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  1. 1. 1. Personal identification Personality
  2. 2. 1. What makes you different from somebody else - the qualities of a person: personality, character, nature to have an attractive/interesting/complex personality Even though they're twins, they have very different characters. It's in her nature to be kind to people . - a person's personality, especially as it affects the way they behave and feel: temperament an excitable/artistic temperament - a particular quality that is typical of sb: characteristic Bossiness is one of his less appealing characteristics
  3. 3. - to have a particular characteristic because your mother, father or other member of your family has it: get sth from sb He's very open and friendly - he gets it from his father. - (used about a characteristic or talent) particular to a family: in the family They're all very musical - it's in the family . - to ask about sb's personality, you can say: What is he/she like? or What sort of a person is he/she?
  4. 4. - to appear to be a particular type of person (even if you are not): come across (as sth) She came across as quite a shy person when we met her, but apparently she's not like that at all. - the effect that a person produces on sb else: impression He made a bad impression on everyone
  5. 5. 2. Particular difference nice or unpleasant - pleasant and good: nice, sweet ; opposites: nasty, unpleasant I like her - she's a really nice person. A sweet child. A thoroughly nasty individual - easily liked by other people: charming You'll find him absolutely charming . - kind and pleasant: friendly ; opposite: unfriendly friendly neighbours/colleagues - generally happy: cheerful ; cheerful or friendly: good-natured
  6. 6. <ul><li>kind or unkind </li></ul><ul><li>caring about how other people feel and doing things to help them: kind, kind-hearted ; opposite: unkind </li></ul><ul><li>happy to help people: helpful, cooperative ; opposites: unhelpful, uncooperative </li></ul><ul><li>The staff are very helpful. The police were completely unhelpful. His secretary was uncooperative, and she refused to let me see him. </li></ul><ul><li>giving sb support: supportive </li></ul><ul><li>if you are in a very bad situation and need help from sb else, you are helpless </li></ul><ul><li>if you need sb/sth to support or help you, you depend on sb/sth, you are dependent </li></ul><ul><li>if you can do things yourself and do not want or need help, you are independent, self-reliant </li></ul>
  7. 7. understanding other people's feelings and problems: sympathetic; not sympathetic: unsympathetic, hard-hearted happy to give money and help freely: generous ; opposite: mean, (informal) stingy - thinking only about your own needs or wishes and not about other people's needs and wishes: selfish, self-centred ; opposites: unselfish, selfless Think about other people for a change and don't be so selfish. An unselfish act
  8. 8. <ul><li>if you think about how other people feel before you do or say things, you are considerate, thoughtful </li></ul><ul><li>How thoughtful of you to come round and see me. </li></ul><ul><li>- having skill in dealing with people; careful not to cause embarrassment: tactful, diplomatic ; opposite: tactless, blunt </li></ul><ul><li>- very kind and thoughtful: good , (informal) sweet </li></ul><ul><li>It was so good of you to come. </li></ul><ul><li>How sweet of you to remember my birthday! </li></ul><ul><li>If you behave in a careful way so that you do not hurt things or people, you are gentle </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>a person who is always gentle and loving is tender-hearted </li></ul><ul><li>- if you are friendly and welcoming to visitors, you are hospitable </li></ul><ul><li>a really hospitable couple </li></ul><ul><li>if you act and speak in a way that is helpful and thoughtful towards other people, you are polite, (formal) courteous ; not polite: rude, impolite, discourteous </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>- a person who has good manners and behaves in a polite way is well-behaved , (rather formal) well-mannered </li></ul><ul><li>well-behaved children </li></ul><ul><li>- a person who has bad manners and behaves in a rude way is badly behaved , (rather formal) ill-mannered </li></ul><ul><li>I've never seen such badly behaved children. </li></ul><ul><li>rude, not showing proper respect to sb/sth: cheeky </li></ul><ul><li>rude and unpleasant: insolent </li></ul><ul><li>- rude and unfriendly, not interested in sb/sth: offhand </li></ul><ul><li>She was very offhand with us - she was obviously thinking about something else. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>ready or likely to fight or argue: aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>- a person who uses his or her greater strength or power to hurt or frighten sb who is weaker: bully </li></ul><ul><li>Leave her alone! Don't be such a bully . </li></ul><ul><li>- liking to give orders to other people, often in an annoying way: bossy </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>- if you do not think about how other people feel, you are inconsiderate, thoughtless, insensitive </li></ul><ul><li>I'm sorry. It was very thoughtless of me. </li></ul><ul><li>if you are not friendly and welcoming to visitors, you are inhospitable </li></ul><ul><li>- if you want to hurt other people, you are malicious </li></ul><ul><li>deliberately causing physical or mental pain to sb : cruel </li></ul><ul><li>- a thing or person that shows great cruelty with violence is brutal </li></ul>
  13. 13. - having or showing no pity: cold-blooded a cold-blooded murderer - a person who gets pleasure from being cruel: sadist
  14. 14. tolerant or intolerant - able or willing to accept things that you do not like or agree with: broad-minded, tolerant ; opposites: narrow-minded, intolerant I like to think I'm fairly broad-minded but this sort of behaviour is quite unacceptable. - tolerant; not easily worried or annoyed: easygoing You can ask her anything - she's very easygoing. - a dislike of a group in society that is not based on reason or experience: prejudice (noun C/U); a person who has this kind of feeling is prejudiced (against sb/sth) racial prejudice. He's prejudiced against foreigners.
  15. 15. <ul><li>a person who believes that people of other races are not as good as people of their own race: racist </li></ul><ul><li>the belief that either men or women are better than the other sex: sexism (noun U); adjective: sexist </li></ul><ul><li>the belief that men are better than women: male chauvinism (noun U); a man who has this belief: male chauvinist </li></ul><ul><li>- the belief that women should have the same power, rights and opportunities as men: feminism (noun U); adjective: feminist ; a person who has such a belief: feminist </li></ul><ul><li>the feminist movement </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>a person who thinks they are better than sb of a lower class and who admires people of a higher class: snob </li></ul><ul><li>Don't be such a snob! </li></ul><ul><li>-a person who is or feels different from other people: misfit </li></ul><ul><li>a social misfit </li></ul><ul><li>- a person who is not accepted as a member of a particular group: outsider </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>- not willing to change your mind or say that you are wrong: stubborn, obstinate </li></ul><ul><li>He's stubborn - he won't do anything he doesn't want to . </li></ul><ul><li>not willing to consider other people: unreasonable </li></ul><ul><li>not allowing people to break rules and behave badly: strict </li></ul><ul><li>- treating each person or side equally: fair </li></ul><ul><li>He's quite strict with people but very fair </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>not easily made angry: calm, relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>easily made angry: irritable </li></ul><ul><li>She's getting rather irritable in her old age. </li></ul><ul><li>not easily annoyed by people or things that seem slow: patient ; opposite: impatient </li></ul><ul><li>if you easily become angry and impatient, you have a bad/short/quick temper </li></ul><ul><li>if you are calm and you have your feelings under control, you are composed, cool </li></ul><ul><li>if you are not worried, you are relaxed , (informal) laid-back </li></ul>
  19. 19. Not being calm if you are worried or not feeling comfortable you are uneasy, nervous, tense, anxious Hannah hated flying and was feeling a bit uneasy about her trip to Hong Kong. Do you get nervous before exams? - if you are rather angry about sth, you are irritated (about sth) He gets irritated if you keep him waiting.
  20. 20. - feeling very happy because you are looking forward to sth happening; not calm: excited The children are getting too excited - tell them to calm down. - if you are unable to relax because you are bored, nervous or impatient you are restless
  21. 21. Sociable or shy - enjoying the company of other people: sociable ; opposite: anti-social He's a bit anti-social - he doesn't really go out very often. - friendly and talkative; likes meeting new people: outgoing ; opposites: shy, reserved She's the outgoing type - she gets invited to lots of parties and makes friends very easily. I've always been shy. - liked by many people: popular ; opposite: unpopular She's popular with both staff and students
  22. 22. <ul><li>- fond of talking (in a friendly way): chatty ; opposite: quiet </li></ul><ul><li>I liked him - he was really friendly and chatty. </li></ul><ul><li>Tim is very quiet, but don't think he's not interested. </li></ul><ul><li>- a person who talks too much is talkative , (informal) a chatterbox </li></ul><ul><li>He's such a chatterbox! </li></ul><ul><li>full of life and energy; very active: lively </li></ul>
  23. 23. - a person who is cheerful and lively and enjoys being with other people: extrovert ; opposite: introvert Ann's a complete extrovert and loves parties, but Jim's a bit of an introvert and prefers a quiet evening at home. - able to express your feelings freely or naturally: uninhibited She's quite uninhibited - you never know what she's going to do next
  24. 24. Fun or boring - able to make other people laugh or have a good time: funny , amusing , (informal) a good laugh , (informal) (good/great) fun ; opposite: serious Such a funny man! 'What's she like?' 'You'll like her. She's a really good laugh.' 'I'm going to stay with the Hendersons.' 'Oh, you'll have a wonderful time - they're great fun.' I suppose he's quite nice but I found him a bit serious.
  25. 25. <ul><li>if you see what is funny in life, can make jokes, etc, you have a (good) sense of humour ; opposite: no sense of humour </li></ul><ul><li>enjoyable to be with; having interesting things to say: interesting ; opposites: dull, boring </li></ul><ul><li>- using words in a clever and amusing way: witty (adverb wittily) </li></ul><ul><li>a witty speaker </li></ul><ul><li>a witty remark </li></ul><ul><li>-very interesting: fascinating </li></ul><ul><li>a fascinating story/woman </li></ul>
  26. 26. interesting and enjoyable: amusing, entertaining an amusing film an entertaining evening/speaker full of enthusiasm: enthusiastic (about sth) She's very enthusiastic about her new job.
  27. 27. Honest or dishonest - telling the truth; not stealing or deceiving people: honest ; opposite: dishonest an honest and loyal friend - not meaning or believing what you say: insincere - if you can be sure that sb will do what they ought to do or what they have said they will do, they are reliable, dependable, trustworthy ; opposite: unreliable, untrustworthy I wouldn't lend her money; she's not very trustworthy. He'll probably be late - he's hopelessly unreliable. - not changing in your friendship or beliefs; faithful : loyal ; opposite: disloyal a loyal friend
  28. 28. <ul><li>- if sb deceives other people or is generally dishonest, they are deceitful </li></ul><ul><li>a deceitful child </li></ul><ul><li>saying what you think, without embarrassment: outspoken </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Sensible or irresponsible </li></ul><ul><li>- able to think or act in a reasonable way; showing good judgement: sensible </li></ul><ul><li>She's a sensible girl and I'm sure she wouldn't do anything stupid. </li></ul><ul><li>- that you can trust to behave well and sensibly: responsible ; opposite: irresponsible </li></ul><ul><li>'Shall we send Robert?' 'Yes, he's very responsible. He won't let us down.‘ </li></ul><ul><li>careful to do sth correctly and well: conscientious ; opposite: careless </li></ul><ul><li>- able to act in a sensible and adult way: mature ; opposite: immature </li></ul><ul><li>You can trust him - he's very mature for his age. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>- making sensible decisions and good at dealing with problems: practical </li></ul><ul><li>We must be practical and find out how much it costs first. </li></ul><ul><li>able to plan and carry out work well: organized ; opposite: disorganized </li></ul><ul><li>- making sensible decisions and good at dealing with problems: practical </li></ul><ul><li>He's clever, but not very practical. </li></ul><ul><li>- liking to keep things in good order: tidy, neat ; opposite: untidy </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>hardworking or lazy </li></ul><ul><li>- having a lot of energy to do things: active, energetic </li></ul><ul><li>She's very active - always running around, seeing people, doing lots of sport. </li></ul><ul><li>working with effort and energy: hard-working </li></ul><ul><li>not wanting to work: lazy, idle </li></ul><ul><li>a lazy person who avoids work: (informal): layabout </li></ul><ul><li>a lazy, rude or untidy person: (informal): slob </li></ul><ul><li>- having a lot of skill in a particular area: skilled ; opposite: unskilled </li></ul><ul><li>skilled/unskilled workers </li></ul>
  32. 32. - if you have studied for and passed all the necessary examinations and conditions for sth, you are qualified ; opposite: unqualified a qualified accountant Is he sufficiently qualified for this position? - a person who is good at what they do is competent ; opposite : incompetent Though lacking experience, he soon became very competent at his job. - a person who is able to do their job quickly, without making mistakes and wasting time, is efficient (adverb efficiently ); opposite: inefficient (adverb inefficiently )
  33. 33. <ul><li>a person who does things carefully, paying attention to detail to make sure that it is right, is thorough </li></ul><ul><li>if you are not careful about what you are doing, you are careless </li></ul><ul><li>a careless driver </li></ul><ul><li>if you are very careless and do not think about the possible danger or bad results of what you are doing, you are reckless </li></ul><ul><li>if you are physically awkward and often drop or break things, you are clumsy </li></ul><ul><li>a person who takes care to do things well is conscientious </li></ul>
  34. 34. - a person who does voluntary work: volunteer - a person who is not able to stop working: workaholic
  35. 35. <ul><li>brave or cowardly </li></ul><ul><li>- a person's inner strength: character (noun U) </li></ul><ul><li>to have strength of character </li></ul><ul><li>not wanting or needing to take help from other people: independent </li></ul><ul><li>- ready to do things that are dangerous or difficult without showing fear: brave, courageous (adverb courageously ) </li></ul><ul><li>a brave soldier </li></ul><ul><li>a courageous person </li></ul><ul><li>- courage and determination: (informal) guts </li></ul><ul><li>to have a lot of guts </li></ul><ul><li>You need guts to disagree with your boss. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>- to be brave enough to do sth: have the courage/nerve (to do sth) </li></ul><ul><li>We didn't have the courage to admit what really happened. </li></ul><ul><li>- courageous and willing to do dangerous things: daring </li></ul><ul><li>a daring fighter pilot </li></ul><ul><li>a person who feels no fear is fearless (adverb fearlessly ) </li></ul><ul><li>- a person who likes to try new things and have adventures is adventurous </li></ul>
  37. 37. - a person who has no courage and is afraid in unpleasant or dangerous situations: coward Don't be such a coward! It won't hurt. - showing no courage: cowardly ; noun (U): cowardice cowardly behaviour a cowardly lie He was accused of cowardice. - a weak person who is not very brave: (informal) wimp Don't be a wimp! - if sb is brave enough to do what they think is right, they have the courage of their convictions Have the courage of your convictions and join the demonstration!
  38. 38. <ul><li>ambitious and confident </li></ul><ul><li>- having a strong desire to be successful, to have power, etc: ambitious </li></ul><ul><li>She'll probably go far, she's a very ambitious woman. </li></ul><ul><li>- likely to succeed in a profession: promising </li></ul><ul><li>a promising young musician </li></ul><ul><li>feeling or showing that you are sure about your own abilities, opinions, etc: confident, self-confident </li></ul><ul><li>He's got no confidence in his own ability . </li></ul><ul><li>- expressing your opinions clearly and confidently so that people listen and take notice of you: assertive </li></ul><ul><li>If you were a bit more assertive, you would find it easier to say no. </li></ul><ul><li>- somebody who usually believes that the future will be good: optimist ; opposite: pessimist </li></ul>
  39. 39. - not successful: unsuccessful (adverb unsuccessfully ) an unsuccessful businessman an unsuccessful journey Edward tried, unsuccessfully, to offer the policeman a bribe. - a person or thing that has failed, or that often fails: failure Everything in my life has gone wrong. I feel like a complete failure
  40. 40. <ul><li>- liked by many people or by most people in a group: popular ; the state of being popular: popularity (noun U) </li></ul><ul><li>a popular writer/singer/tourist resort </li></ul><ul><li>- to be known by many people as being good: have a good reputation </li></ul><ul><li>'Is he a good dentist?' 'Well I've never been to him myself, but he's got a good reputation.‘ </li></ul><ul><li>to be as good as people say: live up to your reputation </li></ul><ul><li>'Well, did the hotel live up to its reputation?' 'Oh, absolutely.' </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>clever and talented </li></ul><ul><li>- good at learning and doing things: clever </li></ul><ul><li>She's clever at maths. </li></ul><ul><li>He's actually a lot cleverer than he looks. </li></ul><ul><li>- having a number of different skills and abilities: talented </li></ul><ul><li>a talented child/musician </li></ul><ul><li>good at studying or thinking: intelligent , (informal) brainy </li></ul><ul><li>- (used especially about children) intelligent: bright </li></ul><ul><li>the brightest boy in the class </li></ul><ul><li>- very intelligent: brilliant ; noun (U): brilliance </li></ul><ul><li>She's brilliant at maths. </li></ul>
  42. 42. - a person who is unusually intelligent: genius ; this kind of intelligence: genius (noun U) Einstein was a genius. a writer of genius This work shows real genius. - quick at thinking and understanding: sharp, quick-witted a sharp lawyer a quick-witted interviewer - using words in a clever and amusing way: witty ; noun (U): wit a witty speaker a witty remark She spoke with wit and wisdom.
  43. 43. - using experience and knowledge to make good decisions: wise ; noun (U): wisdom a wise old person a wise choice - able to think or act in a reasonable way; showing good judgement: sensible ; noun (U): sense sensible parents a sensible suggestion There's a lot of sense in that suggestion
  44. 44. - having a natural ability to do sth particularly well: talented ; noun (C/U): talent a talented musician She has a talent for design. He shows great talent. - generally good at doing things: able; noun (U): ability an able worker a player with great natural ability - (used about a person, an idea, etc) showing an ability to make things work: practical a practical mind a very practical person
  45. 45. - good at finding ways of doing things: resourceful ; noun (U): resourcefulness a resourceful teacher - showing an ability to find answers to problems or thinking of new things: ingenious ; noun (U): ingenuity an ingenious designer an ingenious solution to a problem He showed great ingenuity in solving his money problems
  46. 46. - interested in or good at sports: (informal) sporty good at running and other athletic sports; physically strong: athletic - interested in or good at music: musical - interested in or good at drawing, painting, etc: artistic
  47. 47. <ul><li>Proud or modest </li></ul><ul><li>too proud of yourself, your abilities, etc: conceited , (informal) big-headed </li></ul><ul><li>too proud of your appearance or of what you can do, etc: vain </li></ul><ul><li>thinking that you are better and more important than other people, and not caring about their feelings: arrogant </li></ul><ul><li>- not having or expressing a high opinion of your own qualities or abilities: modest </li></ul><ul><li>That's not true, he's just being modest - he's actually very intelligent. </li></ul><ul><li>- not thinking that you are better or more important than other people: humble </li></ul>