Canadian diesel fuel


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Canadian diesel fuel

  1. 1. CANADIAN DIESEL FUEL CURRENT TOPICS <ul><li>Dr. Andy Pickard </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Advisor, Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Petro-Canada </li></ul>North American Council of Automotive Teachers 2001
  2. 2. DIESEL FUEL TOPICS <ul><li>Fuel Standards and Specifications; Canadian & American; OEM </li></ul><ul><li>Emissions Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel Qualities <=> operations / problems </li></ul><ul><li>Miscellaneous Diesel Fuel Issues </li></ul>
  3. 3. CAN/CGSB-3.6 & -3.517 <ul><li>National Standards of Canada for Regular Sulphur Diesel Fuel and Automotive Low Sulphur Diesel Fuel . </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus standards </li></ul><ul><li>Provinces must legislate for legal standing </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum standard in practice. </li></ul><ul><li>[] </li></ul>
  4. 4. U.S. Diesel Fuel Standard <ul><li>ASTM D 975 - consensus standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RSD & LSD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>California Diesel Fuel: “CARB Diesel” </li></ul><ul><li>[] </li></ul>
  5. 5. OEM FUEL SPECIFICATIONS <ul><li>Individual OEM companies may spell out fuel requirements or recommendations. </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Fuel Charter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EMA, AAM; JAMA; ACEA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 categories of diesel fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS <ul><li>Driver: Air quality in urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Particulates & Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) </li></ul><ul><li>Forcing most engine and fuel changes. </li></ul><ul><li>On-highway versus off-highway. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel: low sulphur & ultra low sulphur </li></ul>
  7. 7. EMISSIONS EMISSIONS EMISSIONS <ul><li>Major engine changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher fuel injection pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>timing changes / more soot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EGR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO x catalysts and particulate traps </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. IMPACTS on FUELS <ul><li>Electronics: hotter fuel; thermal stability; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fire safety issue. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Injection pressure: lubricity / wear. </li></ul><ul><li>Soot: lighter fuel / lower aromatics. </li></ul><ul><li>EGR: -- </li></ul><ul><li>NO x catalysts: “no” sulphur. </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate traps: lighter fuel / lower aromatics. </li></ul>
  9. 9. FUEL QUALITIES : OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS <ul><li>Individual specification requirements will be discussed, with implications for diesel engine operations or problems. </li></ul>
  10. 10. FUEL QUALITIES : OPERATIONS & PROBLEMS <ul><li>CLEANLINESS !!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Clean & Dry is critical, and is the most important single quality requirement!! </li></ul><ul><li>Dirt / particles will plug filters, restrict fuel flow / power, and lead to wear in pumps and injectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Water can cause rusting, corrosion, erosion, wear & catastrophic failure. </li></ul>
  11. 11. CETANE NUMBER <ul><li>Diesel fuel combustion quality </li></ul><ul><li>Higher cetane = quicker combustion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>( shorter ignition delay ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cetane number = engine test result. </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane index = calculation to predict cetane number. </li></ul><ul><li>No correlation to fuel density. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CETANE NUMBER <ul><li>40 cetane number is minimum standard in North America ( typically 41 - 46 ). </li></ul><ul><li>Higher cetane is desirable, but expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Cetane quality effects cold starting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>white smoke </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>warm-up (smooth or rough) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noise level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cetane requirement drops when engine hot. </li></ul>
  14. 14. SULPHUR in Diesel Fuel <ul><li>Organic sulphur compounds in crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular (high) sulphur diesel = < 0.5 % S </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( RSD , < 5,000 ppm sulphur ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Low sulphur diesel fuel = < 0.05 % S </li></ul><ul><li>( LSD ; < 500 ppm sulphur ) </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra low sulphur diesel fuel = < 15 ppm S </li></ul><ul><li>( ULSD , June, 2006 ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. SULPHUR in Diesel Fuel <ul><li>Sulphur in diesel fuel: burns to form SO x </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosive to engine and exhaust system SO x + H 2 O ---> H 2 SO 3 , H 2 SO 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollutant </li></ul><ul><li>increases particulates </li></ul><ul><li>degrades engine oil </li></ul>
  16. 16. LOW SULPHUR in Diesel Fuel <ul><li>Lower particulate emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Lower SO x emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Less engine / exhaust corrosion </li></ul><ul><li>Less engine oil degradation (longer oil drain or better quality oil) </li></ul>
  17. 17. LUBRICITY <ul><li>The ability of fuel to lubricate parts of fuel systems (pumps and injectors). </li></ul><ul><li>Most fuels have good lubricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Low lubricity fuels require lubricity additive in Canada (but not in U.S.). </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory lubricity tests are poor, and may not show the presence of additives. </li></ul>
  18. 18. LUBRICITY <ul><li>Rotary and distributor pumps are most vulnerable. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit or in-line units (which are oil-lubricated) are less effected by fuel lubricity, and more likely to be ‘gummed’ by excessive lubricity additive or reaction of additive with engine oil. </li></ul>
  19. 19. VISCOSITY <ul><li>The “flow” property of diesel fuel; </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum and maximum limits; </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: nozzle spray pattern & droplet size; </li></ul><ul><li>“slippage” past pump; </li></ul><ul><li>possible filter restriction; </li></ul><ul><li>lubricity / wear. </li></ul>
  20. 20. DENSITY: ENERGY CONTENT <ul><li>kg / L @ 15 ºC; typically 0.855 kg / L </li></ul><ul><li>Energy content is related to density: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher density = higher energy content </li></ul><ul><li>Better fuel economy or higher power </li></ul><ul><li>Total range only about 7 % in energy (0.800 to 0.875 kg / L) </li></ul><ul><li>Typically < 2 % variation winter to summer. </li></ul>
  21. 21. API GRAVITY (Obsolete term)
  23. 23. LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES <ul><li>Cloud point normally used. </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolete term: pour point . </li></ul><ul><li>“2.5 % low end design temperature” (2.5 % of hourly temperature readings are lower than the design temperature.) </li></ul><ul><li>Not required in U.S. D 975. </li></ul>
  24. 24. DIESEL FUEL NAMES <ul><li>Names related to temperature: </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal diesel fuel - seasonally adjusted. </li></ul><ul><li>Identified by Celsius cloud point . </li></ul><ul><li>Obsolete names : Diesel 40 or P-40 negative Fahrenheit pour point: -40 ºF. </li></ul><ul><li>Other names: Arctic Diesel / No. 1 Diesel / Diesel 50 / “Diesel Light”, </li></ul>
  25. 25. LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS <ul><li>Icing : most common winter problem; ice crystals or layer of ice plug fuel filter. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: engine may run for a while before stalling. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions : change filter / drain water when warm; change fuel for winter fuel. </li></ul>
  26. 26. WATER & ICE <ul><li>No free water , however </li></ul><ul><li>No limit on dissolved water . </li></ul><ul><li>Solubility of water in diesel fuel decreases as the temperature drops. </li></ul><ul><li>Excess water separates as a haze or as ice crystals , which cause fuel filter plugging. </li></ul><ul><li>Action: drain any water while fuel is hot. </li></ul>
  27. 27. LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS <ul><li>Waxing or gelling : rare problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Wax crystals separate below cloud point and plug filter; eventually fuel ‘gels’ and goes solid. </li></ul><ul><li>Action: Warm up & change fuel; replace fuel filter. </li></ul><ul><li>(It takes a lot of kerosene to ‘cut’ waxy fuel!) </li></ul>
  28. 28. LOW TEMPERATURE PROBLEMS <ul><li>Fuel flow restriction : </li></ul><ul><li>Symptom : engine runs but does not develop full power. Causes : fine filtration; partly plugged filter; high viscosity fuel. Actions : replace filter / use higher porosity filter; change fuel. </li></ul>
  29. 29. DISTILLATION <ul><li>Boiling range of diesel fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher boiling (heavier) components increase soot and deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Only real “choice” is between Type B (No. 2 - heavier fuel; seasonal diesel fuel) and Type A (No. 1 - lighter fuel). </li></ul>
  30. 30. FLASH POINT <ul><li>The temperature of the fuel at which the vapours will burn when ignited with a spark or flame. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum +40 ºC; typically +50 to +70 ºC. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety issue ; not a diesel engine issue. </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-ignition: 225 ºC </li></ul>
  31. 31. HIBERNIA
  32. 32. ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY <ul><li>Safety issue : Canadian diesel fuels must have suitable conductivity to dissipate static electrical charges that may develop during pumping. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum 25 pS/m; typically > 100 pS/m </li></ul><ul><li>Not a requirement in the U.S. </li></ul>
  33. 33. OTHER REQUIREMENTS <ul><li>These specification requirements are usually “non-issues”: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copper corrosion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidity (total acid number) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon residue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. MISCELLANEOUS <ul><li>“ Bad Fuel ”: usually the sign of a mechanic who does not know what’s wrong! </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the real issue: e.g. dirt, water. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate between symptoms and causes . </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to local fuel suppliers! </li></ul>
  35. 35. MISCELLANEOUS <ul><li>“ Bad Fuel ” continued: </li></ul><ul><li>When there is a genuine fuel quality problem, there are usually many vehicles effected. </li></ul><ul><li>When a single vehicle is effected, it may be due to dirty or contaminated fuel in that vehicle, but not to ‘all fuel’. </li></ul>
  36. 36. HARMONIZATION <ul><li>Harmonization of fuels : </li></ul><ul><li>Canada will follow U.S. fuel developments in order to benefit from lower emissions from new engine designs. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. 15 ppm ULSD “at point of sale” for on-highway diesel fuel. </li></ul>
  37. 37. QUALITY <ul><li>Quality Control / Quality Assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Many refineries and laboratories are now following ISO 9000 practices to ensure quality products. </li></ul><ul><li>Still work to be done on quality practices in distribution and at point-of-sale . </li></ul>
  38. 38. QUALITY PROBLEMS <ul><li># 1 issue is cleanliness: clean & dry!! </li></ul><ul><li># 2 issue is water / ice at low temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>All other fuel-related problems are minor by comparison. </li></ul>
  39. 39. INVESTIGATION of COMPLAINTS <ul><li>What is the problem ? What was really observed , not possible causes. </li></ul><ul><li>When did it start? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the problem? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is the problem not occurring? </li></ul><ul><li>Test possible causes for consistency . </li></ul>
  40. 40. HEALTH & SAFETY <ul><li>Use normal ‘good hygiene’ practices in handling diesel fuel: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize skin contact. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove any fuel-soaked clothing. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wash with soap and water before eating or smoking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>See MSDS </li></ul>
  41. 41. FUTURE DIESEL FUEL <ul><li>All changes driven by lower emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>June 1, 2006 : ULSD = 15 ppm sulphur for on-road diesel fuel. Harmonized with U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>2007?: off-road diesel fuel: 500 ppm S ? </li></ul><ul><li>2010?: possible limits on cetane / density / aromatics / < 10 ppm sulphur? </li></ul>
  42. 42. QUESTIONS ?? <ul><li>Are there any questions on fuel topics? </li></ul><ul><li>There are no silly questions… </li></ul><ul><li>There are only people who make </li></ul><ul><li>silly mistakes because they didn’t ask simple questions! </li></ul>
  43. 43. HIGH QUALITY DIESEL FUEL <ul><li>Dr. Andy Pickard </li></ul><ul><li>Senior Advisor, Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Petro-Canada </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>(403) 296-8019 </li></ul>North American Council of Automotive Teachers 2001