Harding
 ―Return to Normalcy‖ meant a return to
three political trends:
 Isolationism
 Nativism
 Political
Conservatis...
Peacetime in America
 War leaves Americans exhausted
 Cost of living doubles; farm, factory
orders down
 soldiers take ...
The Red Scare
 Fear of Communism
after the Russian Rev.
 Communism—
economic, political
system, single-party
government
...
Fear of Communism
 Vladimir I.
Lenin, Bolsheviks, set up
Communist state in Russia
 U.S. Communist Party forms;
some Ind...
The Palmer Raids
 Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer
takes action
 Hunt down
Communists, socialists, anarchists
 Raids...
Sacco and Vanzetti
 Red Scare feeds fear of foreigners, ruins
reputations, wrecks lives
 Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian
imm...
Sacco & Vanzetti
The Klan Rises Again
 Bigots use anti-communism to harass
groups unlike themselves
 KKK opposes
blacks, Catholics, Jews,...
A Time of Labor Unrest
 Government doesn’t allow strikes in
wartime; 1919 over 3,000 strikes
 Employers against raises, ...
Boston Police Strike
 Boston police strike over
raises, right to unionize
 Calvin Coolidge ends
strike, replaces striker...
The Steel Mill Strike
 Steel workers strike; companies use
force, later negotiate
 Talks deadlock; Wilson appeals; strik...
The Coal Miners’ Strike
 John L. Lewis becomes head
of United Mine Workers of
America
 Leads strike; defies court
order ...
Labor Movement Loses Appeal
 Union membership drops from over 5
million to 3.5 million
 Less than 1% of African
American...
The Harding Presidency
 Appeals to America’s desire for calm
and peace after the war, but results in
scandal.
 Hosts Was...
High Tariffs and Reparations
 Fordney-McCumberTariff raises taxes
on U.S. imports to 60%
 Britain, France cannot repay U...
Limiting Immigration
 Anti-Immigrant Attitudes
 Nativists: goal is to limit immigration
 Think immigrant anarchists and...
The Quota System
 1919 - 1921, number of immigrants grows
almost 600%
 Quota system sets maximum number can
enter U.S. f...
National Origins Act
 European arrivals cut to 2% of number
of residents in 1890
 Discriminates against southern, easter...
Country of Origin
Year
Total Entering
U.S. Great Britain
Eastern
Europe* Italy
1920 430,001 38,471 3,913 95,145
1921 805,2...
Scandal Hits Administration
 Has capable men in cabinet
 Also appoints Ohio gang—corrupt
friends who cause embarrassment...
The Teapot Dome Scandal
 Teapot Dome scandal—naval oil
reserves used for personal gain
 Interior Secretary Albert B. Fal...
The Teapot Dome Scandal
Calvin Coolidge
 August 1923, Harding dies
suddenly
 VP Calvin Coolidge assumes
presidency, restores faith in
government...
Coolidge’s Policies
 Coolidge favors minimal government
interference in business (laissez-faire)
 ―The business of Ameri...
Signing the Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
Leisure Time and Spectator
Sports
 Many people have extra
money, leisure time to enjoy it
 Crowds attend sports events; ...
Jack Dempsey
―The Manassas
Mauler‖
Babe Didrickson
Zaharias
George Herman
―Babe‖ Ruth
Red Grange
―The Galloping Ghost‖
Mass Media
 Mass media shapes mass culture;
takes advantage of greater literacy
 Expanding News Coverage
 Local newspap...
Reader’s Digest Cover
November 1929
Time Magazine Cover
November 1931
Radio Entertains
 Radio is most powerful communications
medium of 1920s
 Provides shared national experience
 Programmi...
1920’s Golden Age of Radio
Movies
 Silent movies already a national
pastime
 Silent movies give way to ―talkies‖
 Introduction of sound leads mill...
Movie Poster
for the first ―talkie‖
The Jazz Singer
Jazz
 Jazz born in New Orleans, spreads across
U.S.
 Trumpeter Louis Armstrong - most
influential musician in jazz histo...
Edward Kennedy
―Duke‖ Ellington Cabell ―Cab‖ Calloway
Bessie Smith
Louis Armstrong
Lost Generation Writers
 Soured by American culture, society of
greed & corruption, and war
 settle in Europe (esp. Pari...
Transportation
 Airplane industry starts as mail service
for U.S. Post Office
 Weather forecasting begins; planes
carry ...
Charles A. Lindbergh
Amelia Earhart
The Impact of the
Automobile
 Cars change life—create new jobs and
new industries: paved roads, gas
stations, motels, sho...
1928
Model A
Ford
1920’s
Gas
Station
Electricity
 Factories use electricity to run machines
 Development of alternating current gives
electricity to suburbs
...
1920’s Electric Stove
Rural and Urban
Differences
 In 1920s, people caught between
rural, urban cultures
 close ties, hard work, strict morals...
The Harlem Renaissance
 The New Negro -- express pride in African-
American experience
 Rebirth of African-American
art,...
Claude McKay Langston
Hughes
Zora Neale Hurston
Harlem’s Cotton Club 1927
Prohibition
 18th Amendment launches Prohibition
era
 Prohibition—
production, sale, transportation of
alcohol illegal
...
Organized Crime
 Prohibition contributes to organized crime
in major cities
 Rise in violence and corruption
 Al Capone...
Speakeasies and
Bootleggers
 Speakeasies - hidden
saloons, nightclubs
 People distill liquor, buy prescription
alcohol, ...
1920’s
Speakeasies
1920’s
Bootleggers
&
Stills
Flappers
 American women
pursue new lifestyles
and assume new jobs
and different roles in
society during the
1920s.
 Fla...
The Double Standard
 Elders disapprove new behavior and
its promotion by periodicals, ads
 Casual dating begins to repla...
New Work Opportunities
 After war, employers replace female
workers with men
 Female college graduates become
teachers, ...
The Changing Family
 Birthrate drops partly due to
more birth-control information
(Margaret Sanger)
 Manufactured produc...
Science and Religion Clash
 Fundamentalism—movement based
on literal interpretation of Bible
 reject theory of evolution...
Evangelist
Aimee Semple McPherson
Billy Sunday
In 1922 Photograph
The Scopes Trial
 Against the law to teach evolution in Tenn.
 Biology teacher, John T.
Scopes, challenges law
 Clarenc...
1925 NY Times Cartoon ―Evolution
Trial‖
Clarence Darrow &
William Jennings Bryan
Marcus Garvey and the
UNIA
 Marcus Garvey founds
Universal Negro
Improvement Association
(UNIA)
 believes African Americ...
NAACP
 Important Founder: W.E.B. DuBois
 Protests racial violence
 NAACP leader James Weldon
Johnson fights for civil r...
W.E.B Du Bois
1868 - 1963
James Weldon Johnson
1871 - 1938
Modern Advertising
 Tells us what to buy and why we should buy
it.
 Makes brand names familiar nationwide;
pushes luxuri...
Consumer Spending
 Buying Goods on Credit
 Installment plan—pay for goods over
extended period with interest
 Banks pro...
A Superficial Prosperity
 Producing Great Quantities of Goods
 Most Americans believe prosperity will
last forever
 Pro...
Image from 1920’s
Woolworth’s Store
1920’s Prosperity
Difficulties of Farmers
 Demand for U.S. grain declines after
war
 prices drop
 Farmers boost production to sell more
...
Farm Foreclosure
Sale
1930
The Dust Bowl
 Farmers in Great Plains exhaust land
through overproduction
 1930s, drought, windstorms hit; soil
scatter...
Causes of Stock Market and
Depression
 Dow Jones Industrial Average tracks
state of stock market
 1920s, stock prices ri...
Causes (cont.)
 Overproduction – both consumer and
agricultural
 Living on Credit:
 buy now, pay later
 Businesses giv...
Causes (cont.)
 Uneven Distribution of Income
 rich get richer, poor get poorer
 Unfavorable Balance of Trade
 Weak Ba...
The Stock Market Crashes
 September 1929 stock prices peak, then
fall; investors begin selling
 October 29 or Black
Tues...
Depression Hits
 Bank and Business Failures
 Unemployment skyrockets -- 25% of
workers jobless; those with jobs get
cuts...
Depression (cont.)
 Homelessness
 Hoovervilles
 Shantytowns, consisting of
shacks, arise in cities
 Hunger
 Soup kitc...
Worldwide Shock Waves
 Great Depression limits U.S. ability to
import European goods
 Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act sets highe...
Social and Psychological
Effects
 Suicide rate rises
 People give up health care, college, put off
marriage, children
 ...
Psychological Impact
 Family is source of strength for
most Americans
 Some families break apart under
strain of making ...
• Men in the Streets
• Many men used to working &
supporting families have difficulty
coping
• cannot find jobs
• About 30...
Psychological (cont)
 Women Struggle to Survive
 Homemakers budget
carefully, can food, sew
clothes
 Women work outside...
Psychological (cont)
 Children Suffer Hardships
 Poor diets, health care lead to
serious health problems in
children
 L...
Hoover: Rugged
Individualism
 Hoover’s conservative
response to the Depression
draws criticism from many
Americans.
 Tel...
Hoover (cont)
 Reconstruction Finance Corporation—
emergency funds for businesses
 Hoover’s measures don’t improve econo...
The Bonus Army March
 Veterans go to D.C. to ask
Congress to pay bonus now not
later.
 Hoover opposes bill; Senate
votes...
Roosevelt’s New Deal
 Franklin Delano Roosevelt uses gov’t
programs to combat the Depression.
 ―The only thing we have t...
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First
Inauguration 1933
―The only thing we have to
fear is fear itself‖
The First Hundred Days
 ―Brain Trust‖ -- experts in their
fields, called upon to give advice
 Frances Perkins – 1st fema...
FDR’s Fireside Chats
New Deal Programs
 Glass-Steagall Act establishes
Federal Deposit Insurance
Corporation
 insures individual bank account...
New Deal (cont.)
 Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
 pays farmers not to grow crops
 raises food prices, lowers supply
...
TVA Hydroelectric Dam
under construction
1941
CCC Worker
plants trees
US Forestry
Service
Workers
1937
Programs (cont.)
 Works Progress Administration—
construction
jobs, roads, bridges, libraries, airport
s, etc.
 NIRA est...
Programs (cont.)
 Social Security Act – money for retirees
65 or older, unemployment
compensation, aid to disabled, famil...
Programs (cont.)
 National Labor Relations Act (Wagner
Act) – legalizes unions and collective
bargaining
 Fair Labor Sta...
Opposition to the New Deal
 Deficit spending—spending more
money than government takes in
 Liberals: New Deal does not d...
Court Packing Scheme
 Supreme Court strikes down some
programs as unconstitutional
 FDR proposes ―Court-packing bill‖
 ...
Demagogues
 Father Charles Coughlin -- wants
guaranteed income, banks
nationalized
 Dr. Francis Townsend devises
pension...
Senator Huey Long of
Louisiana
Father Charles
Coughlin
Dr. Francis
Townsend
Reelecting FDR
 1936, Democrats win
presidency, large
majorities in both houses
 First time most African
Americans vote
...
The New Deal Coalition
 New Deal Coalition - different groups that
support Democratic Party
FDR Wins in 1936
 Political organizations in
large Northern cities
support FDR
 Urban, religious, ethnic
groups also sup...
Labor Unions Flourish
 Pro-labor legislation leads unions to
donate money for FDR re-election
 Union membership grows fr...
Labor Disputes
 Sit-down strike important bargaining
tactic of 1930s
 prevents owners from hiring
strikebreakers
 Some ...
Republic Steel Strike 1937
Native Americans
 1924, Native Americans receive full
citizenship
 John Collier, commissioner of Indian
affairs, changes...
Secretary of Interior Harold Ickes
signs Indian Reorganization Act
Motion Pictures and Radio
 About 65% of population goes to movies
once a week
 Films offer escape from reality; show
wea...
Artists Decorate America
 Federal Art Project pays artists to make
art, teach in schools
 Aim to promote art appreciatio...
Woody Guthrie
1912 - 1967
Grant Wood
American Gothic
By Grant Wood
Diverse Writers Depict
American Life
 Federal Writers’ Project supports many
who become major writers
 Richard Wright, A...
Richard Wright
John
Steinbeck
The New Deal Ends
 By 1937, economic improvement
convinces many Depression is ending
 Congress wants to cut back program...
Supporters and Critics
of the New Deal
 Conservatives think FDR made
federal government too large
 stifled free enterpri...
Expanding Government’s
Role in the Economy
 FDR expands power of federal
government, president
 New Deal does not end De...
Child Laborers in Textile
Mills
Contour Farming
1930
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Goal 9 the twenties

  1. 1. Harding  ―Return to Normalcy‖ meant a return to three political trends:  Isolationism  Nativism  Political Conservatism Warren G Harding 29th US President 1865 - 1923
  2. 2. Peacetime in America  War leaves Americans exhausted  Cost of living doubles; farm, factory orders down  soldiers take jobs from women, minorities  farmers, factory workers suffer
  3. 3. The Red Scare  Fear of Communism after the Russian Rev.  Communism— economic, political system, single-party government  ruled by dictator  no private property
  4. 4. Fear of Communism  Vladimir I. Lenin, Bolsheviks, set up Communist state in Russia  U.S. Communist Party forms; some Industrial Workers of the World join  Bombs mailed to government, businesses; people fear Red conspiracy Vladimir Lenin 1870 – 1924
  5. 5. The Palmer Raids  Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer takes action  Hunt down Communists, socialists, anarchists  Raids trample civil rights, fail to find evidence of conspiracy
  6. 6. Sacco and Vanzetti  Red Scare feeds fear of foreigners, ruins reputations, wrecks lives  Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian immigrants, anarchists, arrested  charged with robbery, murder  trial does not prove guilt  Jury finds them guilty; widespread protests in U.S., abroad  Sacco, Vanzetti executed 1927
  7. 7. Sacco & Vanzetti
  8. 8. The Klan Rises Again  Bigots use anti-communism to harass groups unlike themselves  KKK opposes blacks, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, unio ns, saloons  1924, 4.5 million members  Klan controls many states’ politics; violence leads to less power
  9. 9. A Time of Labor Unrest  Government doesn’t allow strikes in wartime; 1919 over 3,000 strikes  Employers against raises, unions; label strikers as Communists
  10. 10. Boston Police Strike  Boston police strike over raises, right to unionize  Calvin Coolidge ends strike, replaces strikers with new policemen
  11. 11. The Steel Mill Strike  Steel workers strike; companies use force, later negotiate  Talks deadlock; Wilson appeals; strike ends  report on conditions leads to 8-hour day
  12. 12. The Coal Miners’ Strike  John L. Lewis becomes head of United Mine Workers of America  Leads strike; defies court order to work; accepts arbitration  Miners receive 27% wage increase; Lewis becomes national hero John L. Lewis
  13. 13. Labor Movement Loses Appeal  Union membership drops from over 5 million to 3.5 million  Less than 1% of African Americans, just over 3% whites in unions
  14. 14. The Harding Presidency  Appeals to America’s desire for calm and peace after the war, but results in scandal.  Hosts Washington Naval Conference; invites major powers, not Russia  Secretary of State proposes disarmament, others agree
  15. 15. High Tariffs and Reparations  Fordney-McCumberTariff raises taxes on U.S. imports to 60%  Britain, France cannot repay U.S.  Germany defaults on reparations  Dawes Plan—U.S. investors lend reparations money  Britain, France repay; resentment on all sides
  16. 16. Limiting Immigration  Anti-Immigrant Attitudes  Nativists: goal is to limit immigration  Think immigrant anarchists and socialists are Communist
  17. 17. The Quota System  1919 - 1921, number of immigrants grows almost 600%  Quota system sets maximum number can enter U.S. from each country  sharply reduces European immigration
  18. 18. National Origins Act  European arrivals cut to 2% of number of residents in 1890  Discriminates against southern, eastern Europeans  Prohibits Japanese immigration; causes ill will between U.S. & Japan  Does not apply to Western Hemisphere; many Canadians, Mexicans enter
  19. 19. Country of Origin Year Total Entering U.S. Great Britain Eastern Europe* Italy 1920 430,001 38,471 3,913 95,145 1921 805,228 51,142 32,793 222,260 1922 309,556 25,153 12,244 40,319 1923 522,919 45,759 16,082 46,674 1924 706,896 59,490 13,173 56,246 1925 294,314 27,172 1,566 6,203 1926 304,488 25,528 1,596 8,253 *Romania, Bulgaria and Turkey.
  20. 20. Scandal Hits Administration  Has capable men in cabinet  Also appoints Ohio gang—corrupt friends who cause embarrassment  Harding does not understand all issues facing nation  Corrupt friends use their positions to become wealthy through graft
  21. 21. The Teapot Dome Scandal  Teapot Dome scandal—naval oil reserves used for personal gain  Interior Secretary Albert B. Fall leases land to private companies  Takes bribes; is first person convicted of felony while in cabinet
  22. 22. The Teapot Dome Scandal
  23. 23. Calvin Coolidge  August 1923, Harding dies suddenly  VP Calvin Coolidge assumes presidency, restores faith in government  Consumer goods fuel the business boom of the 1920s as America’s standard of living soars  Average annual income rises over 35%, from $522 to $705 Calvin Coolidge 30th US President 1872 - 1933
  24. 24. Coolidge’s Policies  Coolidge favors minimal government interference in business (laissez-faire)  ―The business of America is business‖  Kellogg-Briand Pact -- nations renounce war as national policy
  25. 25. Signing the Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928
  26. 26. Leisure Time and Spectator Sports  Many people have extra money, leisure time to enjoy it  Crowds attend sports events; athletes glorified by mass media  Boxing: Jack Dempsey  Baseball: Babe Ruth  Tennis, Golf: Babe Zaharias  Football: Red Grange
  27. 27. Jack Dempsey ―The Manassas Mauler‖ Babe Didrickson Zaharias
  28. 28. George Herman ―Babe‖ Ruth Red Grange ―The Galloping Ghost‖
  29. 29. Mass Media  Mass media shapes mass culture; takes advantage of greater literacy  Expanding News Coverage  Local newspapers replaced by national chains  Mass-market magazines thrive; Reader’s Digest, Time founded
  30. 30. Reader’s Digest Cover November 1929 Time Magazine Cover November 1931
  31. 31. Radio Entertains  Radio is most powerful communications medium of 1920s  Provides shared national experience  Programming paid for by advertisers  90% of households have a radio; families listen together every day  Dramas, variety shows, soap operas, children’s shows, immediate news coverage
  32. 32. 1920’s Golden Age of Radio
  33. 33. Movies  Silent movies already a national pastime  Silent movies give way to ―talkies‖  Introduction of sound leads millions to attend every week  First ―talking film‖ was the Jazz Singer
  34. 34. Movie Poster for the first ―talkie‖ The Jazz Singer
  35. 35. Jazz  Jazz born in New Orleans, spreads across U.S.  Trumpeter Louis Armstrong - most influential musician in jazz history  Edward Kennedy ―Duke‖ Ellington—jazz pianist, orchestra leader  one of America’s greatest composers  Cab Calloway & Armstrong popularize scat (improvised jazz singing)  Bessie Smith—blues singer, perhaps best vocalist of decade
  36. 36. Edward Kennedy ―Duke‖ Ellington Cabell ―Cab‖ Calloway Bessie Smith Louis Armstrong
  37. 37. Lost Generation Writers  Soured by American culture, society of greed & corruption, and war  settle in Europe (esp. Paris)  Sinclair Lewis --criticizes conformity, materialism  F. Scott Fitzgerald (The Great Gatsby) reveals negative side of era’s gaiety, freedom  Ernest Hemingway (The Sun Also Rises) introduces simple, tough, American style
  38. 38. Transportation  Airplane industry starts as mail service for U.S. Post Office  Weather forecasting begins; planes carry radios, navigation tools  Charles A. Lindbergh makes first solo nonstop flight across Atlantic  Amelia Earhart – disappeared trying to fly around the world
  39. 39. Charles A. Lindbergh Amelia Earhart
  40. 40. The Impact of the Automobile  Cars change life—create new jobs and new industries: paved roads, gas stations, motels, shopping centers, etc.  Give mobility to rural families, women, young people  Workers live far from jobs, leads to urban sprawl (spread of cities)  By late 1920s, 1 car for every 5 Americans
  41. 41. 1928 Model A Ford 1920’s Gas Station
  42. 42. Electricity  Factories use electricity to run machines  Development of alternating current gives electricity to suburbs  More homes begin to have electrical appliances  Appliances make housework easier, free women for other activities  Appliances coincide with trend of women working outside home
  43. 43. 1920’s Electric Stove
  44. 44. Rural and Urban Differences  In 1920s, people caught between rural, urban cultures  close ties, hard work, strict morals of small towns  anonymous crowds, moneymaking, pleasure seeking of cities
  45. 45. The Harlem Renaissance  The New Negro -- express pride in African- American experience  Rebirth of African-American art, literature, and music  Claude McKay’s poems urge blacks to resist prejudice, discrimination  Langston Hughes’s poems describe difficult lives of working class  Zora Neale Hurston shows folkways, values of poor, Southern blacks
  46. 46. Claude McKay Langston Hughes Zora Neale Hurston
  47. 47. Harlem’s Cotton Club 1927
  48. 48. Prohibition  18th Amendment launches Prohibition era  Prohibition— production, sale, transportation of alcohol illegal  Volstead Act – law to enforce Prohibition.  Government does not budget enough money to enforce the law
  49. 49. Organized Crime  Prohibition contributes to organized crime in major cities  Rise in violence and corruption  Al Capone – Chicago (most violent city)  18th Amendment -- repealed by 21st Amendment in 1933
  50. 50. Speakeasies and Bootleggers  Speakeasies - hidden saloons, nightclubs  People distill liquor, buy prescription alcohol, sacramental wine  Bootleggers smuggle alcohol from surrounding countries
  51. 51. 1920’s Speakeasies
  52. 52. 1920’s Bootleggers & Stills
  53. 53. Flappers  American women pursue new lifestyles and assume new jobs and different roles in society during the 1920s.  Flapper—emancipated young woman, adopts new fashions, attitudes
  54. 54. The Double Standard  Elders disapprove new behavior and its promotion by periodicals, ads  Casual dating begins to replace formal courtship  Women subject to double standard (less sexual freedom than men)
  55. 55. New Work Opportunities  After war, employers replace female workers with men  Female college graduates become teachers, nurses, librarians  Many women become clerical workers as demand rises  Some become sales clerks, factory workers  Few become managers; always paid less than men
  56. 56. The Changing Family  Birthrate drops partly due to more birth-control information (Margaret Sanger)  Manufactured products, public services give homemakers freedom  Working-class, college-educated women juggle family, work Margaret Sanger
  57. 57. Science and Religion Clash  Fundamentalism—movement based on literal interpretation of Bible  reject theory of evolution  believe all important knowledge can be found in Bible  Fundamentalist preachers -- Billy Sunday and Aimee Semple McPherson
  58. 58. Evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson Billy Sunday In 1922 Photograph
  59. 59. The Scopes Trial  Against the law to teach evolution in Tenn.  Biology teacher, John T. Scopes, challenges law  Clarence Darrow defends Scopes  Fundamentalist William Jennings Bryan is special prosecutor  Scopes trial—debates evolution, role of science, religion in school  Scopes found guilty, given a fine – later overturned
  60. 60. 1925 NY Times Cartoon ―Evolution Trial‖ Clarence Darrow & William Jennings Bryan
  61. 61. Marcus Garvey and the UNIA  Marcus Garvey founds Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)  believes African Americans should build separate society  Garvey promotes black pride, black businesses, return to Africa Marcus Garvey 1887 - 1940
  62. 62. NAACP  Important Founder: W.E.B. DuBois  Protests racial violence  NAACP leader James Weldon Johnson fights for civil rights legislation  NAACP anti-lynching campaign leads to drop in number of lynchings
  63. 63. W.E.B Du Bois 1868 - 1963 James Weldon Johnson 1871 - 1938
  64. 64. Modern Advertising  Tells us what to buy and why we should buy it.  Makes brand names familiar nationwide; pushes luxuries as necessities
  65. 65. Consumer Spending  Buying Goods on Credit  Installment plan—pay for goods over extended period with interest  Banks provide money at low interest rates  Problems: Debt -- don’t really own items, layoffs, pay cuts, etc. affect ability to pay debts
  66. 66. A Superficial Prosperity  Producing Great Quantities of Goods  Most Americans believe prosperity will last forever  Productivity increasing, businesses expanding  Chain stores develop; national banks allowed to create branches  Income gap between workers, managers grows
  67. 67. Image from 1920’s Woolworth’s Store 1920’s Prosperity
  68. 68. Difficulties of Farmers  Demand for U.S. grain declines after war  prices drop  Farmers boost production to sell more  prices drop further  Farm income declines; farmers default on loans; rural banks fail  Farms lost through foreclosure  many become tenant farmers
  69. 69. Farm Foreclosure Sale 1930
  70. 70. The Dust Bowl  Farmers in Great Plains exhaust land through overproduction  1930s, drought, windstorms hit; soil scattered for hundreds of miles  Many farm families migrate to Pacific Coast states
  71. 71. Causes of Stock Market and Depression  Dow Jones Industrial Average tracks state of stock market  1920s, stock prices rise steadily; people rush to buy stocks, bonds  Speculation, buy on chance of a quick profit  Buying on margin—pay small percent of price, borrow rest
  72. 72. Causes (cont.)  Overproduction – both consumer and agricultural  Living on Credit:  buy now, pay later  Businesses give easy credit; consumers pile up large debts  Consumers have trouble paying off debt, cut back on spending
  73. 73. Causes (cont.)  Uneven Distribution of Income  rich get richer, poor get poorer  Unfavorable Balance of Trade  Weak Banking System
  74. 74. The Stock Market Crashes  September 1929 stock prices peak, then fall; investors begin selling  October 29 or Black Tuesday, market, nation’s confidence plummet  Shareholders sell frantically; millions of shares have no buyers  People who bought on credit left with huge debts  Others lose most of their savings
  75. 75. Depression Hits  Bank and Business Failures  Unemployment skyrockets -- 25% of workers jobless; those with jobs get cuts in hours, pay  After crash, people panic, withdraw money from banks  Banks that invested in stocks fail; people lose their money
  76. 76. Depression (cont.)  Homelessness  Hoovervilles  Shantytowns, consisting of shacks, arise in cities  Hunger  Soup kitchens offer free or low-cost food  Bread lines—people line up for food from charities, public agencies
  77. 77. Worldwide Shock Waves  Great Depression limits U.S. ability to import European goods  Hawley-Smoot Tariff Act sets highest protective tariff ever in U.S.  Other countries cannot earn American currency to buy U.S. goods  International trade drops; unemployment soars around world
  78. 78. Social and Psychological Effects  Suicide rate rises  People give up health care, college, put off marriage, children  Stigma of poverty doesn’t disappear; financial security becomes goal  Develop habit of saving and thriftiness
  79. 79. Psychological Impact  Family is source of strength for most Americans  Some families break apart under strain of making ends meet
  80. 80. • Men in the Streets • Many men used to working & supporting families have difficulty coping • cannot find jobs • About 300,000 hoboes wander country on railroad box cars • No federal system of direct relief (cash or food from government) Psychological Impact 1930’s Hobos
  81. 81. Psychological (cont)  Women Struggle to Survive  Homemakers budget carefully, can food, sew clothes  Women work outside home; resented by unemployed men  Many women suffer in silence, ashamed to stand in bread lines
  82. 82. Psychological (cont)  Children Suffer Hardships  Poor diets, health care lead to serious health problems in children  Lack of tax revenue leads to shortened school year, school closings  Teenagers leave home, ride trains in search of work, adventure
  83. 83. Hoover: Rugged Individualism  Hoover’s conservative response to the Depression draws criticism from many Americans.  Tells Americans the economy is sound  believes depression is a normal part of business cycle  People should take care of own families, not depend on government (no direct relief) Herbert Hoover 31st President of the US 1874 - 1964
  84. 84. Hoover (cont)  Reconstruction Finance Corporation— emergency funds for businesses  Hoover’s measures don’t improve economy before presidential election (too little, too late)
  85. 85. The Bonus Army March  Veterans go to D.C. to ask Congress to pay bonus now not later.  Hoover opposes bill; Senate votes it down  Hoover fears violence, calls on U.S. Army to disband Bonus Army  Infantry tear gas over 1,000 people, including children; many injured  Public is stunned, outraged by government’s actions
  86. 86. Roosevelt’s New Deal  Franklin Delano Roosevelt uses gov’t programs to combat the Depression.  ―The only thing we have to fear is fear itself‖  New Deal Goals—relief for unemployed, recovery of the economy, reform conditions that caused the Depression
  87. 87. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s First Inauguration 1933 ―The only thing we have to fear is fear itself‖
  88. 88. The First Hundred Days  ―Brain Trust‖ -- experts in their fields, called upon to give advice  Frances Perkins – 1st female cabinet member – Sec. of Labor  Bank Holiday -- Emergency Banking Relief Act closes banks until they are inspected  FDR gives fireside chats—radio talks explaining New Deal measures Frances Perkins
  89. 89. FDR’s Fireside Chats
  90. 90. New Deal Programs  Glass-Steagall Act establishes Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation  insures individual bank accounts  Securities and Exchange Commission created to regulate stock market  21st Amendment repeals prohibition by end of 1933
  91. 91. New Deal (cont.)  Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)  pays farmers not to grow crops  raises food prices, lowers supply  Tennessee Valley Authority creates jobs building dams  cheap hydro-electric power  most controversial – seems like socialism to some critics  Civilian Conservation Corps  jobs for young men  outdoor, conservation, parks,
  92. 92. TVA Hydroelectric Dam under construction 1941
  93. 93. CCC Worker plants trees US Forestry Service Workers 1937
  94. 94. Programs (cont.)  Works Progress Administration— construction jobs, roads, bridges, libraries, airport s, etc.  NIRA establishes codes of fair practice for industries  NRA sets standards, prices, limits production  Federal Housing Administration gives loans for mortgages, repairs  Federal Emergency Relief Administration—direct relief to needy
  95. 95. Programs (cont.)  Social Security Act – money for retirees 65 or older, unemployment compensation, aid to disabled, families with children  Is funded from payroll deductions  Longest-lasting program, has affected most # of people
  96. 96. Programs (cont.)  National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) – legalizes unions and collective bargaining  Fair Labor Standards Act – minimum wage and maximum hrs.  Rural Electrification Administration (REA) – brings electricity to the farms
  97. 97. Opposition to the New Deal  Deficit spending—spending more money than government takes in  Liberals: New Deal does not do enough to help poor, fix economy  Conservatives: New Deal used to control business, socialize economy
  98. 98. Court Packing Scheme  Supreme Court strikes down some programs as unconstitutional  FDR proposes ―Court-packing bill‖  wants to add judges to Supreme Court that favor New Deal  Congress, press protest
  99. 99. Demagogues  Father Charles Coughlin -- wants guaranteed income, banks nationalized  Dr. Francis Townsend devises pension plan for elderly  Presidential hopeful, Senator Huey Long has popular social program – Share Our Wealth
  100. 100. Senator Huey Long of Louisiana Father Charles Coughlin Dr. Francis Townsend
  101. 101. Reelecting FDR  1936, Democrats win presidency, large majorities in both houses  First time most African Americans vote Democratic  First time labor unions support presidential candidate
  102. 102. The New Deal Coalition  New Deal Coalition - different groups that support Democratic Party
  103. 103. FDR Wins in 1936  Political organizations in large Northern cities support FDR  Urban, religious, ethnic groups also support FDR  FDR appoints officials of urban-immigrant background
  104. 104. Labor Unions Flourish  Pro-labor legislation leads unions to donate money for FDR re-election  Union membership grows from 3 million to over 10 million  American Federation of Labor traditionally craft unions only  Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) – organizes industrial unions
  105. 105. Labor Disputes  Sit-down strike important bargaining tactic of 1930s  prevents owners from hiring strikebreakers  Some labor disputes violent
  106. 106. Republic Steel Strike 1937
  107. 107. Native Americans  1924, Native Americans receive full citizenship  John Collier, commissioner of Indian affairs, changes policies  Indian Reorganization Act favors native autonomy, mandates changes:  lands belong to entire tribe; government can’t sell unclaimed areas  children can attend schools on reservations  tribes elect tribal councils to govern reservations John Collier
  108. 108. Secretary of Interior Harold Ickes signs Indian Reorganization Act
  109. 109. Motion Pictures and Radio  About 65% of population goes to movies once a week  Films offer escape from reality; show wealth, romance, fun  Gone With the Wind—perhaps most famous film of era  Musicals—live action or animated—way to forget problems  Comedies, realistic gangster movies especially popular
  110. 110. Artists Decorate America  Federal Art Project pays artists to make art, teach in schools  Aim to promote art appreciation, positive image of America  Murals typically portray dignity of ordinary people at work  Many outstanding works painted by artists, including Grant Wood  Federal Theater Project hires actors, artists  Woody Guthrie Sings of America  Singer, songwriter Woody Guthrie sings of plight of poor
  111. 111. Woody Guthrie 1912 - 1967
  112. 112. Grant Wood American Gothic By Grant Wood
  113. 113. Diverse Writers Depict American Life  Federal Writers’ Project supports many who become major writers  Richard Wright, African-American author, writes Native Son  John Steinbeck writes The Grapes of Wrath about Dust Bowl migrants  Some writers examine difficulty of life in 1930s  Others show dignity of ordinary people, values of small-town life
  114. 114. Richard Wright
  115. 115. John Steinbeck
  116. 116. The New Deal Ends  By 1937, economic improvement convinces many Depression is ending  Congress wants to cut back programs; by 1939, New Deal over
  117. 117. Supporters and Critics of the New Deal  Conservatives think FDR made federal government too large  stifled free enterprise, individual initiative  Liberals: didn’t do enough to socialize economy, end inequalities  Supporters: did help country recover from economic difficulties
  118. 118. Expanding Government’s Role in the Economy  FDR expands power of federal government, president  New Deal does not end Depression; does reduce suffering, give hope  Federal government goes deeply into debt to create jobs, give aid  Massive spending on equipment, supplies for WW II end Depression
  119. 119. Child Laborers in Textile Mills
  120. 120. Contour Farming 1930

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