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2010 Nuking The N Ox


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How Volvo Trucks meet 2010 EPA

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2010 Nuking The N Ox

  2. 2. Emission Development NOx with Credits
  3. 3. Reducing Particulates 0.25 0.1 .01 Units: g/hp-hr aftertreatment
  4. 4. Reducing Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) 6 5 2.5 4 1.2 0.5 0.2 “ The technology does not exist to achieve 0.2 without aftertreatment” Units: g/hp-hr aftertreatment
  5. 5. Near-Zero Emissions from Truck Diesels CO Carbon Monoxide HC Hydrocarbons PM Particulate Matter Carbon (Soot) NOx Oxides of Nitrogen NEAR ZERO NEAR ZERO NEAR ZERO NEAR ZERO
  6. 6. Exhaust Gas Recirculation <ul><li>A big step in the evolution of the low-emission diesel was Exhaust Gas Recirculation. Some of the exhaust gas is recycled back through the engine under certain circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the EGR is not to ‘re-burn the exhaust’ </li></ul><ul><li>EGR dilutes the amount of oxygen in the intake charge. This reduces the temperature of combustion and lowers formation of NOx. But how much is too much? </li></ul>EGR Cooler
  7. 7. NOx: At Odds with Fuel Economy In general, the more efficient the combustion, the higher the NOx output. The lower the NOx output, the lower the efficiency Efficiency, % more more less less EFFICIENCY vs. NOx NOx Reduction, %
  8. 8. <ul><li>Major improvements in NOx came with ultra high pressure fuel injection. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher fuel injection pressure gives finer atomization for better combustion, reducing the soot </li></ul><ul><li>Shaped fuel injection delivery allows pressure rise to be controlled for best possible release of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Proven Delphi Dual Solenoid fuel injector used since EPA’02 now delivers 35,000 psi for EPA’07 & ‘10 </li></ul>How Have We Been Able to Reduce NOx and Still Maintain Fuel Economy? Dual Solenoid Fuel Injector
  9. 9. More Exhaust Gas Recirculation?? 35% - 50+% 20% - 35% 10% - 20% EGR Flow Massive EGR Heavy EGR Light EGR Industry Definition
  10. 10. Keeping Everything in Balance is a Challenge… Peak Cylinder Pressure NOx to Soot Ratio Displacement Fuel Injection Pressure Air/Fuel ratio Regeneration Power Density “ Not to Exceed” Emission Window Boost Pressure
  11. 11. <ul><li>The Solution for 2010: </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra High Pressure Fuel Injection to Reduce the Soot </li></ul><ul><li>Light-Heavy EGR to knock Down the NOx </li></ul><ul><li>DPF aftertreatment for Near-Zero Soot </li></ul><ul><li>SCR aftertreatment for Near-Zero NOx </li></ul>How Do We Meet The Near-Zero Levels of 2010 with Good Fuel Economy??
  12. 12. <ul><li>Why use SCR? (NOx Aftertreatment) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SUPERIOR fuel economy, compared to other solutions for EPA’10. Total fuel costs will be significantly reduced, even allowing for the DEF. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved engine performance. Less EGR needed, less heat rejection into cooling system results, greater power density, and higher efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very little maintenance required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable, proven approach (High volume production in other markets) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What additions to the truck will be included? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEF tank, on the driver’s side. Heated. Various sizes depending on fuel capacity. Includes pump and filter. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heated lines, pump to injector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEF injector, mounted to today’s frame-mounted Diesel Particulate Filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SCR catalyst, behind DPF or vertically mounted </li></ul></ul>All About Selective Catalytic Reduction
  13. 13. EPA’10 Hardware: Injector and Catalyst
  14. 14. EPA’10 Hardware
  15. 15. EPA’10 Hardware
  16. 16. DEF Indicator – a Real Gage
  17. 17. Volvo In-Tank Heater / Pickup <ul><li>Fits inside DEF tank from top </li></ul><ul><li>Circulates engine coolant through the Diesel Exhaust Fluid to maintain proper temperature – 60 o F </li></ul><ul><li>All stainless steel, high-quality </li></ul><ul><li>DEF level gage float (in center), with wiring harness </li></ul><ul><li>DEF pickup with intake filter </li></ul><ul><li>No tank insulation is required </li></ul><ul><li>By the way – Volvo Group has already delivered over 150,000 of this part. Like the rest of the SCR system, it’s proven. It works. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>What about the base engine? </li></ul><ul><li>Base engine will only experience minor changes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same proven injection system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same camshaft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same cylinder head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same block </li></ul></ul>Changes for EPA’10 <ul><li>Volvo is the only manufacturer who is going into 2010 with essentially the same engine as 2007 </li></ul>
  20. 20. Comparing EGR & SCR MORE LESS Fuel Efficiency LESS MORE Heat Rejection MORE LESS Power Density EGR + SCR MASSIVE EGR
  21. 21. <ul><li>The after-treatment system utilizes an injection of a solution of urea. </li></ul><ul><li>Urea is a compound of nitrogen that turns to ammonia (NH 3 ) when heated. When a urea solution is injected into the exhaust stream and passed over a catalyst, the urea reacts with the NOx to form just nitrogen and water vapor – both clean components of ‘air’. </li></ul><ul><li>Ammonia + NOx react to make N 2 + H 2 0 – nitrogen and water vapor – nothing left over. </li></ul>Diesel Exhaust Fluid (Urea)
  22. 22. <ul><li>The main component of DEF is an organic nitrogen-rich compound called urea . </li></ul><ul><li>Urea is synthesized from natural gas and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Urea is very widely used in agriculture as a fertilizer, most often distributed in wax-coated pellets. (Not a water solution) </li></ul><ul><li>Urea is a compound of nitrogen that turns to ammonia (NH 3 ) when heated. </li></ul><ul><li>Why call it DEF? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive industry wanted a generic name </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is Diesel Exhaust Fluid made from? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32.5% urea, 67.5% demineralized water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be kept extremely pure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why 32.5%? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water solution with lowest freezing point, 12 o F. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DEF is governed by DIN 70700 and the ISO 22241-1 specifications. </li></ul>Diesel Exhaust Fluid (Urea)
  23. 23. Diesel Exhaust Fluid Water Diesel Exhaust Fluid Crystalline Solid Slurry 12 o F Ice
  24. 24. <ul><li>DEF Freezes at 12 o F. </li></ul><ul><li>THERE IS NO DELAY IN DRIVING A TRUCK WITH A FROZEN DEF TANK. </li></ul><ul><li>You can walk up to a truck that has been standing over a frigid weekend and drive it away with no additional warm-up time. </li></ul><ul><li>A few cc’s will melt immediately due to the heat from the exhaust. </li></ul><ul><li>The tank heater will eventually melt the rest as you drive. </li></ul><ul><li>Oh, by the way – one of the other uses for urea is as a de-icer. Google it. </li></ul>So This Stuff Freezes?
  25. 25. 3000 Mile Coast-to-Coast Trip Los Angeles New York Here are the Numbers (Worst Case, as of this date) You can travel coast to coast And still have 1/3 tank of DEF left over 13 gallons DEF
  26. 26. <ul><li>For every $1.00 of Diesel Exhaust Fluid you put in your truck with SCR technology, your diesel fuel costs will be reduced by nearly $2.00. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The total COST of fuel PLUS Diesel Exhaust Fluid for EPA'10 will be 5% LESS than our EPA’04 engine, under similar conditions.&quot; </li></ul>How Much Extra Does That Stuff Cost? Quick, Gimme a Buck
  27. 27. <ul><li>How much Diesel Exhaust Fluid is required? </li></ul><ul><li>Volvo is optimizing the amount of Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) to be injected for US’10 standards, but the rate will probably fall in the 2-4% range. </li></ul><ul><li>The more DEF, the lower the diesel fuel consumption. The less DEF, the more diesel fuel consumption. We will optimize for the lowest total cost. </li></ul><ul><li>What will be the price of Diesel Exhaust Fluid? </li></ul><ul><li>According to Volvo’s information, it is estimated at about 3/4 the price per gallon of diesel fuel. The exact price will, as always, be set by the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Can the UREA infrastructure meet the additional demand? </li></ul><ul><li>Easily. Globally over 100 million tons of urea were produced last year, primarily for agriculture, and also for cosmetics. </li></ul>DEF Q&A
  28. 28. Potential DEF Sale Locations
  29. 29. Diesel Exhaust Fluid Dispensers
  30. 30. As Close As Your Nearest Travel Center Convenience Store D
  31. 31. EPA’10 Testing Experience October 2, 2007 -- FIRST FIVE EPA’10 TEST TRUCKS DELIVERED
  32. 32. EPA’10 Testing Experience <ul><li>About Twenty EPA’10 Customer Function Trucks </li></ul><ul><li>~ Well Over 1.5 Million Miles </li></ul><ul><li>23 SCR Evaluation Trucks since 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>~ 10 Million Miles </li></ul><ul><li>~150,000 SCR Euro IV and Euro V trucks globally </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>~ 2+ Billion Miles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>We know what we’re doing </li></ul>
  33. 33. On Board Diagnostics (OBD) Engine EGR Fuel Fuel Mixing zone DPF Diesel Exhaust Fluid Reservoir Sensors: 3 Temperature sensors 1 Differential Pressure sensor 2 NOx-sensors OBD DEF Mixing zone SCR Exhaust Outlet
  34. 34. Volvo for EPA’10 Due to the lower fuel costs, and to higher reliability, SCR will clearly provide the customer’s lowest cost of operation. Cost of Operation 6. Volvo has the benefit of implementing a proven technology – 150,000 on road already, 2x+ by 2010 Durability / Reliability 5. Volvo adds a tank, with coolant line heater and pump Complexity 4. Power density with SCR is higher, not lower Power 3. D13 with SCR several hundred pounds less than 15L Weight 2. <ul><li>SCR more efficient than Massive EGR </li></ul><ul><li>Including DEF, lower by $3000 (or more) </li></ul>Fuel Economy 1. Benefit Feature
  35. 35. <ul><li>Thank you. Questions? </li></ul>