Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Diesel Emissions and Exhaust After-Treatment for Modern Diesel Technology National Biodiesel Board Technician Outreach Pro...
Today’s Topics <ul><li>Changes in diesel engine emissions regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Basics of diesel engine emissions ...
US On Highway Emissions Standards 1988 1990 1991 1994 1998 2000 2002 2010 0.80 0.33 0.134 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 NO x ,   g/kW-Hr...
Fuel technology Combustion technology Aftertreatment technology Fuel system technology Better understanding of combustion ...
<ul><li>Injection performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher injection pressure  1600-2000+  bar  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Injection performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher injection pressure  1600-2000+  bar  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Fuel properties effects on Common Rail FIE <ul><li>Startability </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate SOI </li></ul><ul><li>Controlle...
Biodiesel Specifications Minimize Concerns <ul><li>Oxidation Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gumming and sticking </li></u...
Water in Fuel is a Problem <ul><li>All non-dissolved water can cause problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as growth medium f...
Fuel-Water Removal More Difficult in Future <ul><li>ULSD additive package lowers interfacial tension making removal more d...
Exhaust Aftertreatment for Emissions Control   <ul><li>Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Catalyze...
Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Maintenance <ul><li>Carbon particulates are burned off with on-board regeneration </li></u...
Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPFs) <ul><li>Uses chemicals in exhaust to continuously burn carbon in Soot Filter <...
NO x  Adsorber Technology <ul><li>Filter removes particles </li></ul><ul><li>LNA absorbs NOx on lean operation </li></ul><...
Selective-Catalysts Reduction (SCR) Aqueous  Urea Solution  Tank Ammonia Slip Catalyst  Engine 1 2 3 4 5 6 T Air Induction...
Selective-Catalysts Reduction (SCR) <ul><li>Uses aqueous Urea instead of fuel to convert NOx to Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><ul...
What Will Be in the Marketplace? <ul><li>All of the above! </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate Traps (or Soot Filters) were acro...
How Does Biodiesel Effect  Emissions & Aftertreatment ? <ul><li>Fuel System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern over deposits an...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Biodiesel and Exhaust AfterTreatment

1,580 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Biodiesel and Exhaust AfterTreatment

  1. 1. Diesel Emissions and Exhaust After-Treatment for Modern Diesel Technology National Biodiesel Board Technician Outreach Program Rachel Burton & David Stehouwer 2009
  2. 2. Today’s Topics <ul><li>Changes in diesel engine emissions regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Basics of diesel engine emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in hardware required by emissions regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions of fuels and fuel systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods of exhaust aftertreatment </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaust aftertreatment & biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul>
  3. 3. US On Highway Emissions Standards 1988 1990 1991 1994 1998 2000 2002 2010 0.80 0.33 0.134 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 NO x , g/kW-Hr Particulate, g/kW-Hr 8.05 6.7 6.7 5.4 3.3 1.5 0.013 14 16 14.4 2007 0.27
  4. 4. Fuel technology Combustion technology Aftertreatment technology Fuel system technology Better understanding of combustion Alternate Fuels (Biodiesel) Low sulfur De-NOx DOC PM trap Rate control High pressure Multi-injection EGR technology Others Control technology Emission Reduction in Diesel Engines
  5. 5. <ul><li>Injection performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher injection pressure 1600-2000+ bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NOx, PM control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Noise control </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aftertreatment dosing, trap regen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Injection Rate Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft SOI  Better BSFC/NOx tradeoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp EOI    Better PM/smoke control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precise injection control – minimum variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum emission variation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamper resistant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable over useful life (>8000 hours) </li></ul></ul>Summary of Requirements for High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System Time Needle lift Pressure at needle seat Noise NO X Aftertreatment Soot Increased injection pressure
  6. 6. <ul><li>Injection performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher injection pressure 1600-2000+ bar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant increases in fuel economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At equivalent emissions </li></ul></ul></ul>Summary of Requirements for High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System (cont’d) Time
  7. 7. Fuel properties effects on Common Rail FIE <ul><li>Startability </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate SOI </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled HR </li></ul><ul><li>Leakage control </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure control </li></ul><ul><li>Durability/Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Gumming, sticking </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion / Wear </li></ul>Specified Fuel properties: chemical, contamination, physical Cetane # Density Aromatics & Volatility Sulfur Flash Pt Hard Particle and ash contamination Water contamination Oxidation Stability Lubricity Viscosity Fatty Acid Methyl Esters <ul><li>Pressure control </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity control </li></ul><ul><li>Elastomeric compatibility </li></ul><ul><li>Cavitation damage </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>Acid oxidation </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke & Particulates </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Spill Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Spark Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Scuffing </li></ul><ul><li>Seizure </li></ul><ul><li>Gumming, sticking </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion & Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Rough running (misfire) </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Abrasive Wear </li></ul><ul><li>Filter plugging </li></ul><ul><li>OTC and Refiner Additives </li></ul><ul><li>Anticorrosion </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane improvers </li></ul><ul><li>Cold flow improvers </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricity improvers </li></ul><ul><li>Conductivity improvers </li></ul><ul><li>Refining process contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>Catalysts </li></ul><ul><li>Desulfurization agents </li></ul><ul><li>Cross contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution and storage process contaminants </li></ul><ul><li>tank bottoms * pumps, pipes </li></ul><ul><li>microbial * corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>algae *varnish/sludge </li></ul>
  8. 8. Biodiesel Specifications Minimize Concerns <ul><li>Oxidation Stability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gumming and sticking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fuel system deposits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion and wear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total and Free Glycerin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion & Wear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter plugging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortened injector life </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Water in Fuel is a Problem <ul><li>All non-dissolved water can cause problems: </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as growth medium for organisms that plug filters </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrates acids and ionic species that cause corrosion and deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Freezes at cold temperatures and reduces fuel flow </li></ul><ul><li>Reacts with some additives to form precipitates and deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Plugs injector nozzles at extreme conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces fuel lubricity when in emulsified form </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fuel-Water Removal More Difficult in Future <ul><li>ULSD additive package lowers interfacial tension making removal more difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesels have lower interfacial tension and hold more water, again adversely impacting removal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FWS more challenging as biodiesel percentage in blends increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Solvency of biodiesel blends makes coated cellulose media option less effective </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exhaust Aftertreatment for Emissions Control <ul><li>Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Catalyzed Traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalyzed DPF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NOx Adsorber Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Solvent Catalyzed Reduction (SCR) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Maintenance <ul><li>Carbon particulates are burned off with on-board regeneration </li></ul><ul><li>Ash remains in the DPF and must be removed periodically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This requires removal from vehicle </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPFs) <ul><li>Uses chemicals in exhaust to continuously burn carbon in Soot Filter </li></ul><ul><li>Must still be removed to clean ash </li></ul>NO 2 Oxidizes Soot in Filter 2NO 2 + C  CO 2 + 2NO Converts NO  2NO 2 Soot Filter Platinum Catalyst Exhaust Gas
  14. 14. NO x Adsorber Technology <ul><li>Filter removes particles </li></ul><ul><li>LNA absorbs NOx on lean operation </li></ul><ul><li>Controls switch to rich operation to NOx to harmless Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Filter regeneration and LNA regeneration are separate </li></ul><ul><li>Complex; costly; & fuel economy loss </li></ul>Reference: Volvo Filter Diesel Injector NO x Sensor DOC Valves DOC Diesel Oxidation Catalyst LNA Bypass
  15. 15. Selective-Catalysts Reduction (SCR) Aqueous Urea Solution Tank Ammonia Slip Catalyst Engine 1 2 3 4 5 6 T Air Induction Pump and Injector Atomized Urea Solution Catalyzed Particulate Filter SCR Catalyst Air to Air Cooler C Reference: DDC Turbo-Charge NO EGR
  16. 16. Selective-Catalysts Reduction (SCR) <ul><li>Uses aqueous Urea instead of fuel to convert NOx to Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires extra tank etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must add Urea distribution system to supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced EGR or no EGR </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel economy gains compared to NOx Adsorber </li></ul><ul><li>Proven durability for European applications </li></ul><ul><li>Favored by some for large truck and stationary applications </li></ul>
  17. 17. What Will Be in the Marketplace? <ul><li>All of the above! </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate Traps (or Soot Filters) were across the board in 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>NOx Adsorbers are on some pick-up truck applications </li></ul><ul><li>SCR is favored for many HD truck and stationary applications </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Does Biodiesel Effect Emissions & Aftertreatment ? <ul><li>Fuel System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern over deposits and corrosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addressed by ASTM specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Engine Emissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower HC and Particulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOx emissions depend on duty cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aftertreatment hardware / durability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier DPF regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies at NREL / ORNL show no adverse effects on hardware durability </li></ul></ul>

×