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  1. 1. ABORTION<br />By: Christine G. dela Cruz<br />
  2. 2. Definition:<br /><ul><li>Abortion is the expulsion of a living fetus from the mother’s womb before it is viable.
  3. 3. Dr. Andre E. Hellegers</li></ul> - Defined abortion as termination of pregnancy spontaneously or by induction prior to viability. Thereafter, termination of pregnancy is called delivery.<br />
  4. 4. Reasons:<br /><ul><li>Economic Cost
  5. 5. Family Planning
  6. 6. Health
  7. 7. Rape incest
  8. 8. Age
  9. 9. Society’s moralism</li></li></ul><li>Historical Background:<br /><ul><li>In ancient Greece, Plato and Aristotle recommended abortion in order to avoid excess population in the small Greek city states.
  10. 10. Philippines:
  11. 11. Article II, Section 12 of the 1986 Philippine Constitution</li></ul>- “The state recognizes the sanctity of life and shall protect and strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social institution. It shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception.”<br />
  12. 12. <ul><li>Revised Penal Code of the Philippines (enacted in 1930 and remains in effect today)</li></ul>-Articles 256, 258 and 259 of the Code mandate imprisonment for the woman who undergoes the abortion, as well as for any person who assists in the procedure, even if they be the woman's parents, a physician or midwife.<br />
  13. 13. Practices in the Philippines:<br />Folk Medicine<br />Hilotsare usually rural or small-town individuals who come from a long line of local chiropractors. Hilots have basic knowledge of Filipino herbology, just like the albularyos, and use various pre-natal and post-natal techniques such as suob. Traditionally, infants who were delivered by a hilot usually undergo pagbubuhos, wherein the midwife immerses the baby in water.<br />
  14. 14. Although a hilot is required to register herself annually at the local municipal hall, this is not strictly enforced. This is because anyone can help deliver a baby as long as they have the knowledge of postpartum care and massage.<br />Another source of folk abortifacients are the vendors of abortion drugs made from herbs, such as those sold in the vicinity of Quiapo Church.<br />
  15. 15. Surgery<br />Abortion surgeries are uncommon in the Philippines due to the public's view of morality. However, many hospitals and medical centers can perform post-abortion care for mothers with very few complications.<br />
  16. 16. Modern Medicine<br />Abortion drugs such as Misoprostol (Cytotec), Methotrexate, Mifeprex (or RU486) and Mifepristone are also used as an alternative to folk medicine. This is because many women believe that other drugs are unsafe to ingest. However, since these pills are only available under prescription, it is illegal for pharmacists to distribute the drug without the permission of the mother's physician. This method is usually used by women whose lives are endangered by pregnancy.<br />
  17. 17. 3 General viewpoints of Abortion:<br />The conservative<br />The liberal<br />The moderate or intermediate<br />
  18. 18. The Conservative position.<br /><ul><li>It declares that abortion is never permissible, or at most, is permissible if and only it is required to save the pregnant woman’s life, as in the case of the removal of a cancerous uterus or the removal of the fallopian tube, or a part of it, because of ectopic pregnancy.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>The Liberal position.
  19. 19. States that abortion is always permissible, whatever the state of fetal development may be. If women are truly to be liberated, this view contends, they must ultimately have full freedom to control their own reproductive capacities.
  20. 20. A woman has the right to control her own body as her personal property within the context of the right of self-determination.</li></li></ul><li> “The fetus has no ontological status; it is neither an individual, human, nor a person, but only a tissue in a woman’s uterus; therefore, it possesses no rights and no moral status.”<br /> -- the liberals<br />
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Moderate position.
  22. 22. It holds that abortion is morally permissible up to certain stage of fetal development, or for some limited set of reasons sufficient to justify the taking of life in this or that special circumstances. As far as the moderates are concerned, the fetus attains ontological status at quickening or viability. Fetuses have only some rights and, therefore, have a partial status. In this regard, abortion before quickening is morally legitimate.</li></li></ul><li>Methods of Abortion:<br />Plants and plant preparations, e.g.,Makabuhay, Essenciamaravilosa. <br /><ul><li>Many of these plants probably do induce contractions of smooth muscles, such as those in the uterus. Sometimes, people think the plants work because their menstruation returns. In reality, the menstruation was probably only delayed.</li></li></ul><li>Physical methods. <br /> - Massage and abdominal pressure are applied by the hilot, or sometimes by the pregnant woman herself. This is a terrible painful method and is dangerous, especially in more advance pregnancies. The physical pressure is used to induce uterine contractions but these may not be enough to expel the fetus.<br /><ul><li>Insertion of catheters (sonda).</li></ul> - Women have been known to insert hangers,brooms, walistingting. These often lead to infections.<br />
  23. 23. <ul><li>Dilation and currettage (D&C or raspa). </li></ul> - Usually, this is done with women who had already began the abortion, in which case it is called completion curettage. There are, however, clandestine clinics that use D&C to induce an abortion.<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Menstrual regulation (MR). <br /> - This involves the use of suction or vacuumaspiration to terminate a very early pregnancy (usually the first few weeks).<br /> -A powerful suction tube with a sharp cutting edge is inserted into the womb through the dilated cervix. The suction dismembers the body of the developing baby and tears the placenta from the wall of the uterus, sucking blood, amniotic fluid, placental tissue, and fetal parts into a collection bottle. <br />
  26. 26.
  27. 27. <ul><li>Drugs. </li></ul> - There are many western drugs that people use to attempt to induce an abortion. These include medicines such as quinine, an anti-malarial; methylergometrin, a uterine stimulant and methotrexate, an anti-cancer drug. With some of these drugs, an abortion is actually a side effect. In other cases, the western medicine used may even have the opposite effect on a pregnancy. <br />
  28. 28. - Bricanyl (generic name: terbutaline) is perceived as an abortifacient in large doses but in reality, the drug actually delays labor rather than inducing an abortion.<br /> -One widely used drug, misoprostol (Cytotec) is actually a drug used to prevent ulcers but has abortion as a side effect. <br /> - Another drug called RU486 (Mifepristone) is now legal in China and a few European countries.<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Salt Poisoning.<br /> - Is used after 16 weeks of pregnancy, when enough fluid has accumulated in the amniotic fluid sac surrounding the baby. A needle is inserted through the mother’s abdomen and 50-250 ml of amniotic fluid is withdrawn and replaced with a solution of concentrated salt. The chemical solution also causes painful burning and deterioration of the baby’s skin. The baby breathes in, swallowing the salt, and is poisoned. Usually, after about an hour, the child dies. The mother goes into labor about 33 to 35 hours after and delivers a burned, and shriveled baby left to die.<br />
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  32. 32. Hysterotomy.<br /> - Similar to the Caesarean Section, this is used if chemical methods such as salt poisoning or prostaglandins fail . Incisions are made in the abdomen and uterus. The baby, placenta, and amniotic sac are removed. Babies are sometimes born alive during this procedure, raising questions as to how and when these infants are killed and by whom. <br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Types of Abortion:<br /><ul><li>Natural Abortion/Spontaneous or Accidental Abortion.</li></ul> - Also known as miscarriage (nakunan).<br /> - The expulsion of the fetus through natural or accidental causes.<br /><ul><li>Direct or Intentional Abortion</li></ul>- Deliberately induced expulsion of a living fetus before it has become viable.<br />
  35. 35. Therapeutic Abortion<br />-Deliberately induced expulsion of a living fetus in order to save the mother from the danger of death brought on by pregnancy.<br />Eugenic Abortion/Selective Abortion or Abortion on fetal indications<br /> - This is recommended in cases where certain defects are discovered in the developing fetus.<br /> - It is termed eugenic because it is meant to get rid of abnormal babies, and thus prevent them from “contaminating” the human species.<br />
  36. 36. Indirect Abortion<br /> - The removal of the fetus occurs as a secondary effect of a legitimate or licit action, which is direct and primary object of the intention.<br />
  37. 37. Effects of Abortion:<br />Physical Effects<br /><ul><li>Habitual miscarriages - Fever
  38. 38. Ectopic pregnancies - Cold sweat
  39. 39. Menstrual disturbances - intense pain
  40. 40. Stillbirths - Loss of other organs
  41. 41. Bleeding - Insomnia
  42. 42. Shock - Loss of appetite
  43. 43. Coma - Weight loss
  44. 44. perforated uterus - Frigidity</li></li></ul><li>Psychological Effects<br /><ul><li>Guilt - Helplessness
  45. 45. Suicidal tendencies - Loss of interest in sex
  46. 46. Loss of sense of fulfillment - Inability to forgive oneself
  47. 47. Mourning - Nightmares and
  48. 48. Loss of confidence frustrations
  49. 49. Lower self-esteem - thwarted maternal instinct
  50. 50. Hostility - intense interest in
  51. 51. Self- destructive behavior babies
  52. 52. Anger
  53. 53. Rage</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>“If you prick us do we not bleed, if you tickle us do we not laugh, if you poison us do we not die…”</li></ul> - Shakespeare the Merchant of Venice <br /><ul><li>"A person is a person, no matter how small!" </li></ul> -Dr. Seuss <br />
  54. 54. -THE END-<br />