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  1. 1. Mike Bergamasco<br />The European Moment Chapters 17-20<br />The Most Recent Century Chapters 21-24<br />
  2. 2. Chapter 17 Voltaire<br />“My dear philosopher, doesn’t this appear to you to be the century of revolutions?”<br />Voltaire's warnings against the unchecked use & abuse of power are as pertinent today as when he wrote them prior to the French Revolution. He was critical of the kings and the Pope in his day. He noted “The people, when reduced to despair, consider the divine rights of their chiefs as an abuse.” As both God and politics remain hot topics, his works remain relevant today. <br />
  3. 3. CHAPTER 17<br />“We pursued a new and more noble course and accomplished a revolution that has no parallel in the annals of human society”.<br />James Madison<br />His greatest and truest fame is as the "father of the Constitution." His work on the Federalist Papers was noted in Paris newspapers on the eve of the French Revolution to be “the hope and model of the human race.” He advocated the practice and principles of equality as announced in the Declaration of Independence. Madison helped to politically dismantle Europe’s New World empires and establish as system with checks and balances, separation of church and state and bring real Enlightenment into practice. <br />
  4. 4. CHAPTER 17<br />Robespierre<br />“It is manifestly contrary to the laws of nature that a handful of people should gorge themselves while the hungry multitude goes in want of necessities.”<br />Robespierre was influenced by 18th-century Enlightenmentphilosophes such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu, and he was a capable articulator of the beliefs of the left-wingbourgeoisie. His supporters thought of him as an incorruptible force, his detractors as a dictator. The French Revolution was a more far reaching and violent movement than the American Revolution and ended with the execution of Robespierre. <br />
  5. 5. Chapter 18 <br /> Industrial Revolution<br />Historians view the Industrial Revolution as erupting quickly and unexpectedly between 1750 and 1850. Few elements of Europe’s transformation held a greater impact than this revolution. The acceleration of technological innovation helped increase productivity, and create new sources of energy. Soon the revolution spread beyond the shores of Great Britain and spread to Europe and the United States. A period of economic growth marked this unique phase in human history.<br />
  6. 6. Classes of the 19th Century<br />CHAPTER 18<br />ARISTOCRACY: Rapidly growing populations and urbanization created a sustained demand for food products grown mainly on land owned by the Aristocratic class. For most of the 19th century this class dominated British Parliament. MIDDLE CLASS: This group benefited the most from the Industrial Revolution as many were mine owners, bankers and merchants as well as small businessmen, teachers, lawyers and other professionals with their own set of values. LABORING CLASS: This group comprised 70% of the population and were manual workers who had little benefit or power to change the plight of their urban condition.<br />
  7. 7. United States<br />Russia<br />Democracy<br />Legal Political Parties<br />Elected President<br />Change coming from bottom up<br />Free markets, competition<br />Absolute Monarchy<br />No national parliament<br />Tsar with power absolute<br />Slavery and exploited serfdom<br />State dictated change<br />CHAPTER 18<br />IMPENDING CHANGE IN U.S. AND RUSSIA<br />
  8. 8. Chapter 19China, Ottoman Empire, Japan 1800-1914<br />CHINA: Unlike Europe, no Industrial Revolution accompanied the burst in population. The result was pressure on small farms, and huge unemployment, poverty and starvation. China suffered from centralized bureaucracy and a declining dynasty giving rise to rebellion and upheaval and the devastation of China’s economy.<br />
  9. 9. The Ottoman Empire was the most prominent state of the Islamic civilization. It posed a clear military and religious threat to Europe. Much of its power was diminished by the changing global power and aimed to defend and preserve their independence, some held tightly to their identities and values while others embraced a new nationalism and modernity.<br />Ottoman Empire<br />CHAPTER 19<br />
  10. 10. CHAPTER 19<br />JAPAN<br />In the second half of the 19th century Japan radically transformed its society. This was a “revolution” from above which turned the nation into a powerful, modern, united and industrialized nation. Japan was successful in creating its own East Asian empire while remaining uniquely Japanese. Although they underwent enormous social and political change, a strong interest in Western culture, science and technology emerged. <br />
  11. 11. Chapter 20 Colonial Economies<br />Colonial rule affected the lives of its subjects due to its power to tax, seize land and compel labor. There was a growing integration of the African and Asian societies into the world economy as a surge for gold, cotton, coffee and other products brought about profound change to the era. <br />
  12. 12. Coersion<br />CHAPTER 20<br />Forced labor during the early 2oth century brought about untold cruelties. Peasants were required to cultivate 20% or more of their land in cash crops. The traditional authorities benefitted and peasants were dealt with cruelly. Cash crops began to transform the lives of colonized people and enrich local farmers. Standards of living began to improve but a labor shortage soon emerged. <br />
  13. 13. Cultural Change<br />CHAPTER 20<br />Colonial rule exposed much of Asia and Africa to European culture which brought about cultural change in their societies. Many within these societies were forced to rethink the ways in which they thought of themselves within their culture. <br />Education brought about by missionaries additionally changed the illiteracy rates amongst colonialized people, giving rise to some social mobility. <br />
  14. 14. Chapter 21: Europe’s Chaos<br />Europe in 1914 was prime for eruption and conflict as the major powers of the continent formed rivaling alliances. <br />Competition for superiority and influence brought extreme nationalism to the forefront. The continent plunged into war. Although the theatre was Europe, the war had global long lasting implications.<br />
  15. 15. CHAPTER 21<br />IMPACT OF WORLD WAR I<br />WWI was considered the war to end all wars. World War I marked a turning point in world history. It reduced the global influence of Europe, destroying some of its monarchies and empires and diminishing the strength of others. <br />It enabled new nations to emerge. Shifting economic resources and cultural influences away from Europe, the war encouraged nations in other areas of the world, notably the United States, to challenge <br />Europe's international leadership.<br />Essentially a civil war in Europe with global implications, World War I destroyed some empires and weakened others.<br />
  16. 16. CHAPTER 21<br />The Great Depression<br />The most influential change of post WWI was decidedly the Great Depression. As the war represented the political collapse of Europe, the economic system was equally failing. The instability of capitalism was devastating and American fortunes were wiped out overnight. Unemployment soared shanty towns, breadlines and vacant factories symbolized the human strife of this decade. The response from government would change the relationship between individuals, private sector and government.<br />
  17. 17. Chapter 22: Communism<br />Communism had a significant impact on the world in the 20th century. Once a regime was established, it set about to fundamentally transform the society. <br />Communism posed a serious military, political and ideological threat to the Western world. <br />The struggle against communism divided continents, countries and even cities for influence over the world. <br />
  18. 18. CHAPTER 22<br />Chinese and Russian Communism<br />While Soviet and Chinese communism were both rooted in the ideas of Marxism, neither one of them was an accurate representation of true Marxism. In comparing the two different systems, we see that there are many differences between the Soviet idea of communism and the Chinese idea of communism. The first difference between these two systems has to do with the land distribution. In the Soviet system, land was organized by collectivization. China on the other had, they had a social obligation where there was a goal set by the government, and any surplus product that the farmers made, they were allowed to use as they wanted.<br />
  19. 19. Fall of Communism<br />CHAPTER 23<br />The fall of Russian communism began in China in 1976 with the death of the communist leader Mao Zedong. In the Miracle Year of 1989, communist governments were toppled all across Eastern Europe . This gave rise to the final end of the dysfunctional system with the rise of the Russian reformer, Mikhail Gorbachev. Intending to save the Soviet socialist system, he instead brought its failures to the fore. In 1991, the end of the Cold War and Communism was realized. Communism had left behind great economic ruin and human suffering. <br />
  20. 20. Chapter 23: Global South<br />Apartheid was the overwhelming prominence of race expressed as a policy in which whites controlled the economy. Blacks were exposed to extreme forms of social segregation and racism. The South African government responded to peaceful freedom demonstrations with more repression.<br />
  21. 21. Struggle for Freedom<br />CHAPTER 23<br />Nelson Mandela dedicated his life to the struggle of the African people. He steadfastly fought against the white domination and promoted the peaceful ideals of freedom. In 1964 he was arrested for treason and spent 27 years in prison for his fight against the apartheid government. When international pressure was brought to bear, Mandela was released. In 1994 he was elected Africa’s first black president. His struggle for the decolonization and independence was significant for the world.<br />The election of Mandela brought political mobilization of millions of Africans accompanied by economic and cultural independence. Despite enormous challenges Mandela prevailed and was thrust onto the world stage.<br />
  22. 22. Economic Development<br />CHAPTER 23<br />The quest for economic development was a top priority for the Global South. Economic freedom and higher living standards would bring about universal acceptance of the African people and their governments. However, the task remains formidable. Illiteracy, poverty, disease, ethnic fighting, and population explosions gave rise to many fundamental obstacles. Despite political independence, they have little economic leverage today.<br />
  23. 23. Chapter 24:Globalization<br />The 20th century brought about a complex web of political, economic, cultural and religious influences worldwide. The acceleration of these interactions and engagements became known as “globalization.” This interaction has brought about a transformation of the world economy with the intense growth of international trade and linkages. <br />Technology has played a major role in globalization. Communications, shipping, manufacturing and world wide work forces have all felt the impact of a highly technological world. <br />
  24. 24. Fundamentalism<br />CHAPTER 24<br />Religious fundamentalism began to emerge in the latter part of the 20th century. The most prominent religion to emerge was Islam. Islamic activism gave rise to a violent and expression of the Muslim faith. Widespread unemployment, corruption and slow economic growth gave way to huge gaps between rich and poor. Disillusioned citizens began to struggle against European domination and Western ideals. This clash of cultures and civilization would mark the next several decades.<br />
  25. 25. Global Environment<br />CHAPTER 24<br />Environmental movements soon began to transform thinking about human’s impact on the earth. The burgeoning population, pollution and use of energy transformed economies, technologies and policies. Pressures to change values and turn from materialism and consumerism began to take hold worldwide. These movements were largely peaceful yet sometimes included guerrilla tactics. Today, there are still sharp conflicts between governments<br />in developed and emerging nations. <br />Sustainability and restraint are <br />amongst the topics for global discourse. <br />