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Europe in 20th century 1


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Europe in 20th century 1

  1. 1. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Thir project has been funded with the support of the European Comission. This material reflects the views of the authors and the Comission cannot he held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  2. 2. ROMANIA In the 20th centuryEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  3. 3. Migrations in Romania 20th centuryRomania as a country which provided a variety of migratory arrangements 1. migratory causes/ impetus: in the 20th century: ethnic-based discrimination in Romania the desire for a better and safer life in the countries to which the ethnic minorities had historical ties (Germany, Hungary) political violence Deprivation largely ineffective and authoritarian administration in the 21st century: slow and socially burdensome transition (from a central planned economy to an effectively functioning market economy) the drastic and lasting decline in the number of jobs available in the domestic labour market 2. consequences: the ageing and population loss the necessity of outflow workers provocations regarding the integration of the outflow workers in the Romanian society. 3. types: caused by territorial changes in the course of the First and Second War: ethnic Hungarians left Transylvania and ethnic Romanians left Northern Transylvania to territories under Romanian control; caused by Holocaust – Romanian Jewish population was reduced to half following the Second World War ethnic German were deported to Soviet Union. 4. the Communist era (1947-1989) The Communist policy concerning emigration: restrictive exit policies limiting international travel; the passports were held by the Police; the authorities required prior approval in order to obtain travel documents; labor migration was exclusively state-managed; the inflow of foreign migrants: “aliens” were considered a potential threat foreign visitors were closely monitored Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  4. 4. The asylum- seekers were: Stigmatized Harassed Losing their social and economic rights Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  5. 5. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The Regime’s impetusThe fear of : 1. being discredited 2. loosing legitimacy in the eyes of foreign governments and remaining citizen 3. Negative impact on the country’s international standing. Ethnic minorities (Jews, Germans and Hungarians) were clearly over- represented among the group of people who legally emigrated from Romania during Communist rule. For example, although ethnic Germans represented only 1.6% of the population in the 1977 census, they constituted 44% of the emigrant population between 1975 and 1989.
  6. 6. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society  The unemployment can be The unemployment characterized as a negative state of the economy that affects a part of the active population by the failure of jobs available.  Unemployment became a problem with industrial development, beginning with the second half of the 18th century.  In our country, the essence of the concept of unemployment is similar to that which defines unemployment as a general phenomenon, but it has characteristics according to socio -economical conditions and historical specificity.
  7. 7. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Employment and the unemployment rate in Romania ishard to understand if not related to the general employment Unemployment in Romania has been in astructure and other labor market indicators such as the steady decline during the past years of economicoccupation and activity rate or the role of (short term) boom and been much lower than in other Easternmigration. European Countries. Factors : 1. hidden unemployment in the agricultural sector 2. a sharp decline in the activity rate ( from 85% at the beginning of the 90ies to 65% after 2000) 3. illicit work in the shadow economy
  8. 8. Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyUnemployment structure : a completely oversized, yet unproductive agricultural sector oversized and unproductive industrial sector The construction sector follows the trend of the national economy with a growing share during periods of growth and a declining share during times of recession
  9. 9. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Officials say the floods damaged many homes and bridges and left a vast area of farmland under water. Some 4000 Romanians were moved for safety. But “ there are the elderly who would rather die than move.” (the Red Cross spokesman). Cutting down of trees floods
  10. 10. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The Danube was once a thrivingecosystem and a centre of human dailylife. It provided a communication andtransportation system as well as food andemployment. Today, it attracts raw sewage fromcities, chemicals from agricultural run-off, waste from factories and bilge oilfrom ships. The Danube
  11. 11. Environmental groups In Romania, national environmentalgroups seem to have made little impactin reducing pollution. Reasons for thisinefficacy include there being littleinformation about environmental groupsand what they aim to achieve. There is alack of advertising on their part, a lackof organization and a lack of funds.Ecological parties, however, have gainedseats in the Romanian Parliament,indicating that environmental issues areof concern to a significant number ofthe general population. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  12. 12. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society LIFESTYLE OF THE 20TH CENTURY The highlife inBucharest was notdifferent from that of theother capital cities inEurope :gambling, partiesin luxurious restaurants,holidays in and outsidethe country, shows,fashion and dance, allwere aspects of thehighlife.
  13. 13.  They were knows as very elegant women , always in fashion who had easily adopted the icon that was famous in Europe.  They freed themselves from the Puritan conceptions and preferred now the golf course and the tennis course to broidering. In 1927 women wore very thick shoes at skiing, gabardine , leather or cloth trousers.  They used to travel alone not being accompanied by husbands or mothers.  They drove cars . THE ROMANIAN WOMENEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  14. 14. They wore wigs in the same colour as the evening gown and the back low-cut neck was way below the waist . As the magazines and the newspapers were full of advertisements , it was very difficult for women to choose among fabrics and models.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  15. 15. Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyTHE BIGGEST CHALLENGE The biggest challenge for women were the cosmetics advertisments which were mainly of French origin. D’Argy, Legrain, Bourjois sau Coty were French cosmetics manufacturers very well known by Romanian women. There were products for waxing and losing weight, products against sweat, advertisments for toothpaste.
  16. 16. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society BEAUTY CONTEST IN Miss Magda Demetrescu, MissROMANIA OF THE 20TH Romania in 1929, was invited at a beauty CENTURY contest in the USA, Galveston Texas. She came in sixth place and was awarded $100 and a wrist watch. In 1930 , Mariana Mirica , Miss Romania, will also be chosen Miss Europe, when she gets a prize of $500 . BEAUTY CONTEST CONDITIONS Age : between 16-24 years old Not married before or after the contest to live with her parents To have prefect morality No artists or fashion models Photos in the protfolio –eliminatory
  17. 17. THEATRE OR VARITY SHOW Going to the theatre , opera or concert was almost a moral duty and, of course, a highlife event. It represented the perfect moment for showing off the wealth , the glamorous garments, symbol of the social status. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  18. 18. Elisse CapsaEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  19. 19.  The Romanians preferred holidays abroad . Thus a cruise during Easter time in HOLIDAY 1932 with Oceana cruiseliner of the society Hamburg America Line, cost approxiamtely 17.500 lei. Football matches attracted thousands of fans being a moment of escape from the crowded life in the capital . Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  20. 20. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society DEMOCRACY AND WOMEN’S VOTE Women’s prior situation : The aim of the feminist movements :1.didn’t benefit from proper education 1.Cultural development of women2. could not choose a profession 2.Fight against the immoral and assuring the protection of girls and women3. depended on men from the economic point of view 3. Fight against achoholism and fight for hygiene4. never participated in the political life 4.Change of civil law so that women could benefit5. were never equal to men from the civilian point of view. from marriageThe period of the two wars is marked by the increased 5. 1932- The Constitution provided women withnumber of societies protecting the women’s rights. As a political rightsnatural consequence of the economic-social and culturalevolution, there were more and more powerful opinions 6.The right to work on fields of activity that were reserved to man ( doctors, officers,etc)about women’s situation. 7.The right to work and build a carer
  21. 21. Education in the 20th centurySuperior Education was annexed to the University of Iasiwith 4 departments and University of Bucharest with 5. Primary and secondary education PrimaryA medical department in Bucharest educationA National School of Bridges and Roads that became an •Free and obligatoryEngineering School •Was completed by law in 1893 and 1901.A Superior School of Veterinarian Medicine •In 1903-1904 Romania had 4.222 primary10 Commercial schools schools8 trade schools Secondary education23 professional workshops for girls •Was reorganized by law in 1898 •In 1903-1904 had 19 high schools and 24 junior schools Literacy as extremely reduced : 78% of the total population was illiterate. One of five men and one in ten women knew to read and write. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  22. 22. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Education populationThe official language of instruction is Romanian but, for all levels, teaching is also given in thelanguage of the linguistic minorities ( 14 living languages among which Hungarian, German,Serbian, Ukrainian, Czech, Croatian, Turkish, Rromani).91% speak Romanian6.7% speak Hungarian : the largest minority and they live in Transylvania1.1% speak Romani : the second largest minorityUkrainian – live in the north of the countryGerman – the fourth largest minority and they live in Transylvania0.1% Turkish – they live in Dobruja in the south of Romania
  23. 23. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Administrative cont Compulsory full-time A percentage of 96 % of ro l all pupils attend publicState. Private establishm ents are more common schools funded by the educationlevel. at higher education Phases : Compulsory school lasts 10 years and contains 3 phases : primary education , first phase of ion ry educat ry lower secondary education Pre-prima ulso comp ( secondary school ) , second phase of 004 Ss start lower secondary education (high 2 ever, Be ginning with 6 inste ad of 7. How school ). ucation a t the age of ation at the age 2nd phase of General Lower ed educ n compulsory r legal education offers comprehensive Ss may begi at the ir parents o st. education and guides Ss towards of 7 provided th ard a w ritten reque continuation of studies in upper esentativ es put forw he 3 to 6 ye ar-old repr vers t secondary education. primary e ducation co n is provide d in Or in Arts and Trades Schools , Ss Pre- ucatio h is type of ed st of are offered vocational age group. T inder gartens , mo stitutions –K of education ,corresponding to various spec ial in s optio nal and free ttendance i occupational domains and leading to .A them public employment. charge.
  24. 24. Class size / students groupingThe average class size is 25. The number of pupils perclass by law is between 15 and 30. The classes are co- Curricular control and contenteducational and made-up of the same age. In primary The curriculum framework for primary and lowerschools, subjects are taught only by one teacher education allows school to design their own timetable(except for religion, sports and foreign languages). At schemes and includes : the core curriculum and thesecondary school level , a specialist teacher teaches curriculum at school’s disposal.each subject. Subjects are grouped according to 7 curricular areas : 1.Language and communication Assessment and qualification 2.Mathematics and natural sciences Pupils are assessed by teachers throughout the school year. Pupils in difficulty can be made to repeat the year. At 3.People and society the end of primary school pupils move automatically on to the next level ( with no final examination ). At the end of the 4.Arts secondary education pupils will face final national tests devised by the Ministry of Education and Research. 5.Physical education Results obtained in these tests together with the results obtained during the four years of the secondary education 6.Technologies will enable pupils to choose one of the two institutions for the continuation of lower secondary education . 7.Counseling and guidance. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  25. 25. MarksFor the primary classes the system of marking students for their activity is the following :o“Very good “ (Foarte Bine) for those who deserve 9 or 10o“Good” (Bine) for Ss whose work deserved 7 or 8o“Sufficient” (Suficient) for Ss who deserved 5 or 6o“Insufficient” (Insuficient) for Ss who deserved 4 or lessFor the secondary classes the system of marking students for their work is the following :10 is for the best work , being the highest mark in the Romanian educational system and 4being the lowest mark assessing the knowledge of the students. Cheating during exams ortests is marked with 2 and then 3 is for poor knowledge of the subject .Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  26. 26. FoodOver time, people have inventeddifferent kinds of food. Everybody likesfast food.Words like hotdog, pizza,hamburger, burger ,ketchup, namedifferent kinds of food that are knownby everyone.People use them because thesewords make communication easier.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  27. 27. BeautyWomen like to go shopping,and to change their look.Women use words like makeup,look, hairstylist, gloss, mascaraand lipstick, for things that areuseful for beauty.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  28. 28. Everyone that is interested infashion use these words to becooler and to be easier foreverybody to communicate inthis field.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  29. 29. Complicated stuff.. In past, everyone wastalking with other people,writing letters. Nowadays, wecommunicate with the help ofthe e-mail or messenger. We allknow how this stuff worksbecause we use them.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  30. 30. To have an e-mail, we need acomputer. We use words likemonitor, desktop, mouse, harddisk, webcam, screen, internet,site and blog, to name thingsthat are related to computer.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  31. 31.  Can you handle this? Children like to communicate with their friends, faster. They say thatabbreviations like BRB, DND, OMG,PC ,LOL, make their communication easier ,faster and funnier. They also say that their parents don’t understand what they write and it’s acoded language.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  32. 32. We all have the same alphabet, excepting some points. We have our ownwords in our own language. But we have learned to lend and to borrowwords and expressions so that we can be friends and communicate easier.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  33. 33. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  34. 34. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  35. 35. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  36. 36. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  37. 37. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  38. 38. •Causes: Increase in carbon dioxide(CO2) emissions, which accelerateglobal warming•Impacts of glacier retreat: Snowline rise Local businesses (hotels, operators of ski-lifts etc.) might suffer from less tourism Extinction of alpine plants Extinction of animals Shortage of drinking waterEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  39. 39. Unfreezing of permafrost soil •Icy layer that stabilises alpine ground („mountain glue“) •Impacts of an unfreezing of permafrost soil: 1.Increase in mudslides and avalanches (=snowslides) 2. .Alpine buildings might collapse 3. –transition from traditional to modern society
  40. 40. Increase in floodings More stormsEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  41. 41. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  42. 42. Dimi n emis ish carb sions on d •usin and ioxid g en save e •turn e ing o rgy-savi energy when ff ele ng la by: c m takin they„re n tronic de ps g pu •inst blic t ot being vices al ra u •eat ling hea nsporta sed ing le t t •sup ss m insulatio ion porti (sola ng s eat (met n r pow ustain hanegeot ) herm er, wind able ene al po powe rgy wer) r,Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  43. 43. What is surrealism?•Attitude of life•Provocation of the middle-class•Represents unconscious, dreams and imagination•Inspiration by Sigmund Freud•Important founders: Paul Eluard, Louis Aragon, LuisBunuel, Jean Cocteau, Salvator Dali…
  44. 44. The firs t sur r ealis •Hieronymus Bosc h ts , 14 50-1516 •His work is kno wn for its use o fantastic imagery f to illustrate mora and religious conc l epts and narrativ  Heaven, Hell, e es tc•Giuseppe Arcimb oldo, 1527-1593•Best known for c reaportrait heads ma ting imaginative de entirely of sucobjects as fruits hEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  45. 45. Hieronymus Bosch – The Garden of Earthly Delights Giuseppe Arcimboldo - SpringEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  46. 46. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Moder n su ArArt as a reaction r r eal ism in our c ountr to war t as a •Italy: ies •Spain: reaction to war •Austria: •Romania:•Turkey: Pablo Picasso•Netherlan (1881 – 1973) ds:
  47. 47. •Pablo Picasso was strongly against war and he represented his attitude in hispainting: „Guernica“ (1937).•The subject of the painting is that Picasso saw the destruction of the villageGuernica. In fact, Franco asked the German airfighters (Legion Condor) todestroy this village and break the resistance of the Spanish Republican Army.•The picture was painted with oil on canvas and shows legs, army, faces, horses,bulls depicted in an abstract way.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  48. 48. Europe –transition from traditional to modern societySpain
  49. 49. Austria After Second WorldWar a group of youngpainters from Viennafounded a special group:The Vienna School ofFantastic Realism. All these young menstudied at the academy offine arts in Vienna. Theirprofessor was Albert ParisGütersloh. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  50. 50. TurkeyEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  51. 51. RomaniaEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  52. 52. NetherlandsEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  53. 53. M.C. Escher •Dutch artist who lived in the 20th century •He played with mathematical problems •Drew with black pencil •F e a t u r i n g i m p o s s i b l e constructions, explorations of infinity, architecture and tessellations (mosaic).Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  54. 54. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  55. 55.  WHAT IS AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE? An official language is used ingovernmental events andadministrative issues. In Spain there are four officiallanguages: Spanish, Catalonian,Galician and Basque. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  56. 56. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society SPANISH The origin of the Spanish language is to be found in the Latin language spoken in the Northern part of the country during the Roman invasion in the 1st century B.C. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century, the Hispanic languages developed under the influence of Latin. CASTILIAN Castilian was the name of the Spanish language. It was called after Castilla, the main region in the centre of Spain, where many castles - “ castillos” in Spanish – stood. The first grammar of the Spanish language was published by Elio Antonio de Nebrija es de 1492. A t that time, after the Conquest, Spanish starts to spread across America.
  57. 57. EL CATALONIAN CATALONIAN LANGUAGE It is spoken by 3 million people in the North- eastern region of Catalonia. It is spoken in Cataluña, Valencia, Islas Baleares, the eastern part of Aragón, Rosellón (France) y Cerdaña (Italia).Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  58. 58. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society VALENCIAN AND BALEARIC The Valencian language is similar to Catalonian. The two regions are very close. In the Balearic Isles - a touristic place - 600,000 people speak Catalonian, with some differences in the dialect.
  59. 59. GALICIAN It is spoken in the North- Western part of Spain. Itshares some features with Portuguese because thisregion in next to Portugal.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  60. 60. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society BASQUE BASQUE It is the only language in Western Europe that does not have an Indoeuropean origin. They say it traces back to the Bronze Era. It was about to dissapear in the 50s and 60s, but its usage was recovered on political grounds. Today it is used by 60% of overall population.
  61. 61. WHERE IS SPANISH SPOKEN?Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  62. 62. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society OTHER LANGUAGES IN SPAIN In Asturias there is a dialect called Bable. It is not considered a language because there are not sufficient written records of it. There are fragmented social varieties of Aragonian and Aranian( Arán Valley), which is a variety of Gasconian.
  63. 63. The economy wasgreat. In the United States began the crisis Every day there were economic, The high prices of themore jobs, and it was raw materials, a food world crisis, agood for the people high planetary inflation, oneIncreased the prizes. mortgage crisis and of confidence There were many on the markets.immigrants.We lived very well . The companies lay off workers. The people of the rich pays spend and travel less. They travel in their countries. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  64. 64. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The financial crisis affect all the banks of the world Many Spanish banks have got financial problems
  65. 65. Before the crisis, Spain was one of the most visited countries in Europe. Now, the tourist is down.CONSEQUENCES Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  66. 66. Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyLow the work andthe employees.Increased theunemployed
  67. 67. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society SOLUTIONS FOR THE CRISISThe solutions are increase the birth rate, confidenceand consumption, agricultural support. To resolve the crisis, the countries have to cooperateand help.
  68. 68. University definition = What is a university?A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grantsacademic degrees in a variety of subjects.A university is a corporation that provides both undergraduate educationand postgraduate education.The word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum etscholarium, roughly meaning "community of teachers and scholars." FIRST UNIVERSITIES IN SPAINSpain was among the first countries to have universities. The first universities in Spain were:Palencia University -> 1208Salamanca University -> 1218Valladolid University -> 1241 Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  69. 69. Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyHOW MANY UNIVERSITIES ARETHERE IN SPAIN?•77 universities : 50 stateuniversities 27 private universities•From 1985 a process ofdescentralization in universityeducation starts and more andmore powers are given to thedifferent autonomouscommunities. Since then thenumber of universities rises…
  70. 70. Some universities in SpainEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  71. 71. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  72. 72. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  73. 73. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  74. 74. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society CHANGES IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN 1943•Just after the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), the winning forces started to build up a newconcept of university; concept that was expressed in the 1943 Law for the Planning of theSpanish University (Ley sobre la ordenación de la universidad española o LOUE).•CHANGES:University remained linked to the dominant ideologies of the Falange and Catholicism.Rector / Chancellor = Power centered in the rector who was named by the Department ofEducation, and who had to be professor and militant of the Falange.Administrative inflexibility, political control and hierarchy = the norm.The pro-Franco regime conceived the university as an instrument of power to his service.
  75. 75. CHANGES IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN 1960s•The citizens opposition to the 1943 law had its main focus during the sixties, and it was identified bythe govemment with the term «the university problem».•That «problem» proved the Spanish university suffered of a deep growing crisis, both in qualitativeas quantitative terms.•In the sixties, a very larger number of students began to access to the university, students that werefrom all social classes.•This overcrowding transformed quickly the ancient elitist university world into a new concept of acongested university for everybody.•This new situation didnt fit well into the strict concepts of the LOUE, which still proposed anoutdated archetype of university, of elitist and centralist connotations.•Inevitably, that conflict between social circumstances and legal status produced an intolerablesituation that resulted in several partial attempts to change the law and, finally, in the Law ofGeneral Education (Ley General de Educación, LGE). Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  76. 76. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society CHANGES IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN 1970s•Law Villar Palasí of 1970 (L.G.E. = Law of General Education)= CHANGES:The university became more free, democratic, dynamic and open for society.Certain autonomy is granted to the universities in matters of teaching and investigation.Appearance of optional subjects.The departments are promoted.University cloisters reappear with certain power. They could propose three candidates tobecome rector and the final choice continued depending on the Department of Education.Schools of Education and Vocational schools acquire university range.
  77. 77. CHANGES IN UNIVERSITY EDUCATION IN 1980s•Law of University Reform 1983 (L.R.U.), in force until January 13, 2002. CHANGES:Great transformation = the university became free, democratic, dynamic and open forsociety.Academic freedom: freedoms of chair, of investigation and of study.Rector chosen by the members of the university cloister.To enter university students must pass a “selectividad” exam (entrance examination). Themark in this test counts 40 % in the weighting of the final mark and the process of thebaccalaureate, 60 %. Depending on this mark the students can apply to study some careersor others.The students have right to associate in the university area.Grants and scholarships for students. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  78. 78. Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyStudent demonstration in the 1970s José María Maravall, Education Secretary (1982-1988) Carmina Virgili, Universtiy and Investigation Secretary (1982-1985)
  79. 79. BOLOGNA PROCESS•Spain is one of the members of the European Higher Education Area since its very beginning in 1999.•In 2010 all Spanish universities implement the Bologna Process.•The purpose of the Bologna Process is to create the European Higher Education Area by making academicdegree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe.•The basic framework adopted is of three cycles of higher education qualification. The cycles are defined interms of qualifications and European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits:1st cycle: typically 180−240 ECTS credits, usually awarding a Bachelor’s degree. 4 years.2nd cycle: typically 90−120 ECTS credits (a minimum of 60 on 2nd-cycle level). Usually awarding a Master’sdegree. 2 years.3rd cycle: Doctoral degree. No ECTS range given. Depending on each university (usually 3 years). Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  80. 80. BOLOGNA PROCESS•One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS-credits that are equivalent to 1,500-1,800 hours of study.•The way credits are measured reflects how hard a student has worked.•The new evaluation methods reflect not only a students performance on exams, but also his or her labexperiments, presentations, hours spent on study, innovation capacities, and so forth.There will be a homogenisation and reduction of the number of available courses/careers and masters.•Course fees / credit fees become more expensive.•Grades will be more general and masters will be more specific and more related to the labour market.•The new model comes closer to the North American and Japanese systems.•It gives greater weight to practical training and to intensive research projects. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  81. 81. Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyWith the Bologna Process implementation, higher education systems in European countries are tobe organized in such a way that:it is easy to move from one country to the other (within the European Higher Education Area) –for the purpose of further study or employment;the attractiveness of European higher education has increased, so that many people from non-European countries also come to study and/or work in Europe;the European Higher Education Area provides Europe with a broad, high-quality advancedknowledge base, and ensures the further development of Europe as a stable, peaceful and tolerantcommunity benefiting from a cutting-edge European Research Area;there will also be a greater convergence between the U.S. and Europe as European highereducation adopts aspects of the American system.
  82. 82. INTERNATIONAL STATUS OF SPANISH UNIVERSITIES•In the world universities ranking 2010 Spanish universities do not have a good position.•The first Spanish university appear in 148 position.148 = Barcelona University173 = Barcelona Autonomous University213 = Madrid Autonomous University269 = Madrid Complutense University Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  83. 83. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The conservation in Spain Historical and general environment in our countryThe concern for environmental conservation in Spaindates back to the middle of this century with someexceptions.The bodies were originally created as a mainpurpose the development and management of theenvironment from the standpoint of utilization ofresources, especially forest.Instituto forestal de investigaciones y experiencias. 1929Laboratorio de Fauna Forestal Española de Piscicultura yOrnitología.1931Instituto para la Conservación de la Naturaleza. 1971Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones agrarias. 1991Ministerio de Medio Ambiente. 1996
  84. 84. WILDLIFE PR OTECTION IN MID-CENTUR YEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
  85. 85. ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS pt pace with ection in Spain has not ke Overall environmental prot in 1986. ing the European Community economic growth since join l concern, although Environmental mov ements predate the officia many groups Spain have been min ority and very scattered in re to it more until 1998, Ecologists in Action was created to adhe than 300 different groups.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  86. 86. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society t in e env ironmen once rn for th the main Th e little c large extent to a the past led ay problem s tod NM ENTAL ENVIRO EMS PROBL
  87. 87. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  88. 88. Prolifera tio (monocu n of olive and al ltu mond cr (Spain a re) ops lready ha concentr s ation of o the area with the live trees hi in the wo ghest rld).Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  89. 89. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Greenhou ses’ prolif eration
  90. 90. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Construct and other ion and o traditiona ccupation of river v agricultur l ir a al or ecolo rigated soils of hig lleys roads and gical valu h dams. e to buildin gs,
  91. 91. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Uncontroll ed urbaniz ation of o ur coasts
  92. 92. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Industrials wastes
  93. 93. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society A PLACE Spain is t FOR HOP Eu he larges t rese E rope both r special sit in widllife voir of biodiversity and flora i uation on the contin due to the n variety of habitats a ent, its va ir surroundin nd low po st g pulation to The numb countries. other er of ende 1700 exclu mic specie ding the C s in Spain More) It is anary Isla is the Europ nds (500 species o e sp f birds, m an country has mo . amphibian ammals a re s and fish nd reptile of plants i third Of th s and n Europe e 12000 s ecisten, 1 pecies 0000 are in Spain
  94. 94. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society CURREN TLY NATI ONAL PARKS
  95. 95. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Natural pr PRO TECTED Parks Par otected a reas curre AREA ks 155 Na ntly 14 Na Nature Re tural Mon tional serves 53 uments 2 other protected 90 2 landscape 6511.8% of s and the Spanis(almost 6 h million he land area ctares)
  96. 96. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society ELECTORAL SYSTEM IN SPAIN
  97. 97. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society THE CONGRESSThe Spanish Congress of Diputies has350 members, elected by popular votein block lists.There are 52 constituencies, matchingthe 50 provinces plus Ceuta and Melilla.The number of deputies elected by eachprovince it not the same but depends ontheir population.
  98. 98. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society ION SEAT S DISTRIBUT ibute. seats to distrThere are 350 e for ch pr ovince (only on2 seats for ea lla).Ceuta and Meli ributed ining seats are distThe 248 rema each proportionall y, acording to tion. pr ovinces popula , seats s ha s been casted Once the vote ing to the parties accord a re distributed od. to the dHondt Meth
  99. 99. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society ats to the Spain to dis tribute the se hod is used in t is a non-The d’Hondt met votes have b een casted. I ties once the oalitions nt par parties and cdiffere o favor large eth od, itended tproportional m vernment. , stab ility of the go al district isa nd, therefore each party in the elector The total v otes cast for n 3, then 4, then... 5. en by 2, the r from all first by 1, th highest numbe divided, y one to the dist ributed one b . VOTES % The seats are hese divisions lting from t the numbers resu 50,71% 3V/4V/5PSOE P37,73% VOTESV/2V/ 9,7548791,8P 1319,676098 243 959121979,58 IU7,05% 05044 537836302,4 181512907566 84786782,4 339 121695611304
  100. 100. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society EM ELEC TORAL SYSTCHAN GES IN THE es that, causes some paradox t ele ctoral system ce theThe S panish curren tests and arguments, sin very electio n, lead to pro iscriminated b y theafter e es to be d s cons ider themselvsmaller partiesystem. propose uncil was summoned to Pss. ns, the State Co ortionality After th e past electio er to inc rease its prop cto ral Law in ord ystem is chan ges to the Ele lusions (“our electoral s De spite its conc and fairness. ve been taken so far. asures ha u nfair”), no me
  101. 101. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society WOMEN IN POLITICS
  102. 102. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society RAGES WO MENS SUFF omic and t, which p romoted econ l ref orm movemenIt was a socia political right
  103. 103. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society OTESWOMENS V theIn 1906 , Finland was rld tofirst na tion in the wo fullrecogniz e the right of suffrage.
  104. 104. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  105. 105. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society SPAIN SUFFRAGEExercised for the first time in 1933 Election during theRepublic.Revoked during the dictatorship (1936/39-1975).In 1931, gender equality became a real possibility with theapproval of the new constitution.The first election in which women participated, was in theyear 1931. CLARA CAMPOAMORClara was born in Madrid in 1888, was a lawyer andsupported womens suffrage in Spain.Wrote books like "Womens votes and me: My mortal sin" in1935 and was a great success.He died in 1972 in Lausanne (Switzerland) with theachievement of getting the right to vote for women in Spain.
  106. 106. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society WOMEN IN REGIONAL PARLIAMENTS Spain is the European country with the highest percentage of elected women inour regional Parliaments with a 42%. Germany is the second one (33,8%), followed byAustria (30,6%), United Kindong (30%) and Suitzerland (26,2%). Regarding the number of women in national Parliaments, however, Sweden leadsthe ranking (46,7%) followed by Finland (41,5%) and the Netherlands (41,3%). Spainis next, with 35,1%, still ahead of Germany (32,2%), Italy (21,1%), UK (19,8%) andFrance (18,5%). The average percentage of women in our national parlaments is only 21,7%, asmost of the countries has a rate below 20%.
  107. 107. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  108. 108. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  109. 109. ITALIAN DIALECTSThe word derives from the Greek “dialektos” (dialect), meaning Thread, conversation and evenlanguage. In modern languages the word dialect means "regional dialect, " as opposed to thelanguage (national). In practice the distinction is more historical and cultural rather than linguistic. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  110. 110. In Italy, for example, not only every region has itsown specific dialect, but there are even differencesin individual cities. There are also very largedifferences between the dialects of regions distantfrom each other, particularly between the dialectsspoken in Northern Italy and Southern Italy.Of all the Italian dialects the Tuscan dialect is themost important. After the unification of Italy theTuscan dialect was in fact adopted as an officiallanguage of the country. In the last fifty yearstelevision spread a kind of Italian "standard" thatnow is the language spoken in most of the country.the dialects are now spoken mainly in rural areasof the country (particularly in the south) and byolder people . Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  111. 111. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
  112. 112. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The Comenius team of the project “ Europe –transition from traditional to modern society” wouldlike to thank all the teachers and students in thecoordinating and partners’ schools who havecontributed their skills to producing this book. Wewould also like to thank the teachers and studentswhose comments and feedback were invaluable inthe production of the book. But above all, thanksare due in particular to the teachers and studentsfor their work, support and patience.