ETHICS IN PRACTICE EMA LISETTE T. MALATE, RN
BEGINNING OF LIFE <ul><ul><li>When Does Human Life Begin to Exist? </li></ul></ul>
PHILOSOPHICAL AND SCIENTIFIC APPROACH.. <ul><li>Fertilization Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human  life   begins to exist...
LIFE…
ABORTION
<ul><ul><li>Refers  to the expulsion of human fetus before the period of viability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional...
<ul><li>Refers to the stage of gestation when the human fetus can survive outside the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually...
WORLD STATISTICS <ul><li>61% of the world population (54 countries) legalized abortion </li></ul><ul><li>39% of the world ...
 
 
<ul><li>DIRECT ABORTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is intentionally or deliberately done. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT...
METHODS OF ABORTION
<ul><li>Suction Abortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also called “suction curettage”, approximately done during the first trimes...
 
 
 
TWO PRINCIPAL CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>The moral status of the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of the pregnant woman </li...
ABORTION: THE MORAL STATUS OF  THE FETUS
THE RIGHTS OF THE PREGNANT WOMAN <ul><li>Right to privacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to ownership of one’s own body. </li></...
ABORTION – ETHICAL ISSUES <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence (fetus) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><...
THE LAW ON ABORTION <ul><li>Abortion is illegal in the Philippines. The Revised Penal Code (Act No. 3815, Article 256-259)...
<ul><li>THE PENALTIES COVER: </li></ul><ul><li>any person who causes unintentional abortion; </li></ul><ul><li>abortion pr...
<ul><li>IS ABORTION MORALLY  and ETHICALLY </li></ul><ul><li>PERMISSIBLE? </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>WHEN IS ABORTION  JUSTIFIABLE? </li></ul>
 
PRINCIPLE OF THE DOUBLE EFFECT <ul><li>Four conditions must be met: </li></ul><ul><li>The action itself must be either goo...
<ul><li>Is it acceptable to abort a fetus who is a result of Rape and Incest? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it acceptable to abort ...
<ul><li>Sally presents at 18 weeks’ gestation for her first obstetric appointment, and abnormalities on her cervix are not...
<ul><li>She asks at what stage in pregnancy the fetus is viable and is told that survival of the fetus generally is not ex...
 
WHAT ARE STEM CELLS? <ul><ul><li>Stem cells are specialized cells that can produce several different kinds of cells </li><...
<ul><li>STEM CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>Are cells that are capable of  totipotent   and  pluripotent  operations by which the...
 
<ul><ul><li>Is a scientific and biological study of a stem cell that can become any kind of cell and develop into specific...
HOW IMPORTANT ARE STEM CELLS?
<ul><li>Is a scientific and biological study of stem cells that are extracted from a human embryo possessing the capacity ...
THE OBVIOUS ETHICAL ISSUE <ul><li>Extracting stem cells from embryos remaining from in vitro fertilization does result in ...
ETHICAL ISSUES <ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>IN VITRO FERTILIZATION </li></ul>
 
 
PURPOSES OF IVF
TECHNICAL PROBLEMS AND RELEVANT ISSUES OF IVF <ul><li>Largely numerous embryos are wasted. </li></ul><ul><li>In vitro embr...
<ul><li>ETHICAL ISSUES? </li></ul>
<ul><li>Grave abuse of the Principle of Stewardship. </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence and Non Maleficence </li></ul><ul><li>A...
<ul><li>HUMAN </li></ul><ul><li>GENETIC MANIPULATION </li></ul>
<ul><li>Human genetic manipulation is about genetically engineering human beings by modifying their genotypes before birth...
TWO TYPES OF GENETIC MODIFICATION
USES IN HUMAN
THE LIGHTER SIDE…
THE DARKER SIDE
<ul><li>ETHICAL ISSUES </li></ul>
<ul><li>Playing God. </li></ul><ul><li>Interfering with Nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Ag...
 
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Man ethics

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  • Hello Dear,
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  • There are many attempts in transferring the embryo to the uterus. It will undergo long series of process. Due to great number o failures, women seeking pregnancy receive multiple embryos to ensure its occurrence. If in case all are successfully implanted, multiple pregnancies occur. Embryos are stored in the clinic, if they did not meet the biological standards, they will be discarded.
  • Man ethics

    1. 1. ETHICS IN PRACTICE EMA LISETTE T. MALATE, RN
    2. 2. BEGINNING OF LIFE <ul><ul><li>When Does Human Life Begin to Exist? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. PHILOSOPHICAL AND SCIENTIFIC APPROACH.. <ul><li>Fertilization Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human life begins to exist at the very completion of fertilization which is the union of the sperm and the egg cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Segmentation Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A process by which the zygote divides and multiplies into cells reaching the point of developing possible existence of twins, triplets or more human life. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. LIFE…
    5. 5. ABORTION
    6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Refers to the expulsion of human fetus before the period of viability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional or unintentional expulsion of the pre-born child at anytime after fertilization and before the natural birth process is completed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> (Dr. Brian Clowes) </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Refers to the stage of gestation when the human fetus can survive outside the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually starts at the end twenty-eight week of gestation. </li></ul>
    8. 8. WORLD STATISTICS <ul><li>61% of the world population (54 countries) legalized abortion </li></ul><ul><li>39% of the world population (97 countries) abortions are illegal </li></ul><ul><li>There are about 46 million abortions conducted each year. Twenty million are done illegally. </li></ul>
    9. 11. <ul><li>DIRECT ABORTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is intentionally or deliberately done. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT ABORTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is unintentional. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SPONTANEOUS ABORTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If it occurs accidentally. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 12. METHODS OF ABORTION
    11. 13. <ul><li>Suction Abortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>also called “suction curettage”, approximately done during the first trimester up to sixteen weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dilation and Evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is often employed during the first trimester of pregnancy. A sharp looped knife is inserted into the uterus to scrape its walls. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saline Abortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a.k.a. “ intra-amniotic injection” or “saline solution method”. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inter-cardiac Injection Abortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An amount of KCl is injected to the baby’s heart causing the baby to have an immediate heart attack. </li></ul></ul>
    12. 17. TWO PRINCIPAL CONSIDERATIONS <ul><li>The moral status of the fetus </li></ul><ul><li>The rights of the pregnant woman </li></ul>
    13. 18. ABORTION: THE MORAL STATUS OF THE FETUS
    14. 19. THE RIGHTS OF THE PREGNANT WOMAN <ul><li>Right to privacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to ownership of one’s own body. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to equal treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to self-determination. </li></ul>
    15. 20. ABORTION – ETHICAL ISSUES <ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence (fetus) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy/Confidentiality (mother) </li></ul>
    16. 21. THE LAW ON ABORTION <ul><li>Abortion is illegal in the Philippines. The Revised Penal Code (Act No. 3815, Article 256-259) defines the various ways and means by which abortion is committed, by whom, and their corresponding penalties: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reclusion temporal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prison mayor, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prision correccional . </li></ul></ul>
    17. 22. <ul><li>THE PENALTIES COVER: </li></ul><ul><li>any person who causes unintentional abortion; </li></ul><ul><li>abortion practiced by the woman herself or by her parents; </li></ul><ul><li>abortion practiced by a physician or midwife dispensing of abortives; </li></ul><ul><li>any pharmacist who, without the proper prescription from a physician, dispenses of abortives </li></ul>
    18. 23. <ul><li>IS ABORTION MORALLY and ETHICALLY </li></ul><ul><li>PERMISSIBLE? </li></ul>
    19. 25. <ul><li>WHEN IS ABORTION JUSTIFIABLE? </li></ul>
    20. 27. PRINCIPLE OF THE DOUBLE EFFECT <ul><li>Four conditions must be met: </li></ul><ul><li>The action itself must be either good or at least neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>The bad consequences must not be intended. </li></ul><ul><li>The good consequences cannot be the direct causal result of the bad consequences. </li></ul><ul><li>The good consequences must be proportionate to the bad consequences. </li></ul>
    21. 28. <ul><li>Is it acceptable to abort a fetus who is a result of Rape and Incest? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it acceptable to abort a perfectly healthy fetus simply because it is not the preferred sex? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it acceptable to abort a fetus proven to have deformity? </li></ul>
    22. 29. <ul><li>Sally presents at 18 weeks’ gestation for her first obstetric appointment, and abnormalities on her cervix are noted. A Papanicolaou test shows malignant cells, and she is diagnosed with an advanced stage of locally invasive cervical cancer. The recommended treatment is immediate surgical resection of the cervix and pregnant uterus followed by radiation, and this will result in fetal loss. With immediate treatment, her 5-year survival is estimated at 55% to 65%, and she will no longer be able to become pregnant. Delay in treatment will decrease her chances of survival. </li></ul>
    23. 30. <ul><li>She asks at what stage in pregnancy the fetus is viable and is told that survival of the fetus generally is not expected until after 24 weeks, with the majority of newborns not having “good” outcomes until after 26 weeks’ gestation, although some premature neonates born as early as 23 weeks can survive with a significant rate of handicap. In any case, delaying her treatment for 5 or 6 weeks to deliver the fetus could lead to extension of the cancer and hasten her death. </li></ul><ul><li>If the woman were to have the recommended treatment, would it be justified? </li></ul>
    24. 32. WHAT ARE STEM CELLS? <ul><ul><li>Stem cells are specialized cells that can produce several different kinds of cells </li></ul></ul>
    25. 33. <ul><li>STEM CELLS </li></ul><ul><li>Are cells that are capable of totipotent and pluripotent operations by which the diseased bodily cells can be replenished. </li></ul>
    26. 35. <ul><ul><li>Is a scientific and biological study of a stem cell that can become any kind of cell and develop into specific different types of cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GOAL: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To use stem cells to develop various tissues that can be used to repair damaged tissues in the body. </li></ul></ul>
    27. 36. HOW IMPORTANT ARE STEM CELLS?
    28. 37. <ul><li>Is a scientific and biological study of stem cells that are extracted from a human embryo possessing the capacity to become and develop into various specific types of cells. </li></ul>
    29. 38. THE OBVIOUS ETHICAL ISSUE <ul><li>Extracting stem cells from embryos remaining from in vitro fertilization does result in the death of those embryos and, consequently, has severe ethical implications </li></ul>
    30. 39. ETHICAL ISSUES <ul><li>Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>
    31. 41. <ul><li>IN VITRO FERTILIZATION </li></ul>
    32. 44. PURPOSES OF IVF
    33. 45. TECHNICAL PROBLEMS AND RELEVANT ISSUES OF IVF <ul><li>Largely numerous embryos are wasted. </li></ul><ul><li>In vitro embryo develops at a slower rate. </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy Reduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation and Research. </li></ul>
    34. 46. <ul><li>ETHICAL ISSUES? </li></ul>
    35. 47. <ul><li>Grave abuse of the Principle of Stewardship. </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficence and Non Maleficence </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul>
    36. 48. <ul><li>HUMAN </li></ul><ul><li>GENETIC MANIPULATION </li></ul>
    37. 49. <ul><li>Human genetic manipulation is about genetically engineering human beings by modifying their genotypes before birth. </li></ul><ul><li>It could be used to change physical appearance and even improve mental faculties like memory and intelligence. </li></ul>
    38. 50. TWO TYPES OF GENETIC MODIFICATION
    39. 51. USES IN HUMAN
    40. 52. THE LIGHTER SIDE…
    41. 53. THE DARKER SIDE
    42. 54. <ul><li>ETHICAL ISSUES </li></ul>
    43. 55. <ul><li>Playing God. </li></ul><ul><li>Interfering with Nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Against Human Dignity </li></ul>
    44. 57. THANK YOU!!!

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