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palmer Raids – private homes, meeting halls and office w/o warrants, jailed for weeks without lawyers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8/1919 J. Edgar Hoover appt. head of antiradical division in Justice Department (Later named FBI) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deported aliens w/o trying them </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Never really found much of anything even announced May Day (1920) supposed to be a govt overthrow – but never happened </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People thought Palmer didn’t know what he was talking about </li></ul></ul></ul>Section 1 – Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues
  5. 5. Sacco and Vanzetti – see United Streaming Section 1 – Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/FTrials/SaccoV/SaccoV.htm
  6. 6. The Klan Rises Again - Had been inactive since 1870s started up again in 1915 -the anti-immigrant feelings let anyone who was a bigot have an excuse to treat anyone unlike themselves differently. -”100 percent Americanism” had 4.5 million “white male persons, native-born” -beliefs keeping blacks “in their place” destroying saloons opposing unions driving Roman Catholics, Jews and other foreign-born out of the country Kleagling KKK salesmen (kleagles) kept $4 of the $10 initiation fee Hiram Evans – Grand Wizard - afraid of urban intellectuals, job competition from immigrants Influenced politics in Arkansas, California, Indiana, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Texas Section 1 – Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues
  7. 7. Read <ul><li>Read pg. 593 (start at Time of Labor Unrest)-595 </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the following questions: </li></ul><ul><li>What was Governor Coolidge’s position on the Boston police strike? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors lead union organizers to call so many strikes in 1919? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did the union membership drop in the 20s? </li></ul><ul><li>Look at the Union Activity Chart on pg. 594 and answer the skill builder questions below it. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>All eyes were on the radiant bride as her father escorted her down the aisle. They reached the chuppa (wedding canopy) and the waiting groom. The bride kissed her father and placed something in his hand. The guests in the front row responded with ripples of laughter. Even the rabbi smiled broadly. </li></ul><ul><li>As her father gave her away in marriage, the bride gave him back his credit card. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the results of the presidential election </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss the implication of the tariffs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 2 “Normalcy” and Isolationism <ul><li>The Presidential Election </li></ul><ul><li>People tired of Progressivism </li></ul><ul><li>Republicans hoped to take the White House, but had no strong candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Finally chose Warren G. Harding of Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>limited knowledge, poor judgment, </li></ul><ul><li>had the “look” to be president. Also sounded great and had soothing speeches. </li></ul><ul><li>Beat the pants off of James Cox and FDR 16 mill to 9 mill </li></ul><ul><li>Promised a return to normalcy. </li></ul>http://www.authentichistory.com/1920s/19200629_Warren_G_Harding-Nationalism_and_America.html
  10. 10. Section 2 “Normalcy” and Isolationism <ul><li>Working for Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Harding wanted to solve international problems </li></ul><ul><li>1921 invited four major naval powers + four smaller nations with Far East interests to D.C. (Russia left out) </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Evans Hughes (Secretary of State) </li></ul><ul><li>urged a 10 yr holiday form building ships </li></ul><ul><li>suggested US, GB, Japan, France and Italy get rid of a lot of their boats </li></ul><ul><li>the delegates cheered, threw their hats and agreed </li></ul><ul><li>1929 Kellogg-Briand Pact </li></ul><ul><li>64 nations renounced war as an instrument of national policy </li></ul><ul><li>no way to enforce the pact </li></ul><ul><li>had no provision for the use of military or economic force against anyone who violated. </li></ul>
  11. 11. High Tariffs and Reparations Really pursuing an isolationist policy GB and France having difficulty paying war debts (10 billion) -They could only raise money by exporting more goods to the US or reparations. -Could not export 1922 we adopted Fordney-McCumber Tariff (see next slide) – raised tax on imports to almost 60%. Supposed to protect US business. -Tried to get Germany to pay reparations Germany defaulted and France marched into the Ruhr Valley US sends Charles G. Dawes (soon to be Coolidge’s VP) to negotiate lons to Germany – Dawes Plan- US banks loaned $2.5 mill which Germany used to pay France and GB which they paid to us Bad feelings all around considered US bad for not paying their fair share of the war and profiting from it. Section 2 “Normalcy” and Isolationism
  12. 12. <ul><li>Before the Bell: </li></ul><ul><li>Using your notes on a scrap sheet of paper. </li></ul><ul><li>1.Tell me at least two things Harding did to work towards peace. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What was the Dawes Plan? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Why was Harding the Republican choice for President? </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To choose groups for the project </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss how the Immigration Act of the 20s is relevant to today </li></ul><ul><li>To discuss why Harding’s Administration failed </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>The Fordney - McCumber tariff isolated the U.S. in an attempt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>to protect itself. Source The Enduring Vision, page 779 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 2 “Normalcy” and Isolationism <ul><li>Limiting Immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Look at pg. 598 –answer the two questions concerning the Pattern of immigration between 1921-1929 then read the Now & Then on 599. </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for unskilled labor greatly increased </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these workers were associated with violence and Communism </li></ul><ul><li>The Quota System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1921 number of immigrants was at 805,000 (had been 141,000 two years before) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency Quota Act of1921 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited the number of people who could come from any one foreign country </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amended in 1924 limited immigration from each European nation to 2% of the nationals living in the US in 1890 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discriminated against eastern and southern Europeans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Later switched and limited each country to 150,000/yr </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excluded Japanese altogether </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not apply to Canada and Mexico </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Background Harding opposed govt’s role in business and disapproved of most social reforms Set up Bureau of Budget Urged US Steel to abandon 12 hour days Good cabinet appts. -Chares Evan Hughes – Secretary of State (later chief justice) -Herbert Hoover – Secretary of Commerce (done such a good job during WWI) -Andrew Mellon –Secretary of Treasury, decided to reduce national debt, by 1923 reduced debt by 1/3 Ohio Gang – rowdy, poker playing cronies from back home -Harry M. Daugherty – Attorney General and lobbyist for tobacco and meat packing companies -Albert B. Fall- Secretary of Interior- close friend of oil executives Section 2 “Normalcy” and Isolationism
  16. 16. Section 2 “Normalcy” and Isolationism <ul><li>Scandals Plague Harding read personal voice bottom pg. 599 </li></ul><ul><li>Harding just didn’t understand much </li></ul><ul><li>Left him open to his corrupt friends used their offices to become wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>Charles R. Forbes-Veterans Bureau </li></ul><ul><li>allowed hospitals to overcharge the government by $250 million </li></ul><ul><li>Colonel Thomas W. Miller – Office of Alien Property </li></ul><ul><li>took German chemical patents seized during war and sold them for less than half their worth. </li></ul><ul><li>Teapot Dome Scandal </li></ul><ul><li>Oil rich public lands in Teapot Dome, WY and Elk Hill, CA were in trust of Navy. </li></ul><ul><li>Albert B Fall got them transferred to the Interior then leased the land to two private oil companies </li></ul><ul><li>Claimed they were in the governments interest and he became owner of $325,000 in bonds and cash with new ranches and livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Harding realized his friends were a problem went on a good will tour to Alaska cam home and died suddenly 8/2/23 probably heart attack or aneurism </li></ul>
  17. 17. Before the Bell: Who was Mr. Adler and how has he effected your life? Take the first 12 minutes of class and read The Standard of Living Soars read pg. 601-605 <ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the changes in the standard of living in the 20s </li></ul><ul><li>To describe and discuss the project for Ch. 20-21 </li></ul><ul><li>To take a “fun” trivia quiz </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 3 “The Business of America” The Standard of Living Soars read pg. 601-605 Impact of the automobile changed houses, what was built, who could get around created urban sprawl Symbolized success of Free Enterprise system – no where else in the world could people with a little money own their own transportation and travel where every they wanted. Electrical Conveniences Alternating electrical current allowed suburbs to have electricity Allowed “modern” connivances like radio, phonograph, washer, dryer, refrigerator. Advertising (see next slide) Hired psychologists Superficial Prosperity number of business grew income gap grew Installment plan
  19. 19. http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/Hist427/427ads/427radioads.htm