Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Thir project has been funded with the support of the European Comission. This material reflects the views of the authors and the Comission cannot he held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
ROMANIATHE LAND OF TRADITIONS of the 19th centuryEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Brief timeline of the 19th century in Romania By the late 18th century and early 19th century, Moldavia, Wallachia and Transylvania found themselves as a clashing area for three neighbouring empires: the Habsburg Empire, the newly appeared Russian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire .
1806 Following the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the Hasburg Empire is reorganized and becomes the Austrian Empire;1848 The Revolution are very active in this part of Europe. The Hungarians demand more rights, including a provision on the union between Transylvania and Hungary. The Romanian-speaking Transylvanians carry their own parallel revolution led by Avram Iancu, which opposed the union with Hungary1849 The revolt led by Avram Iancu obtains some rights for the Romanian-speaking Transylvanians, in spite of strong opposition from Hungary;1859 Alexandru Ioan Cuza is elected Price of Moldavia on January 5. Three weeks later he is also elected Price of Wallachia, thus achieving a de facto union of the two principalities under the name of Romania1862 The Government of Romania is formed with Alexandru Constantin Moruzi as the first ever Prime Minister1863 Alexandru Ioan Cuza promulgates the Agrarian Reform in which the majority of the land is transferred into the property of those who worked it. As there was not enough land, the Secularization of monastery estates in Romania, in which large estates owned by the Romanian Orthodox Church are transferred under state ownership and than to private property, takes place. This was an important turning point in the history of Romania, as it marked the almost disappearance of the Boyar class, leaving the country to look towards capitalism and industrialization;1866 On 22 February, Alexandru Ioan Cuza is forced to sign his abdication, which was mainly caused by the Agrarian Reform from 1863 made himself many enemies. Due to the countrys political issues and its financial collapse, the Partiament takes the decission to bring a foreign price to the vacant throne. On 26 March, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen becomes Prince of Romania as Carol. Originally, the offer was made to Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders but he refused. On 1 April the Romanian Academy is established. On 1 July, the first constitution of Romania is ratified Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
1877 On 16 April, Romania and the Russian Empire sign a treaty under which Russian troops are allowed to pass through Romanian territory, with the condition to respect the integrity of Romania. On 21 May, the Parliament of Romania declare the independence of the country. In the fall Romania join the Russo-Turkish War on the Russian Empire side. In November, deeply defeated in the Battle of Pleven, the Ottoman Empire request an armistice1878 Romania independence is recognized by the Central Powers on 13 July. Following the Treaty of Berlin, Romania now include territories of Dobrogea, the Danube Delta, and Insula Şerpilor. In return the southern counties of Bassarabia are returned to Russian EmpireEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society THE IMAGE OF THE ROMANIAN WOMAN IN THE 19TH CENTURY SOCIETY Women participated in the economic changes via inheritance and marriage, via their work in the household, no matter their social class: housekeeping, bringing up children, managing goods, etc. The smaller the men’s wages, the harder was the domestic work. As a result, in the industrialisation and urbanism context in the 19th century, the domestic work, paid or unpaid jobs, the private and the public existence were not separated for women, on the contrary they were complementary. Nevertheless, the traditional postulate of the woman’s inferiority was maintained at almost all levels. Women were paid less than men. Even if most of the women and men were unskilled workers, they were paid on account of sex only. Industrialisation came with an extra pay for factory workers, women migrating between their jobs and families. The domestic wife, whose activity was dedicated to her family, had to efficiently administer her husband’s wages to ensure a decent living. Mainly, the minimum pay and the dependence of women, and their lack of jobs characterized the end of the 19th century in the whole Europe. The total lack of political rights, since time immemorial; seeing women in contradiction with the demands of the modern age leads to great social movements, originating in the West where the emancipation of women in all the public domains took place .
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society STATUS OF WOMAN IN THE FAMILY Before the Industrial Revolution , women were expected to contribute actively to the family’s maintenance : from child to the making of pillows , all was her responsibility. The ideal of womanhood was the Perfect Wife. Woman was devoted entirely to her relatives, to her family, marriage, and religion. She was forced by the church to be submissive to her father and to her husband; she also worked together by her husband to raise a family. Arranged marriages were a frequent practice and they were done gradually: offering a price for the bride, elaborating the papers of the dowry etc. Finally, at the end of 18th century, in the bourgeoisie the first voices to demand equal rights for women made themselves heard. Woman , even if she was poor or rich, could not support herself and for this reason she was supported by another being, who was stronger than her, THE MAN. Woman could not take decision by herself, but the man spoke for her. She could not get married if she was not a virgin and she was not allowed to choose her own husband , but her parents did it for her. The husband avoided showing his affection for his wife in public, this being a sign of weakness, disapproved of by the rural opinion In conclusion, the woman was the puppet in the hands of her man.
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society MARRIAGE ENGAGEMENT In the Romanian traditional society, the religious wedding If the engagement broke off, it meant returning ofwas well-grounded, any civil marriage that was notreligiously celebrated being considered co-habitation. In the the dowry papers. In those cases, the guilty one had toRomanian tradition, there was been the belief that every give back the engagement gifts and the goods offeredmarriage founded without wedding of the young couple in before the wedding, the engagement ring included,front of the altar remained incomplete and ill-fated in this life according to the written law and to the customary law.and in the other. Unmarried women were considered unfit Gifts were written down in the dowry paper even if itfor preparing and offering alms, and unmarried remained was about the dowry of a rich man’s daughter or of a poor one’s. The papers mentioned not only the dowry given to the girl by her parents but also the gifts she offered to her parents-in-law, brothers-in-law, god- parents during the wedding at the groom’s house. These gifts were given according to the ritual; after the wedding and they gained juridical significance because they were divided according to the custom, half being the husband’s and the other half the wife’s.
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society DIVORCEThe wife wrote a letter of divorce to her husband if he conspired against theleader, if he put her life into danger, if he was immoral, if he was impotent formore than three years and if one of partners became a religious or disappearedfor more than five years. The Romanian written laws of 18th century stipulatedthat a wife might ask for divorce and take her dowry back as well as gifts beforethe wedding and 1/3 of her husband’s fortune if he conspired against the king, ifhe put his wife’s life into danger, if he talked about his wife chastity and virginityto the others, if he accused his partner of being a “bitch”, but he didn’t haveevidence, if he had another woman in his house or in some other place and, afterhaving been repeatedly asked by his wife and her relatives to leave her, he didn’tdo it. The guilty husband was punished. Likewise, the wife lost her dowry afterthe divorce if she knew about the conspiracy of her husband against the king butshe never revealed it; she was profligate if there were five witnesses, to provethat she conspired against her husband, she had a bath together with a stranger,she left home without letting her husband know, her unfaithfulness was provenwith witnesses. When she got married, the woman was the absolute owner of herdowry (which she might keep after she divorced). During marriage, the husbandmanaged his wife dowry and turned them into value.
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society WOMEN AND CHURCH Women imposed themselves within the community as mothers, having the regenerating force of descent, as ladies of the house taking care effective by the household, as magicians ensuring the success of all kinds of wishes, having some legal rights as heiress and owners. Romanian women had not only the obligation but also the power to establish contacts with the sacred world, with God. Feminist built its specific individuality and exercised its power especially in the sacred sphere in the different registers of rites. Traditional magic structures assert the pre-eminence of women’s needs of valorising themselves in conformity with their specific status. Feminist pre-eminence in the structure of both traditional magic therapy and of the pre-marriage erotically practices proves assuming of responsibility towards their own destiny and the wish of asserting their individuality .
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The ideal of the Romanian middle –class society was the Perfect Lady. She was supposed to have strong family feelings and desire to motherhood. She was also supposed to be educated and entertain guests. The rich women learnt at private schools or at home with private teachers. She had much fortune but she was not allowed to marry by herself. She has jewelleries and expensive clothes especially created for her by designers from France. The separation of woman away from the rural collectivist protection forecast her emancipation from her husband’s and society’s guardianship, having as result the dissolution of parental traditional authority and political and familial emancipation are specific phenomena of the 19th and 20th century. As a natural consequence of the economic-social and cultural evolution, there were more powerful opinions about women’s situation, which didn’t benefit from proper education, which could not choose a profession, depending on men from the economic point of view, never participating in the political life and were never equal to men from the civilian point of view .The rich woman of the 19 the century
The poor woman of the 19th century The poor woman of the 19th century was born in a decent family but she was educated little by her parents and taught little about life. She was not allowed to go to ballroom and to be in love with an officer. After the wedding, the poor woman could not disobey her husband’s decisions or oppose him and she could not divorce. After her husband’s death, she could not remarry or she could become a monk. Being considered superior to women, the man was the leader, in all the communities, hence in the family, too, a role sustained and amplified by a whole series of customs. The traditional image of the woman is that of a stability factor in the family. Foreign travellers wrote that the married Romanian woman in the traditional society of the 18th century seemed to agree with her downgraded position, being passive and resigned. There was a ritual, a natural gesture that underlined the woman’s humiliating status in the domestic life. For example, all the women observe the custom of not crossing in front of a man, even if he were a gun’s rebound or even if he were a beggar. She has to stop until he passes, the reason being that the woman has to respect, honour, and give attention to the man . Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
THE TRADITIONAL IMAGE OF FAMILY Marriages in the traditional Romanian village involvedpartners from the village or from the neighbourhood places,within the same geographical area. By examining historicaldocuments (dowry papers, wills), we can state that Romanianwomen never enjoyed the situation of western womenbecause of their rights of inheritance and property . The traditional Romanian family characterized itself,among others, through a strong individualism and through aseries of rules of behaviour inherited from father to son,which were adapted in time, but that never denied customs.Some of the observed norms of the traditional Romanianfamily were honesty, rightness, hardworking, responsibilitytowards family’s prestige, a strong family conscience andspiritual cohesion, fulfilment of the moral order of descent,observance of a hierarchy of age, sex, naturalised throughtradition (for example, the man was the head of the familyand he led it, often authoritatively; parents had the right ofshowing children how to behave), displaying daily solidarityat the family level (they worked together, ate together, therewere daily common meals, but also common meals withritual and celebrating values), and the reunion of the largefamily happened only on special occasions related to thecircle of life, at festivals, husking bees, etc.
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The difference between sexes wassomething to be aware of from childhood.Starting from the age of 7 there had to beseparate groups (boys and girls). Avoidanceof masturbation was one of the main dutiesof parents. In pre-adolescence oradolescence there were founded groups oftwo persons – “sisters on crosses” “or“brothers on crosses” – which maintainedall their lives long and meant mutual help.Girls were closely “not to be disgraced”.Starting from the age when they could dosomething about the house, childrenreceived chores. Consequently, girls had tolearn from their mother how to weave, tosew, to spin, to wash the laundry in theriver, to look after younger brothers, to dothe house, to cook, to know the medicinalherbs, to know celebrations and to observethe norms related to them .
Boys were more under theirs fathers’ influence who taught them how to work the land and raise cattle; they were warned against dangers; they were transmitted interdictions and were tested their courage, wisdom etc. Both girls and boys assimilated local oral culture in the practice of social life, followed patterns of behaviour, and collective habits that represented guidelines for their own lives. In order to discipline their children, parents would teach them fear of the evil, scold and even beat them .Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
ART IN ROMANIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY Theodor AmanEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society NICOLAEGRIGORESCU
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society STEFAN LUCHIAN
THEODORE PALLADY Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
NICOLAE TONITZAEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
ION ANDREESCUEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society TRADITIONS IN THE ROMANIAN COUNTRYSIDE OF THE 19TH CENTURY Weaving a traditional craft Fabrics, produced within their own household, have an important role in traditional housing and are the most important decorative elements. They are placed on the ceiling, wall, and the beams are of different style for each ethnographic area separately. The fabrics are made from materials available in the household, from animal skin (sheep wool, goat hair, silk) or vegetable (hemp, cotton, linen). Many fabrics are manufactured both from animal fibers and vegetable. At the core materials for manufacturing silk, beads, sequins were added for decoration. The fabrics are made only by women. They dealt with the weaving loom , painting the wires, cutting the material and then decorating them.The most frequently used colour was red, which appears in a multitude of shades , followed by blue and black.
Fabrics are used for household use, usually placed on a bedor chest of drawers (carpet, rug, pillow) or for decorativepurposes (carpets, rugs, tablecloths, towels, curtains, pillow, etc.).Some materials are used only occasionally related to variousceremonies (birth, wedding, funeral). The house was dressed with wall fabrics which were placedon the wall where there is the bed. Later in the late nineteenthcentury the design inside was attached to one another, while theystopped being put on the wall, but directly on the floor, therebyturned into carpets. The wall fabrics design was done by parallelstripes perpendicular on the length of the piece. The flowers arelater replaced with human representations. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Inside the house of the Towards the end of the 19th peasant century there appears the “nice house “, which was a true traditional house exhibition by exhibiting a great wealth of fabrics and embroidery (seats, carpets, lay carpets, towels, tablecloths, pillow cases). Some preserved these traditional fabrics and dowry chest. Every peasant had to know how to spin and weave before having a family. And she does not learn from books but from women in the village. One may say that the woman Chest of makes the needle brush thedrawers in 1831 country, the thread in the seams of watercolor to achieve high artistic value.
Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyEach ethnographic region has a specific brand of dress as recognition of communitymembers, means of assessing the age and social status.
The composition of womens folk costume area of Wallachia - Buzau The spangled embroidered peasant Thin raw silk head kerchief women’s blouse was found on Traians Column. The broad peasant’s waist belt was in the same color and patterns as the two-gore homespun skirt The two-gore homespun skirt was ornamented only at the bottom, following the same pattern at the shirt. The two-gore homespun skirt is made of wool with black background. It is wrapped tightly around the body and fasten with sticks.Peasant’s shoe are made frompork or beef and shoe wrapsover and over knitted woolensocks. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
The shirt is longer, caught the right- shoulder sleeve, the bottom is wider at the hips. Ornamentation is less rich than female shirt . The same pattern Hat , worn especially in cold occurs at the bottom of the skirt weather, is made of lamb skins The broad peasant’s waist belt. The peasant’s long sheepskin Trousers - are trousers which are coat worn in winter was worn by located in ancient Dacian times. both men and women. It worked They are made from a special on a very thin skin of lamb). white cloth, made in house. The peasant’s shoes are made from pork or beefThe composition of womens folkcostume area of Wallachia - Buzau Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Lower Austria, district of Baden Krupp Town‟ 15, 57 km2 8728 inhabitants Four parts: Berndorf-Stadt, St. Veit, Ödlitz, Veitsau/ Steinhof First mentioned in 1133 Main source of employment in the 18th century: metal industry Development of Berndorf is related to Krupp family history 1923: four parts of Berndorf were united Under attack in World War II Was established 1843 by Alexander von Schöller and Alfred Krupp Invention of the „Stahlguss- Löffelwalze“ 1877: Train-Station — Used their benefit to built social services 1890 the bear got logo of the cutlery
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Their name is a legendand their steel is thehardest in the world : theKrupps has beenGermanys mightiest andthe most successfulindustrial companydynasty for more than a100 years. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society 1811 Friedrich Krupp founded the cast steel factory in Essen in Germany 1816 produced smelted steel 1826 Alfred adopted the management 1887 Friedrich Alfred adopted the management 1890 Fritz, developed nickel steel 1906 Bertha married the diplomatic agent Gustav von Bohlen und Halbach Gustav led the company during the First World War established a dental hospital to provide steel teeth and jaws for wounded veterans From 1933 on a big boom - armaments policy in the Third Reich 1938 „Leaders of the war economy“ Alfried also joined the NSDAP 1940 – 1945 23.076 prisoners of war and 4978 people who were in the concentration camps worked there
Krupp Company is the most important German —contractor of armament 1948 Alfried was sentenced to 12 years of prison at the Nuremberg Trials Arndt disclaimed the heritage ->Alfried Krupp was the last „Krupp“ 1967 separated company and private property and —arranged a foundation Corporation 1814 Hermann Krupp founded the Austrian-dynasty of Krupp 1834 Arthur and his friend Alexander van Schoeller took over the Berndorf metalware-company Arthur liked the city of Berndorf a lot and erected a lot of buildings -> “Stilklassen” 1879 1000 employees Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
illegitimacy, agricultural society inchange, the railway in Ebenfurth, ...Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
The emergence of BrombergBromberg was under “ Karl dem Großen“Agriculture : Farmers only drove to bigger cities in spring and autumn Wheat , rye, barley, oats, poppy, flax, potatoes,… Were producing a lot of “ alcoholic apple juice” Went to the forest to chop wood/rake strewing in autumn WindmillEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society From now on the technique on the farmhouses was unstoppable Food manly consisted out of potato dishes, milk, bread and tomato soup Didn„t have a fridge -> put their meat in pig fat New inventionthe whim ( the horse mill)
ood: chil dh out yw orker com e than Factor nt more in mea work age 9 ed at engag prot d to be o allowe rce of fam type of tant sou ily a th impor ppea e midd ng = Bied beggi for chil dren erm l eier red in t e-class e incom i ty of „ he quant ry the Was rs„ n „t a 1 9th centu ki ds-begga ho m onal ‚ ig ofessi t ki nd of h ogen pr The eous t tha soci grou wasn„ e al st or r uc t p anym grac ures ious chan reig ged n„ & The ‚gra nur s cioubetw es o s lad een ften y kids sto & pa r e nt o d s Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyHow the agricultural society changed in the course of time: In the 19th century the agricultural society changed dramatically. Mainly in the domain of agriculture there were important and drastic transformations and shifting. There were effects on the structure of business. Dramatic change of the agricultural society Important and drastic transformations and shiftings Other sectors of working Process of shifting from the agriculture to the industry People were forcedto oscillate
Important facts : life on the fa Courtyard: tria rm: ngular shape Reasons: danger of fleeti ng of the anim afraid of vagab als onds and begg ars Some facts ab out the farmha sleeping room nds at that tim s were very s e: heating mall, no oppo rtunities for sleep in the sta ble where it w as quite warm “Museum on th e farm”: you can see ho w people lived collected thing 200 years ago s of the time o from the “Buck f the monarch ligen Welt” y and only Founder: Adolf ine Beisteiner media showed interest Adolfine Beis teiner: “ m conerstone” useum is a cultural Important: no t to forget the past Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern societySteam power plant: 1880 the first electrical railway was shown to publicity and the triumph of the electric current also was not to stop anymore most steam power plants were operated with the Polish coal 1915 first rail way through Ebenfurth was formed power station had its beginning when the first two Steam turbine generators were started because of incredible issues in the first world war, the comrades learned to stick together power station reached its ultimate effectiveness in 1926; à Ebenfurth produced a quarter of the entire current power for Vienna and surrounding
Rail st ation: 1883 rai marke l station in d Eb railwa out for com enfurth was y has m una four tr originally g l station ac ot : two ca ks with sev rr en fluc one en iage hubs tuatio ns trainm one lo ent bu ading ilding o ne w ramp oo one co dshed al one ho shed u rail sta se fountain ti the co on was enla nn rg Ebenfu ection from ed because rth- W t of ittman he railway nsdorf longest track system nowadays à 820 meters longest track system in the 19th century à 300 meters no good protection à only one machine nobody thought about a configuration of the track system or security device, because nobody wanted to invest into such purposes in winter 1901 à massive railway accident happened, when a too long freighttrain had to be divided first passenger train from Vienna should wait at the „Stop“ – pointing distant signal Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Children o f evil? – C Children s hildren of econd clas love? – mothers w s? h o accepted in ha d illegiti ma te birt so hs really w 18th so ca l ciety er e not led “ found these “ hom ling homes es” were m ”w child mort a de for con er e established alit tain women we y a nd the phenomeno ing the generally re allowed n of child births to go there m a nd do a no ur der articl nymous e about the ...“mother live of an A was not ab ustrian ma has to wor k and to ed le to cope with the si n: assume res uc tuation tha ponsibility ate a little child. He t she writes abo for him an had to lear ut p d his little n established hysical and psychic brother too to d al crueltie . He very young isciplinary measures s which we re and most o . Children f them wer had to wor e underfed k ”.
Christian Doppler lived 1803-1853 he was an important Austrian physicist and mathematician published over 50 articles on mathematics, physics and astronomy famous for “Doppler effect” change of wavelength caused by motion of the sourceEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society was born on the 29th of November 1803 in Salzburg 1822 studied at the university of Vienna and Salzburg 1829 Doppler was an assistant to a professor of higher mathematics and mechanics 1835 worked as a math professor 1840 became an associate member of the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences 1842 publishing of his most notable work •1847 left Prague for the professorship of mathematics, physics and mechanics in Slovakia •1848 got the honorary doctorate from the University of Prague and became a member of the imperial academy of sciences 1850 became the first headmaster of the new Physical Institute in Vienna died on the 17th of March 1853 in Venice
Namings Christian-Doppler laboratories Doppler Gymnasium Christian-Doppler- clinic special posting stamp, published 150 years after discovery of the principleEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society There were many differences among different parts of the country. Landowners took advantage of workers. Food conservation systems at homeswerent good. Salaries were low and supplies poor. People cooked with coal andfirewood. There was a scarcity of meat and fish, and people ate mostly plants. Although Spain was a neutral country, we were in danger. The prices of foodand coal got much higher (Subsistence law). Problems continued (inflation).Wheat price got higher and higher.Speculation was suffered by lower class people.It took 20 years to recover from the CivilWar (postwar).There wasntanything to eatbecause fields weredevastated duringthe war.Many people died ofhunger.
It kept control of the countryside so their diet andsupplies were much better. It was the main factor towin the war. Left-winged parties supported the RepublicanArmy. Transport problems affected food supply too.Since the beginning of the war, there were problemswith supplies. People were able to get essential foodonly under medical prescription. Rationing food was made this way: Once a week:oil carbon, ham, cheese, 3 times a week: fish, rice,sugar and eggs, every day: milk, meat,vegetables, fruit... Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The lack of food and essential things caused a new way of smuggling, It was known as “estraperlo”. Thousands of people lived under the poverty line. Many people died, including children. During the 60s nourishment in Spain was not as complete as it was, in terms of calories, in other countries. The quality of meat, milk and eggs was not very good. During the end of the 60s and the beginning of the 70s more than 3.000.000 people emigrated from the countryside to the cities and to foreign countries such as France or Germany.
Nowadays social welfares o c ie ty ha s br o ug htimportant changes innutrition habits. In the last15 years, the number ofpeople with overweightproblems has increased. Inchildren, the rate is higherthan the average in Europe.This is mostly because ofthe success of “Fast Food”restaurants.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
FROM 1812 CONSTITUTION TO THE CIVIL WAR 1936 From 1850 to 1900 the numberof schools rose from 17,170 to29,776 schools. Rates of illiteracyin population were decreasing:63.8% in 1900 59.4% in 1910. Itwent down to 40% along the early1900s . On the 19th of March 1812,th e firs t Cons ti tu ti on w asproclaimed and with it the right ofan universal, public education foreveryone. There was one school for every500 inhabitants.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society In 1830 : full citizens should learn how to read and write : Article 25 from the Constitution says that since 1830, people who want to become full citizens should know how to read and write. In 1857 : compulsory education up to 9 years : Moyano Law of 1857 made education compulsory from 6 to 9 years .There were not sufficiently trained and paid teachers ( they didnt enjoy an acceptable social image). In 1900 : schools for boys up to 16 years : Children attended lessons at school five hours a day 175 days a year. Students were boys from 4 to 16 years. This progressive development did not follow the rapid pace of the other nations of Western Europe.
Spain became a Republic in1931, and this intensified the interest ineducation: Teachers´ qualification improved. The curriculum for secondary education was created. The number of colleges, schools and institutions increased and it replaced the teaching of religious orders. Autonomy to the colleges at University wasgranted. Studies and scientific research intensified. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society “This is the classroom. In a picture Cain runs away as Abel lies dead, next to a blood puddle. The teacher talks in a loud voice . He is a skinny old man slovenly dressed, a book in his hand. All the children sing the lesson along, repeating after him: thousand times a hundred, a hundred and thousand; thousand times a thousand, a million. A grey cold winter afternoon. Pupils study. A rainy monotony resounds on the window panes.”
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Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Two– student desks with an ink case stoves Abacus School notebooks Cupboard and wooden bookcases
School emblems for boys and girls Measurement units : cabas Holy childhood : money boxesEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society In the 60s there were girls schools. There were only female teachers. Girls wore a white uniform and a cross was hung on the wall of the classroom.
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society In 1861 it was declared a compulsory subject in schools and Teachers Colleges, although it was not fulfilled by then. In Spain, Francisco Amorós introduced Swedish gymnastics, greatly influenced by P.H. Ling. Thanks to him the concept evolved into training, hygienic, corrective and therapeutic gymnastics. There were mainly analytical exercises and there was excessive static and order . 1. Slow movements gymnastics 2. Arms and legs movement 3. Exercising movements with the whole body 4. Students follow the instructor’s orders
The gym should develop harmoniously the body, exercising all its parts. Both boys and girls practiced it. The need for a physical education for all, whether weak or strong as a school subject was established.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society This task has been undertaken by special education needs students at our school. At first, we made a revision of the old pictures we had collected. We discussed about them and the places of our neighbourhood that were depicted. Then we identified these places and later we went out and took current pictures of them. After that, we assorted them in this power point presentation. Finally, we saw a documentary on the history and evolution of our neighbourhood, EL CAMPO DE LA VERDAD, located in the south- east of our city, just across the river Guadalquivir Roman Bridge.
In the 40s, immediately after the war,thousands of people left the countryside andwent away to the cities, looking for better livingconditions .Many of them had to live in slums atthe outskirts of the cities. In Cordoba, CAMPO DE LA VERDAD andZUMBACÓN became slums, neighbourhoods forthe poor in which life was hard. Fray Albino, the Catholic Church Bishop ofthe time and the political authorities outlined anew neighbourhood, in which small one-storeyhouses were built for the poor. It started off inthe 40s and by the end of the 50s the brand newquarter had become a reality. These were the first houses at the time theywere being built. People were expelled fromslums as some of the houses were being rebuilt.There were frequent floods because the riverGuadalquivir is very close to the neighbourhood. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
DURING THE 18th CENTURY AND THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19th The birth and death rates are very similar and the growth of population was slow if we compare it with other European cities. Many deaths were due to diseases such as the flu and wars (Independence or Carlist wars ). There was a scarcity of doctors. In Cordoba there were two hospitals although most of people with serious diseases assisted died. A child was considered a man at 14. Average life expectancy for men was 45, whereas for women it was 35. Many of them died at childbirth. They had 12 children on average. •There was not a compulsory education but every people learnt to sign and count from zero to a hundred. The population of Cordoba lived on vegetables, a bit of meat, bread, and wine and they only ate fish from the river and salted codfish at Easter. The church was one of the most important authorities and they ordered costumes to the populationEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Most men were employed in the Primary Sector at the production of handmade soaps, leather, clothes, silver jewellery and in small factories of metal. Children started working at the age of 8. From 1865 to 1931 A period of relative peace allowed Cordoba to grow. It transformed the city and its population. The arriving of the trains changed the diet and the city began a period of relative growth. Although low classes had the same problems, the city grew and It got better medical assistance and hygienic measures reached the population. The mortality rate went down but the catastrophically diseases continued causing many deaths (Spanish flu on 1918-1919) . The Town Hall ordered in 1892 the compulsory education for children between 6 to 9 years old. Although in the middle of 20th century the literacy rate only reached 20% of the whole population.
•Families were supported by the working men. •The mother worked at home, she raised children, she got the water from village fountains, collected wood or coal for the fireplace, and occasionally they worked in middle or high class houses like cookers or domestic servants. •If they werent able to get money enough to feed their children, they went to the charity convents or to the Church. •The main laws passed were about robberies of food or street violence.•Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern societyThere were three kind of houses in Cordoba: The High Class livings The medium classes houses The popular livings
•Characteristics and members–At homes, three or four generations of the same family co-existed. Sons,parents, grandparents and older generations live together.–Many girls got pregnant when they were 12, and they got married at an evenearlier age.-Most of the people lived in tenement houses, in which the quarters ( two orthree bedrooms ) gathered around a patio. The neighbours shared facilities suchas the kitchen or the toilet.-8 a 12 members of the family slept in the same house and sometimes there wasno room for some of them that had to move to nearby relatives houses. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The separation among the women and the men was total. In fact, the women couldstudy a few years more than the men because they were taught by religious orders, whilemen began to work younger than women. They learnt to cook, read, count, sew, embroider; it was the girls became ready for theweddings, although in middle and high classes they could learn to play an instrument andeven art or poetry. The typical Cordobese woman from the beginning of the 20th century was painted byJulio Romero de Torres. Agriculture was one of the most important jobs in Cordoba at the beginning of the20th century and peasants worked using traditional ploughs pulled by horses to ploughthe fields. Most of the tenement houses were trimmed with flowers blossoming in the month ofMay, when Cordoba celebrates its most important festivity. The presence of the water wells improved the health of the population of Cordoba. The holidays were very important and they established the rhythm of the life of thecity.
• The Cattle holidays or nowadays“La feria” was a important time andalong these dates the population oflow class could enjoy. The last spring and the summer inCordoba is very hot (temperatures>40º C in July and august) and its atradition feed with cold soups orcreams as the Gazpacho or Salmorejowhich used the hard bread of lastdays with tomatoes and oil. After the lunch, and Knowing thetrouble with the Sun, all the streets ofCordoba were emptying by the“siesta” In autumn and winter the foodcostumes were more. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
•The population of Cordoba suffered a hard conditions of livingalong two centuries and improvement was slow. The conditions of the low class were worse than middle and highclasses. •There were not a economic evolution indeed the population whocame from the fields had the same conditions or worse when theyarrived and lived in towns. •The Secondary education or University was only reserved to themedium and high class, and the illiteracy was along this time almost90 %.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Nowadays there are many customs and superstitions in the south of Spainassociated with weddings that have no relation with those held fifty years ago. Awedding was a social event for the whole village or the neighbourhood, since mostpeople were invited. Nowadays things have changed quite a lot, the couple just invitetheir family and friends in salons, not in houses. Nowadays things have changed quitea lot, the couple just invite If we refer to the wedding itself, it has changed as well.Weddings used to be celebrated in the bride and bridegroom´s parents´ homes.,whereas now, it is in salons. The proposal, called "El Sí" fifty years ago, took placebetween mother and mother in law; men did not have a say in the matter. It was agreat party for all the family, even women wore "mantillas" for this ocassion. There wasa saying for the proposal: The groom´s mother asked "Aquí vengo a pedir la mano de tu hija parami hijo (groom´s name)"The bride´s mother answered: “Si ellos son conformes, concedida la tienes"Then, the groom gave a present to the bride. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Some of the "superstitions" that are current today in Spain are those related to the bride wearing something old, something blue and something borrowed, or not being seen by the groom in her wedding dress before the ceremony, and as I said before they were not held fifty years ago, when the influence of the mass media did not exist. The changes in the present wedding customs may be due to the influence of the English speaking countries introduced in ours, possibly as a result of the growing expansion of the massive media, above all the television and the cinema, for example the Hollywood films
Most couples got married in their twenties, after a few years of dating. Most of them were neighbours or lived in the same village. Weddings even took place among relatives. There were some couples who got married by proxy, since the bridegroom was living abroad. This was normal taking into account that there were many people who, after the war, emigrated to foreign countries, like France, Germany, etc. The couple used to go to the church walking or in taxi, since at that time just few people owned a car. Most brides were dressed entirely in white which meant that they were virgins, however, when a woman was pregnant or in mourning, she dressed in black. Depending on the family the bridegroom‟s father paid for the bride‟s dress. Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society In the celebration there were around fifty or sixty guests maximum because most of the time the party was held at a relative‟s house, except if the couple belonged to a high class and lived in a town that it was celebrated in a hotel. We cannot forget that there were no hotels in villages to celebrate weddings, so everybody celebrated their wedding in houses. As the celebrations were in houses and there wasn‟t much money, the family invited the guests to cakes and drinks. In the case that the family was wealthy and belonged to a higher class, things were bit different because the food was abundant and varied. If the family was very wealthy, at that time, the groom contributed to the marriage with the guest room and the dining room and the bride contributed with the rest of the furniture apart from bringing her trousseau. Most women used to make their own one.
As most coup les didnt hav they usually e much mon didn‟t go on ey to travel, them were a a honeymoon ble to travel. . Just a few o After one or f two years of first child. In marriage the Spain in the y had their houses and c 60‟s there w ouples didn‟t as no TV in th use birth con e trol methods .Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
After an intense web search, we have found ghout scarce examples o f women artists throu that the centuries. The m ain reason for this is h at of literature, in whic arts was a field, like th n. womens w orks were not focused o ged Most of these wom en artists were encoura of to follow this path b y their parents, most f well- known artists in them are daughters o their times.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Femme cousant the ugh ter of as the da o ine t A n t rn Virgen de la leche She w h it ec d ar c as bo o r a n ille She w urcia, scul pt M a rs e y in M isca ta Daughte Duparc s parents s as Franc r of re hi wn sculptor no w ne d during is kno Pedro R she th his married oldan. S he where nce wi the scu Fra Antonio . lptor Lu is Dupar. me back to he develope d She ca where ce of She wo rked as in 1745, r the influen an sculptor camera family iqu e unde n-Baptiste v for the hn of Ch a monarch his tec n Jea rles II s re nchma andAlthoug h he and Ph ilip the F E ur o p e o un dfame die d in pov had gr eat L oo. trave lled ar in Lond o n. erty. She ttled ally she se eventu
She was including requeste d to per those o form por f the r t which be came ve oyal fam raits, She died ry famou ily, for in Óbido s. s in 1684 , at age 54. Cordeiro Pascal minent She is the most pro lf of XVII painter of the second ha Naturaleza muerta Portuguese. entered the At s ixteen, she de Coimbra. convent of Santa Ana nt, for In 1653 he left the conve g to her unknown rea sons, returnin parents. in the Some of her works are baç a or monaste ry of Alco Lisbon. Jeronim os Monastery inEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Eva Gon zalès is She wa an impr and die s born essionis d in the in Paris t painte same ci on Apri r. In Feb t y on M l 19, 1 ruary ay 5, 18 849 Museum 2008, 83. opened Frankfu of Ev a an exhi rts Sc G o n z al bition w hirn Impress es ith the ionist p an d work women ainters, th r e e , Mar B o t h er America ie Bra erthe Morisot n Mary cquemo French Cassatt nd an . d the Portrait ely in ticipated activ id and par In Madr ciety. at the a nA rtists So ceramics the Iberi ht drawi ng and She taug valo. eometry of Avila Are cs and g Institute themati She stu died ma rk. adrid to their wo 5, she died in M to apply a ry 6, 199 On Febru of 93. at the ageEurope –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society Encourag the path e d by h is decid of art i edly un where he n 1903 dertakes began de moving Embark veloping to Madr on the his true id already journey vocation possessi to Paris . ready to ng a s in 1909, face all t kill and and revo hat the techniqu lutionary city mea e, . nt then n ew omplex. La creacion de los pajaros ast and c work is v tinctive The painters work h as a dis s Varos style. There Rem edio ble ly reco gniza h uma n figuresand easi tylized appear sfrequently ymbolic tasks. on g gs by a strperformin nctuated ing is pu His paint agery sc ientific im interest in Maternidad
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
HISTORICAL EVENTS (19th) The 18th is the century of ROMANTICISM, an important movement started in Germany and soon spread in all Europe. All those thinkers reacted to Enlightment and revaluated human feelings, art as extraordinary creation, religion, nation, love and freedom. Nationality was the new concept in political ambit, made own by all social classes in the name of different values. The word Romanticism was associated to “ liberal “ that, ideologically, was in contrast at a return of the old monarchy forced by the Convention of Vienne and the oppressive policy of Metternich. There were a lot of people coming from middle class, from culture and army who met in secret sect as the Carboneria and Massoneria . The protagonists of the Carbonari Movement 1820-21 in Basilicata, as patriots guided the countrymen with the young middle class to claim freedom and new agricultural laws . But those movements were bloody repressed by Austrians and Borbons . In the town of Potenza there were important men like Nicola Sole and the priest Emilio Maffei who lead the movement against Borbons .Nowadays, squares and streets have their name.Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society ECONOMYBasilicata , disadvantaged as regard its conformation and margined for long time , itwas one among the poorest district of the Country . The economy of Basilicata wasbased on agriculture but not on valuable product because of the irregular rains andconformation .
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society
Europe –transition from traditional to modern society The Comenius team of the project “ Europe –transition from traditional to modern society” wouldlike to thank all the teachers and students in thecoordinating and partners‟ schools who havecontributed their skills to producing this book. Wewould also like to thank the teachers and studentswhose comments and feedback were invaluable inthe production of the book. But above all, thanksare due in particular to the following teachers andstudents for their work, support and patience :
The place of women and men in the 19th century society 1. Teacher : Ene Liliana 2. Students : Costea Roberta, Toma Bogdan,Tomica Alexandra, Dumitru Florin, Oprea Catalin, GavaneanuCatalin, Burlacu Bianca The lifestyle of the low and high classes in the traditional society 1. Teacher: Gavre (Ivan) Iuliana 2. Students : Manciu Oana , Maracineanu Elena, Ciobotaru Adriana, Vlad Mihai, Dima Laurentiu, RaducanuGabriela, Tancau Monica, Iordache Cristina, Anica Andreea, Dragomir Costin, Rosu Laurentiu, Dima Stefania,Constantinescu Ana-Maria ,Serbu Catalin Art in the traditional society 1. Teacher : Matei Roxana 2. Students : Popescu Teodor, Ciochina Mihai, Dinu Cosmin, Branzea Steluta, Nartea Ana-Maria, NastaseGeorgiana, Cristea Alina, Hirsu Daniel, Ene Laurentiu, Dumitru Silviu, Niculescu Bogdan , Marina Georgian, EftimieAndrei, Burducea Cristina, Stoicescu Andreea, Vizitiu Alexandra, Draghici Alexandra, Fratila Madalina, Grajdieru Ionut,Pislaru Silviu, Puiu Mihai, Stilpeanu Radu, Mititelu Cornel Historical and economical background 1. Teachers : Gavre Iuliana si Aristotel Doinita 2. Students : Bratosin Bianca, Circiumaru Flavia, Persoiu Madalina, Mihalcea Cristiana, Balaban Andra,Bragagiu Alexandra, Bujor Cornelia, Grigore Diana, Pruna Marina, Guthy Daniel, Gavriloiu Catalin
Social and family relation in the traditional society 1. Teachers : Gürdal ÖZÇAKIR, Süheyda ALĠġAN, Kenan GENÇ, Birsel KAPAN, Hatice YILMAZ 2. Students : Tuba TUZCUOĞLU, Elif SARAÇ, Berkem KOġMA, Elif Seda AKDEMĠR, Zeynep AZMAN,Zehra AYDIN , Samet Berk, ABANOZ, Kardelen Deniz KARS, Muhammet YILMAZ, Sinem TÜLEK , Burçak BOZKURT ,Ahmet F.MAZLUM, Aylin SAĞLAM, Batuhan ERKAN , Gülnur AKGÜN , Tuğba ÇEVĠK ,Damla YĠĞĠT , Betül KURT The lifestyle of the low and high classes in the traditional and modern society 1. Teachers : Gürdal ÖZÇAKIR, Süheyda ALĠġAN ,Kenan GENÇ, Birsel KAPAN, Hatice YILMAZ 2. Students : Merve ĠNCE,Sinem TÜLEK, Zülal ERBĠL,Ece ALPAGO , Özge ALAOĞLU, Bulçe CEBECĠ,Gizem ALTINDAġ, Gizem KOCAMAN, Aylin ÇEVĠK, GüneĢ YELETAYġĠ, Osman ARSLAN, Dilek BADEM Art in the traditional and the modern society 1. Teachers : Gürdal ÖZÇAKIR, Süheyda ALĠġAN ,Kenan GENÇ, Birsel KAPAN, Hatice YILMAZ 2. Students : Ġkbal ÜNLÜ, Yasemin ÇETĠNKAYA, Gizem BĠLĠR, Özlem UYSAL, Hande BODUR, SinemTÜLEK, Deniz DAĞISTANLI, Damla AYDEMĠR, Zehra AYDIN Historical and economical background 1. Teachers : Elif SARAÇ, Özlem UYSAL, Zeynep AZMAN, Oya GÖKALP 2. Students : Sinem TÜLEK, Ġkbal ÜNLÜ, Berkem KOġMA, Tuba TUZCUOĞLU, Hande BODUR
Teachers : Carmen Aguilar, Jose Luis Montero, Trinidad JerezStudents :Juan Carlos Gonzales, Alexandra Gonzales, Juan RafaelAlcantara, Nazaret Romero , Angeles Alcudia